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Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Modeling Study of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter Using a 1-D 2-Layer Model

Modeling of diesel exhaust after-treatment devices is a valuable tool in the development and performance evaluation of these devices in a cost effective manner. Results from steady state loading experiments on a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) in a Johnson Matthey CCRT®, performed with and without the upstream diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) are described in this paper. The experiments were performed at 20, 40, 60 and 75% of full load (1120 Nm) at rated speed (2100 rpm) on a Cummins ISM 2002 heavy duty diesel engine. The data obtained were used to calibrate one dimensional (1-D) DOC and CPF models developed at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The 1-D 2-layer single channel CPF model helped evaluate the filtration and passive oxidation performance of the CPF. DOC modeling results of the pressure drop and gaseous emission oxidation performance using a previously developed model are also presented.
Technical Paper

CRC Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust-Phase IV

In 1972 and 1973, the CRC-APRAC Program Group on Diesel Exhaust carried out a fourth program to evaluate techniques for measuring concentration of hydrocarbon in diesel exhaust. The first two programs were conducted in 1967 and 1968. In them, a single cylinder diesel engine was shipped among 13 laboratories and each laboratory measured hydrocarbon emissions by their own method. Agreement among laboratories (instruments) was poor in both programs. The third program was conducted in 1970 at one laboratory on one engine. This time, agreement among instruments was much improved from the earlier programs. The fourth program was conducted to confirm these later results. In it, a multi-cylinder diesel generating set was circulated among 15 participating laboratories, and each laboratory measured exhaust hydrocarbon by methods that complied with SAE Recommended Practice J215, “Continuous Hydrocarbon Analysis of Diesel Exhaust.”
Technical Paper

Collection and Characterization of Particulate and Gaseous-Phase Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust Modified by Ceramic Particulate Traps

Protocols for sampling and analysis of particulate and gaseous-phase diesel emissions were developed to characterize the chemical and biological effects of using ceramic traps as particulate control devices. A stainless-steel sampler was designed, constructed, and tested with XAD-2 sorbent for the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC). Raw exhaust levels of TPM and SOF and mutagenicity of the SOF and VOC were all reduced when the traps were used. Hydrocarbon mass balances indicated that some hydrocarbons were not collected by the sampling system and that the proportions of collected SOF and VOC were altered by the use of the traps. SOF hydrocarbons appeared to be derived mainly from engine lubricating oil; VOC hydrocarbons were apparently fuel-derived. There was no apparent effect on SOF mutagenicity due to either sampling time or reexposure of particulate to exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Diesel Exhaust Odor Using the Diesel Odor Analysis System (DOAS)

The CRC-APRAC CAPI-1-64 Odor Panel was formed in 1973 to assess an instrumental measurement system for diesel exhaust odor (DOAS) developed under CRC-APRAC CAPE-7-68 by Arthur D. Little, Inc. Four cooperative studies were conducted by nine participating laboratories using common samples. The objectives of these studies were to define the DOAS system variables and to validate and improve the sampling and collection procedures. A fifth study, serving as a review of each analysis step, showed that analysis of common derived odorant samples could be conducted within acceptable limits by the participating laboratories. Three in-house sampling system design and operating parameter studies were conducted simultaneously with the cooperative work. The combined findings from the in-house and cooperative studies led to a tentative recommended procedure for measuring diesel exhaust odor.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust (A CRC Report)

Methods available for measuring hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust were evaluated by the CRC-APRAC Program Group on Diesel Exhaust Composition during 1967-1970. Early tests showed distressingly large variations from instrument to instrument and undesirably large variations among repeated measurements by one instrument. Instrument quality and operator competence were better in later tests and agreement among instruments was relatively good and errors within instruments were small. Current techniques appear acceptable for engineering measurements. No further cooperative work is planned by CRC at present, but techniques for measuring hydrocarbons in diesel exhaust will be reappraised periodically.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide (Phase IV Tests)

This is the fourth in a series of tests conducted as a Coordinating Research Council cooperative program to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze diesel exhaust gas constituents. A multi-cylinder engine was circulated to 15 participants who measured emissions at three engine conditions. All 15 participants measured nitric oxide and carbon monoxide with several laboratories measuring nitric oxide by both NDIR (Non-Dispersive Infrared) and CHEMI (Chemiluminescence). Some participants also measured carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, oxygen, and unknown span gases. The test results are compared with the Phase III cooperative tests which involved simultaneous measurement of emissions by participants. The precision of the results was poorer in Phase IV than Phase III.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Evaluation of Techniques for Measuring Nitric Oxide and Carbon Monoxide - A Report of the Program Group on Diesel Exhaust Composition of the Air Pollution Advisory Committee of the Coordinating Research Council, Inc.

