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2021-11-28
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2021-11-28
Technical Paper

0D-1D Coupling for an Integrated Fuel Economy Control Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Bus

2011-09-11
2011-24-0083
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
Technical Paper

1000 kW Sodium-Sulfur Battery Pilot Plant: Its Operation Experience at Tatsumi Test Facility

1992-08-03
929055
Since 1978, the Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) of MITI has promoted research and development of “Large-Scale Energy Conservation Technology” popularly known as the “Moonlight Project”. As the first step, “system technology tests” using improved lead acid batteries started at Kansai Electric's Tatsumi Electric Energy Storage System Test Plant on October 1, 1986. The results showed that this system can work not only as a load-leveling apparatus but also as a high-quality power source which can support the utility power system with its load frequency control and voltage regulation capabilities. As the second step of these R&D activities, a 1MW/8MWh sodium-sulfur battery pilot plant was constructed at the same Tatsumi site. On July 11, 1991, 1000 kW× 8H facility, the largest of its type in the world, was completed and started operation. This paper describes the construction experience and operation results of the pilot plant.
Technical Paper

12-Volt Vacuum Fluorescent Display Drive Circuitry for Electronically Tuned Radios

1986-03-01
860126
The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
Technical Paper

120VAC Power Inverters

1983-02-01
830131
Inverters are solid state devices which change DC to 120VAC electricity. They are sufficiently rugged and reliable to make them practical for use on utility vehicles for operating thumpers, tools, lights and induction motor loads. The SCR type rather than the transistor type inverter is generally required for inductive and reactive loads. Static inverters operate from battery input. They provide power without running an engine, but are limited by battery capacity so work best in intermittent load applications. Dynamic inverters operate from alternator input and will handle continuous loads to 7200 watts with truck engine running.
Technical Paper

12V/14V to 36V/42V Automotive System Supply Voltage Change and the New Technologies

2002-11-19
2002-01-3557
This paper shows some aspects of the automotive voltage energy system level shift from 14 to 42 Volts. New features and prospective emissions/fuel economy requirements are creating electrical power needs in future automobiles, which today's conventional system cannot adequately supply at 14 Vdc (nominal, with a 12 Volt battery). It will be necessary to provide electric motors, DC/DC converters, inverters, battery management, and other electronic controls to meet higher voltage requirements. Suppliers must now include 42 Volt components and systems within their product range and make these new components as light, small, and cost efficient as possible. This paper is a compilation of several published works aiming to offer a synthesis to introduce this subject to the Brazilian Automotive Market.
Technical Paper

1962 passenger-car engineering trends

1962-01-01
620066
The phenomenal success of the small car is leading to many engineering changes in the automobile industry. It has brought increased emphasis on weight reduction on both small and full-size cars. Improving reliability and designing to eliminate grease fittings have also become important objectives.
Technical Paper

1974 Vw Energy-Absorbing Bumper System

1973-02-01
730033
The energy-absorbing bumper system designed for the 1974 Volkswagen in described. Theoretical requirements in bumper design are explained, with emphasis on bumper height, energy tolerance needs, energy absorption, and systems for absorbing the energy involved. The six systems studied are assessed, and the final design chosen is explained. The paper also compares bumper requirements as specified in Europe and the United States.
Journal Article

1D Simulation and Experimental Analysis of a Turbocharger Compressor for Automotive Engines under Unsteady Flow Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1147
Turbocharging technique will play a fundamental role in the near future not only to improve automotive engine performance, but also to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions both in Spark Ignition and diesel automotive applications. To achieve excellent engine performance for road application, it is necessary to overcome some typical turbocharging drawbacks i.e., low end torque level and transient response. Experimental studies, developed on dedicated test facilities, can supply a lot of information to optimize the engine-turbocharger matching, especially if tests can be extended to the typical engine operating conditions (unsteady flow). Different numerical procedures have been developed at the University of Naples to predict automotive turbocharger compressor performance both under steady and unsteady flow conditions. A classical 1D approach, based on the employment of compressor characteristic maps, was firstly followed.
Technical Paper

2000 University of Maryland FutureTruck Design Description

2001-03-05
2001-01-0681
The University of Maryland team converted a model year 2000 Chevrolet Suburban to an ethanol-fueled hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) and tied for first place overall in the 2000 FutureTruck competition. Competition goals include a two-thirds reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a reduction of exhaust emissions to meet California ultra-low emissions vehicle (ULEV) Tier II standards, and an increase in fuel economy. These goals must be met without compromising the performance, amenities, safety, or ease of manufacture of the stock Suburban. The University of Maryland FutureTruck, Proteus, addresses the competition goals with a powertrain consisting of a General Motors 3.8-L V6 engine, a 75-kW (100 hp) SatCon electric motor, and a 336-V battery pack. Additionally, Proteus incorporates several emissions-reducing and energy-saving modifications; an advanced control strategy that is implemented through use of an on-board computer and an innovative hybrid-electric drive train.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

