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Technical Paper

1-D Model of Radial Turbocharger Turbine Calibrated by Experiments

2002-03-04
2002-01-0377
The 1-D model of a radial centripetal turbine was developed for engine simulation to generalize and extrapolate the results of experiments to high pressure ratio or off-design velocity ratio using calibrated tuning coefficients. The model concerns a compressible dissipative flow in a rotating channel. It considers both bladed or vaneless turbine stators and a twin-entry stator for exhaust pulse manifolds. The experiments were used to find values of all model parameters (outlet flow angles, all loss coefficients including an impeller incidence loss) by an original method using repeated regression analysis. The model is suitable for the prediction of a turbocharger turbine operation and its optimization in 1-D simulation codes.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

125cc Small Engine Fuel Injection System with Low Emissions Solutions

2004-09-27
2004-32-0094
In many countries of the world, carburetor motorcycles are the major transportation system for people. The large volumes of these motorcycles contribute to high levels of urban emissions and this fact promotes the relevant emissions regulations to become more stringent. This paper presents an approach to satisfy various new emissions regulations such as Euro-III and Taiwan 4th generation emissions regulations by optimizing the 4-stroke PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engine management system (EMS) and after-treatment system.
Technical Paper

1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker Body structure Analysis

1989-11-01
892536
This paper presents a summary of body structural analysis applied to the 1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker at various stages of development and design. The structure analysis techniques were applied previously to rigidity, vibration, strength, crashworthiness and optimization. The studies confirm that the CAE technique for body structure analysis is more beneficial if it is utilized in the earlier structure development stages particularly for vibration and crashworthiness. Through the extensive use of the structural analysis technique in conjunction with the experiment, the design concept of the Sidekick/Tracker body has been optimized to a most extent.
Technical Paper

1D Simulation of Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine for Transient Strategy Optimization

2005-04-11
2005-01-0693
This paper presents 1D engine simulation used for engine control strategy optimization for a twin-scroll turbocharged gasoline direct injection 2.0 L engine with twin camphaser. The results show good agreement of the engine model behavior with testbed acquisitions for a large amount of steady state set points and under transient operating conditions. The presented method demonstrates that a 1D engine code represents a useful and efficient tool during all steps of the engine control development process from design to real-time for such an advanced engine technology.
Technical Paper

1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

2019-01-09
2019-26-0361
Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle-handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation. The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Design and Engineering Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-0466
The General Motors (GM) Corvette design team was challenged with providing a C6 Z06 vehicle spaceframe that maintained the structural performance of its C5 predecessor while reducing mass by at least 56 kg. An additional requirement inherent to the project was that the design must be integrated into the C6 assembly processes with minimal disruption, i.e. seamless integration. In response to this challenge, a collaborative team was formed, consisting of design engineers from General Motors, Alcoa and Dana Corporation. The result of this collaborative effort is an aluminum Z06 spaceframe that satisfies the high performance expectations of the vehicle while reducing the mass by approximately 62 kg. The frame consists of aluminum extrusions, castings and sheets joined by MIG welding, laser welding and self-piercing rivets. The extrusions are 6XXX series alloys, the castings are permanent mold A356 while the sheet panels are formed from the 5XXX series of alloys.
Technical Paper

2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Fender- Engineering, Design, and Material Selection Considerations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0468
General Motor's Corvette product engineering was given the challenge to find mass reduction opportunities on the painted body panels of the C6 Z06 through the utilization of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC). The successful implementation of a carbon fiber hood on the 2004 C5 Commemorative Edition Z06 Corvette was the springboard for Corvette Team's appetite for a more extensive application of CFRC on the C6 Z06 model. Fenders were identified as the best application for the technology given their location on the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved. The C6 Z06 CFRC fenders provide 6kg reduction of vehicle mass as compared to the smaller RRIM fenders used on the Coupe and Convertible models.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

2013-04-08
2013-01-1775
The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

248mm Elliptical Torque Converter from DaimlerChrysler Corporation

2007-04-16
2007-01-0241
The need for efficient space utilization has provided a framework for the design of a 248mm family of torque converters that supports a wide choice of engine and transmission combinations. The axial length of the part and its weight have been substantially reduced while the performance range has been broadened without degradation of efficiency. The new converter operates in an expanded slipping clutch mode. It significantly contributes to the performance and fuel economy improvements of related vehicles. To meet the cost target, the comprehensive lineup and the resulting complexity have required a high level of component interchangeability. During the design phase, the manufacturing core competencies were scrutinized and process redundancies eliminated, both resulting in optimization of material selection and applicable technology.
Technical Paper

2D Mapping and Quantification of the In-Cylinder Air/Fuel-Ratio in a GDI Engine by Means of LIF and Comparison to Simultaneous Results from 1D Raman Measurements

2001-05-07
2001-01-1977
The optimization of the vaporization and mixture formation process is of great importance for the development of modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, because it influences the subsequent processes of the ignition, combustion and pollutant formation significantly. In consequence, the subject of this work was the development of a measurement technique based on the laser induced exciplex fluorescence (LIF), which allows the two dimensional visualization and quantification of the in-cylinder air/fuel ratio. A tracer concept consisting of benzene and triethylamine dissolved in a non-fluorescent base fuel has been used. The calibration of the equivalence ratio proportional LIF-signal was performed directly inside the engine, at a well known mixture composition, immediately before the direct injection measurements were started.
Technical Paper