A Coordinating Research Council cooperative program was conducted to evaluate the measurement methods used to analyze nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in diesel exhaust. Initially, a single-cylinder test engine was circulated among participants with poor results. Tests were then conducted at one site using a multicylinder diesel engine. Six organizations participated in the program. Exhaust analyses were conducted at steady-state engine conditions and on a 3 min cycle test. Span gases of unknown concentration were also analyzed. The participants results varied but averaged less than ±5% standard deviation both within (repeatability) and among (reproducibility) the instruments. The short cycle test was in good agreement with the steady-state measurements. No significant difference in the use of Drierite, nonindicating Drierite, or Aquasorb desiccants was evident in sampling system tests.
Technical Paper

Cooperative Study of Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurement Methods

A cooperative test program was conducted by the CRC-APRAC CAPI-1-64 Composition of Diesel Exhaust Program Group to evaluate the technical aspects of a proposed EPA recommended Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurement and Test Procedure. The proposed changes affected the sampling configurations and the types of instruments used. Six participants studied the effects of a number of variables on the proposed changes and evaluated some alternative systems that included both CHEMI and NDIR instruments. The tests were conducted at one site using a multi-cylinder engine operating on the 13-Mode Cycle. Equivalency of systems was demonstrated and the best performance was obtained with a special NDIR system.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Catalytic Converter and Emulsified Fuel Effects on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

A study was conducted to assess the effects of a water-diesel fuel emulsion with and without an oxidation catalytic converter (OCC) on steady-state heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Two OCCs with different metal loading levels were used in this study. A 1988 Cummins L10-300 heavy-duty diesel engine was operated at the rated speed of 1900 rpm and at 75% and 25% load conditions (EPA modes 9 and 11 respectively) of the 13 mode steady-state test as well as at idle. Raw exhaust emissions' measurements included total hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide (NO). Diluted exhaust measurements included total particulate matter (TPM) and its primary constituents, the soluble organic (SOF), sulfate (SO42-) and the carbonaceous solids (SOL) fractions. Vapor phase organic compounds (XOC) were also analyzed. The SOF and XOC samples were analyzed for selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).
Technical Paper

Status of Diesel Particulate Measurement Methods

The diesel engine emits exhaust particles that pose a unique set of measurement requirements. To document the state-of-the-art of measurement technology and to improve measurement quality, the Smoke and Particulate Panel of the Diesel Exhaust Composition group of the Coordinating Research Council reviewed published literature and particulate-sampling data generated by panel members to identify (1) the effects of key sampling parameters on measured particulate mass, (2) the causes of measurement variability, (3) the effects of dilution system design on particulate mass measurement, and (4) promising real-time mass measurement methods. The panel found greater measurement difficulty associated with particulates than for gaseous pollutants because of engine-produced variations, the sensitivity of measured particulate mass to dilution parameters, and random errors in the independent measurements which comprise a particulate measurement.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel and Engine Design on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H2O and H2SO4 vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine's particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075-0.046 μm) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H2O-H2SO4 particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Low Sulfur Fuel and a Ceramic Particle Filter on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions

Diesel exhaust particle size distributions were measured using an Electrical Aerosol Analyzer (EAA) with both conventional (0.31 wt. pet sulfur) and low sulfur fuel (0.01 wt pet sulfur) with and without a ceramic diesel particle filter (DPF). The engine used for this study was a 1988 heavy-duty diesel engine (Cummins LTA10-300) operated at EPA steady-state modes 9 and 11. The particle size distribution results indicated the typical bi-modal distribution; however, there were clear differences in the number of particles in each mode for all conditions. For the baseline conditions with no DPF, there was more than one order of magnitude greater number of particles in the nuclei mode for the conventional fuel as compared to the low sulfur fuel, while the accumulation modes for each fuel were nearly identical.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Sampling of Controlled Regeneration Emissions from a Diesel Wall-Flow Particulate Trap

A diesel exhaust sampling system was specially designed to measure and collect emissions from a ceramic wall-flow particulate trap during periods of controlled electric regeneration with the exhaust emissions bypassing the trap. This resulted in the regeneration emissions being independent of those produced during either baseline (no control) or trap (exhaust filtration) sampling conditions. This system provided data regarding the physical, chemical, and biological character of regeneration emissions relative to baseline and trap emissions. Selected emission levels measured continuously during the regeneration process were also used to define the particle combustion process in the trap core. Variations in hydrocarbons (HC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate volume concentrations during the regeneration process were used to define four stages of the combustion process: preheat; combustion wave formation; combustion wave propagation; and combustion wave extinction.
Technical Paper

The Physical and Chemical Character of Diesel Particulate Emissions-Measurement Techniques and Fundamental Considerations

The techniques used to characterize the chemical and physical nature of particulates in diesel exhaust emissions are reviewed. The emphasis is on understanding the broader aspects of the fundamental nature of not only diesel particulates, but particulate systems in general. Consideration is given to the special nature of particulates which make them significant pollutants and to the relative place of the diesel in the formation of man-made particles. The underlying combustion processes leading to carbon and sulfur based particulates are reviewed. The important variables in steps of the combustion processes which lead to particulate formation are considered, as well as major fuel and engine factors. Collection methods are examined with examples given from current diesel dilution techniques. Probes, sampling lines, and instrumentation are considered.
Technical Paper

“A Flame Ionization Technique for Measuring Total Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust”

The method of flame ionization was used for measuring total hydrocarbons in both single-cylinder and multicylinder 4-cycle, direct injection diesel engine exhaust. Use of the emission parameters of hydrocarbon concentration, per cent unburned fuel, specific hydrocarbon rate, mass of hydrocarbons per million cycles, mass of hydrocarbons per mile, and mass of hydrocarbons per ton-mile are discussed. The basic approach used in the flame ionization detector is shown. The hydrocarbon sample was transferred from the exhaust system through a heated sample line and oven operating at 375 F. The sample line was aspirated to reduce the sample residence time to 2 sec. The effect various sampling locations have on hydrocarbon measurements from a single-cylinder engine is shown and discussed. The effects of load, speed, and injection timing on hydrocarbon emission data are shown for a single-cylinder engine.