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Technical Paper

A Computational Model Describing the Performance of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap in Steady-State Operation and Over a Transient Cycle

A model for calculating the trap pressure drop, various particulate properties, filtration characteristics and trap temperatures was developed during the steady-state and transient cycles using the theory originated by Opris and Johnson, 1998. This model was validated with the data obtained from the steady-state cycles run with an IBIDEN SiC diesel particulate filter. To evaluate the trap experimental filtration efficiency, raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap. A trap scaling and equivalent comparison model was developed for comparing different traps at the same volume and same filtration area. Using the model, the trap pressure drop data obtained from different traps were compared equivalently at the same trap volume and same filtration area. The pressure drop performance of the IBIDEN SiC trap compared favorably to the previously tested NoTox SiC and the Cordierite traps.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Determining the Effects of Speed, Load, Oil and Coolant Temperature on Diesel Engine Specific Fuel Consumption

Experimental Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) data are presented for two engines as a function of engine speed, load, outlet coolant temperature and inlet oil temperature. The engines used in the study were the Cummins VT-903 (turbocharged) and the Caterpillar 3208, both being direct-injection and four-cycle. The data were taken for the Cat 3208 engine using a fractional factorial statistical method which reduced the total test matrix from 256 to 64 data points. The experimental data are used in the development of BSFC regression equations as a function of load, speed, outlet coolant temperature and inlet oil temperatures. A mathematical parameter for expressing quantitatively the change of BSFC per 10°F change in coolant and oil temperature is presented. It was found that an increase in the coolant and/or oil temperatures had the effect of reducing BSFC in both engines.
Technical Paper

Effects of an Oxidation Catalytic Converter on Regulated and Unregulated Diesel Emissions

In this study, the effects of an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on regulated and unregulated emissions from a 1991 prototype Cummins I.10-310 diesel engine fueled with a 0.01 weight percent sulfur fuel were investigated. The OCC's effects were determined by measuring and comparing selected raw exhaust emissions with and without the platinum-based OCC installed in the exhaust system, with the engine operated at three steady-state modes. It was found that the OCC had no significant effect on oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and nitric oxide (NO) at any mode, but reduced hydrocarbon (HC) emmissions by 60 to 70 percent. The OCC reduced total particulate matter (TPM) levels by 27 to 54 percent, primarily resulting from 53 to 71 percent reductions of the soluble organic fraction (SOF). The OCC increased sulfate (SO42-) levels at two of the three modes (modes 9 and 10), but the overall SO42- contribution to TPM was less than 6 percent at all modes due to the low sulfur level of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Extended Kalman Filter Estimator for NH3 Storage, NO, NO2 and NH3 Estimation in a SCR

This paper focuses on the development of an Extended Kalman Filter for estimating internal species concentration and storage states of an SCR using NOX and NH₃ sensors. The motivation for this work was twofold. First, knowledge of internal states may be useful for onboard diagnostic strategy development. In particular, significant errors between the outlet NOX or NH₃ sensors, reconstructed from estimated states, and the measured NOX or NH₃ concentrations may aid OBD strategies that attempt to identify particular system failure modes. Second, the EKF described estimates not only stored ammonia but also NO, NO₂ and NH₃ gas concentrations within and exiting the SCR. Exploiting knowledge of the individual species concentrations, instead of lumping them together as NOX, can yield improved closed loop urea controller performance in terms of reduced urea consumption and better NOX conversion.