3-D Shell Topology Optimization Using a Design Domain Method

1995-04-01
951105
3-D shell components are used intensively in the automotive industry. Many structural topology optimization techniques were developed to reduced the total weight of shell structures while retaining its structural performance. One common approach is to utilize the concept of the design domain, such as the homogenization method and the density function approach. In this paper, a new micro-structure based design domain method is introduced to solve 3-D shell topology optimization problems. Based on physical micro-structure model, simple closed-form expressions for effective Young's modulus and effective shear modulus are rigorously derived. Using these simple relations, topology optimization problems can be formulated and solved with sequential convex approximation algorithms. Two design examples obtained from the new method are presented.
Technical Paper

34 Experimental Analysis of Piston Slap from Small Two-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1803
This project is an experimental investigation and optimization of piston slap noise in small two-stroke gasoline engine. Piston slap is one of the most significant mechanical noise sources in an internal combustion engine. It is a dynamic impact phenomenon between the piston and the cylinder block caused by changes in the lateral forces acting on the piston. The change in cylinder block vibration level caused by the piston impact is considered as a measure of piston slap during this experiment. The intensity of piston slap is measured in terms of vibration level in ‘g’ units, by means of accelerometers mounted on the cylinder block with Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dead Center (BDC) marker. For the design of low noise engines, all the major parameters, which contribute to piston slap, are listed and the critical four are examined through additional experiments.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

3D Inside Vehicle Acoustical Holography

2002-07-09
2002-01-2228
A continuously growing demand comes from the automotive industry in order to get an experimental tool allowing for the optimization of materials and sound insulating products implementation inside the car, so as to propose the best acoustic performance at reduced costs. The acoustical imaging system LORHA provides part of the solution and its demonstrated capability of measuring the acoustic field inside a vehicle makes it an advanced tool for performing extensive studies of the acoustic transparency of car openings. This paper focuses on the methodology and recent operational results obtained within the tight collaboration established between METRAVIB RDS, its partner HUTCHINSON and well known car manufacturers.
Technical Paper

3D analysis of vapor and liquid phase of GDI injectors using laser induced exciplex fluorescence tomography in a high pressure/high temperature spray chamber

2007-07-23
2007-01-1827
The quality of mixture formation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines has a significant influence on combustion, emissions and mileage. A new measurement technique was set up at an optically accessible high pressure / high temperature spray chamber to investigate the spatial mass distribution of vapor and liquid phase in order to optimize the stratified engine operation mode. Therefore a laser light sheet is traversed through the spray, the exciplex fluorescence is detected and the tomography results are quantified by the global information of the injected mass, which allows detailed spray investigations with λ-charts. For spray homogeneity analysis a new method based on histogram calculation is presented allowing grid independent comparison of different injector types.
Journal Article

3D-CFD Virtual Engine Test Bench of a 1.6 Liter Turbo-Charged GDI-Race-Engine with Focus on Fuel Injection

2013-09-08
2013-24-0149
In the last years motorsport is facing a technical revolution concerning the engine technology in every category, from touring car championships up to the F1. The strategy of the car manufacturers to bring motorsport engine technology closer to mass production one (e.g. turbo-charging, downsizing and direct injection) allows both to reduce development costs and to create a better image and technology transfer by linking motorsport activities to the daily business. Under these requirements the so-called Global Race Engine (GRE) concept has been introduced, giving the possibility to use one unique engine platform concept as basis for different engine specifications and racing categories. In order to optimize the performance of this kind of engines, especially due to the highly complex mixture formation mechanisms related to the direct injection, it is nowadays mandatory to resort to reliable 3D-CFD simulations.
Technical Paper

4 Stroke Gasoline Engine Performance Optimization Using Statistical Techniques

2001-12-01
2001-01-1800
The engine designer has to find novel methods to optimize the engine efficiency faster as the engine development cycle is getting shortened due to the continuous growing market demands. Engine optimization involves fine tuning of the various engine parameters and conducting a large number of tests on actual engine test bed. In this paper, modern techniques that have been used to optimize a small 4stroke air-cooled engine performance have been described. The engine has been modelled using one-dimensional thermodynamic engine modelling software (AVL-BOOST). Design of experiments (DoE) tools have been used to optimize the engine variables. The input parameters form an orthogonal array of L27 matrix and the out put characteristics of the engine (responses) have been predicted by using BOOST software. This design matrix has been used to study and optimize thirteen factors in three levels (313).
Technical Paper

4th Generation Diesel Piezo Injector (Realizing Enhanced High Response Injector)

2016-04-05
2016-01-0846
Diesel common rail injectors are required to utilize a higher injection pressure and to achieve higher injection accuracy in order to meet increasingly severe emissions, less fuel consumption, and higher engine performance demand. In addition to those requirements, in conjunction with optimized nozzle geometry, a more rectangular injection rate and stable multiple injections with shorter intervals are required for further emissions and engine performance improvement by optimizing the combustion efficiency.
Journal Article

6 DOF Bench Test on a New Active Kinematics Rear Suspension for Functional Development

2012-04-16
2012-01-0550
To optimize the tyre contact patch in a sports car, Ferrari has developed an active camber and toe (ACT) system comprising of 4 actuators for the rear axle. This complex and completely new system is difficult to model accurately and for this reason, it was decided to combine a physical prototype with a full vehicle model to carry out the functional tests. The method of combining a virtual model with a physical test is known as hybrid simulation. This functional testing of both the actuators and the vehicle dynamics logic will be performed on an MTS 6DOF bench test prior to physical track testing on a prototype vehicle using Ferrari facility in Maranello, Italy. In support of this functional testing, we will use hybrid simulation techniques with software and methods specifically developed. The planned hybrid test system described in the paper will allow dynamic coupling between the physical bench test and a modified full vehicle simulation model.
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