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Technical Paper

An Emission and Fuel Usage Computer Model for Trucks and Buses

This paper presents the development of a computer model to simulate fuel usage and emission contributions of the past and future truck and bus population in the United States. The projected future years are beyond 1976 to 1990. The trends in vehicle population growth, yearly miles traveled and ton-miles are also calculated by the model. The model developed is flexible and brings together several technical concepts which reflect recent inputs from industry and government. The formulation of the model is based on a systems approach, in which the several submodels (the "Population," "Mileage," "Fuel Usage," and "Emission") are interrelated. The preliminary quantitative results are discussed to demonstrate the satisfactory performance of the computer model. Increased rates of dieselization are analyzed to determine their effect on reducing fuel consumption and the impact on total emission contributions. The use of the computer model to study an urban area for air quality is discussed.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide - A Report of the Program Group on Diesel Exhaust Composition of the Air Pollution Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc.

A Coordinating Research Council cooperative program was conducted to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in diesel exhaust. Initially, a single-cylinder test engine was circulated among participants with poor results. Tests were then conducted at one site using a multicylinder diesel engine. Six organizations participated in the program. Exhaust analyses were conducted at steady-state engine conditions and on a 3 min cycle test. Span gases of unknown concentration were also analyzed. The participants results varied but averaged less than ±5% standard deviation both within (repeatability) and among (reproducibility) the instruments. The short cycle test was in good agreement with the steady-state measurements. No significant difference in the use of Drierite, nonindicating Drierite, or Aquasorb desiccants was evident in sampling system tests.
Technical Paper

Emissions and Fuel Usage by the U. S. Truck and Bus Population and Strategies for Achieving Reductions

This paper presents an approach to modeling the United States truck and bus population. A detailed model is developed that utilizes domestic factory sales figures combined with a scrappage factor as a building block for the total population. Comparison with historical data for 1958-1970 shows that the model follows trends well for intermediate parameters such as total vehicle miles per year, total fuel consumption, scrappage, etc. Fuel consumption and HC, CO, NO2, CO2 and particulate matter emissions for gasoline and diesel engines are of primary interest. The model details these parameters for the time span 1958-2000 in one-year increments. For HC and CO, truck and bus emissions could equal or exceed automobile emissions in the early 1980s, depending on the degree of control. Three population control strategies are analyzed to determine their effects on reducing fuel consumption or air pollution in later years.
Technical Paper

The Engineering Control of Diesel Pollutants in Underground Mining

A review of mine air pollutant standards and the important pollutants to control in underground mines using diesel powered equipment is presented. The underground Mine Air Quality Laboratory instrumentation is discussed. This includes the Mine Air Monitoring Laboratory (MAML) and the instrumented Load Haul Dump (LHD) vehicle. The MAML measures CO, NO2, NO, CO2, particulate and temperatures while the LHD instrumentation measures and records engine speed, rack position (fuel rate), vehicle speed, CO2 concentration, exhaust temperature and operating mode with transducers and a Sea Data Corporation data logging and reader system. The mine LHD cycle data are related to the EPA 13 mode cycle data. Engine and aftertreatment emission control methods are reviewed including recent laboratory NO, NO2, sulfate and particulate data for a monolith catalyst. Maintenance of the LHD vehicle by engine subsystems in relation to component effects on emissions is presented.