2004-03-08
2004-01-1251
The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.
Book

2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide 2nd Ed

2020-11-23
The 2018 Ultimate GD&T Pocket Guide explains the most common rules, symbols, and concepts used in geometric dimensioning and tolerancing. This one-of-a-kind reference guide includes more than 100 detailed examples to illustrate concepts. Numerous charts for quick reference provide explanations of each GD&T symbol, modifier, and more. This valuable on-the-job resource clarifies how to interpret standard-compliant technical drawings that use ASME Y14.5-2018.
Technical Paper

240 VDC Electric Vehicle System

1979-02-01
790159
THE BATTERY is the primary component limiting electric vehicle performance that equals today's standard of expectations as defined by the I. C. engine powered vehicles. Efforts to optimize the electric vehicle performance is leading many people to select and assemble the highest efficiency components available. High voltage electric vehicle power system can provide performance advantages over lower voltage systems, but only if this voltage is in balance with the total system. Mixing high efficiency components does not Insure total system efficiency optimization. The ability of a battery to release its stored energy is a function of its demand. Higher current demands will reduce the efficiency of a battery. This paper reveals how such a mismatch occurred and its reflection on what appeared to be a battery problem.
Technical Paper

25-Ah Li Ion Cell for the Mars 2001 Lander

1999-08-02
1999-01-2640
BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation (BATC) as part of its participation in the USAF/NASA Li Ion Battery Development Consortium has developed a candidate 25-Ah cell for the Mars 2001 Lander. Although the capacity and cycle life requirements for this application are relatively modest, the low temperature performance (−20°C) and pulse discharge requirements (60A) are somewhat more challenging. Geometric requirements within the spacecraft also constrain the cell design leading to a cell with an aspect ratio quite different from those 25-Ah Li ion cells previously developed by BATC. The design of this cell and its compliance with the performance requirements of the mission will be discussed.
Journal Article

26,500km Down the Pan-American Highway in an Electric Vehicle A Battery's Perspective

2012-04-16
2012-01-0123
This paper presents a novel battery degradation model based on empirical data from the Racing Green Endurance project. Using the rainflow-counting algorithm, battery charge and discharge data from an electric vehicle has been studied in order to establish more reliable and more accurate predictions for capacity and power fade of automotive traction batteries than those currently available. It is shown that for the particular lithium-iron phosphate (LiFePO₄) batteries, capacity fade is 5.8% after 87 cycles. After 3,000 cycles it is estimated to be 32%. Both capacity and power fade strongly depend on cumulative energy throughput, maximum C-rate as well as temperature.
Technical Paper

3.2 KWH Battery Pack Using 18 Army Standard Lithium ion Rechargeable Batteries

2006-11-07
2006-01-3099
A very high power source solution was developed for the Non Line of Sight Launch System Container Launch Unit (NLOS-LS CLU). The power source solution has been shown to be capable of providing the required 72 continuous hours of operation and high power (3560 watts) to sustain launch capability. The power source consists of 18 BB-2590/U batteries connected in parallel in three layers. Several CLU battery systems have been delivered to the PEO and have been well accepted. The Army is using standard rechargeable batteries, is currently being upgraded with SMBus capability and higher capacity lithium-ion cells. For this reason, the CLU power source has been manufactured with SMBus capability. This paper will discuss the performance of one layer of the CLU power source to simulate the whole power load.
Technical Paper

3D Bending of Aluminium Extrusions for Automotive Applications

2003-10-27
2003-01-2855
This paper is concerned with 3D stretch bending of aluminium extrusions. A design method for prediction of dimensional tolerances is presented, focusing on cross-sectional deformations and elastic springback. The model is successfully applied to a complex 3D formed part. Based on the present analysis, it is concluded that the required dimensional tolerances of a product can be determined early in the design phase by use of this method.
Technical Paper

3beLiEVe: Towards Delivering the Next Generation of LMNO Li-Ion Battery Cells and Packs Fit for Electric Vehicle Applications of 2025 and Beyond

2021-04-06
2021-01-0768
This paper aims at providing the scientific community with an overview of the H2020 European project 3beLiEVe and of its early achievements. The project has the objective of delivering the next generation Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Oxide (LNMO) battery cells, in line with the target performance of the “generation 3b” Li-ion battery technology, as per EU SET-plan Action 7. Its activities are organized in three main pillars: (i) developing the 3b next generation LMNO battery cell, equipped with (ii) an array of internal and external sensors and complemented by (iii) manufacturing and recycling processes at scale. At present, 3beLiEVe is approaching the completion of its first project year (out of a total project planned duration of 42 months). Hence this paper, beyond presenting the overall project’s structure and objectives, focuses on its earliest results in the fields of the cell material formulation, arrangement of sensors and design of the battery pack.
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