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Technical Paper

Comparison of NOx Level and BSFC for HPL EGR and LPL EGR System of Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Diesel engines are the most commonly used power plant of freight and public transportations in the world. Also, the newly developed injection system, Common Rail system, increases the demands for both light and heavy duty diesel vehicles. On the other hand, stringent emission regulations are being proposed with growing concern on NOx and PM emissions from diesel engines. Future emission regulations require advanced emission control technologies, such as EGR and SCR. Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a commonly used technique to reduce NOx emission. In this paper, a model-based investigation was conducted to compare the effect of high pressure loop (HPL) EGR and low pressure loop (LPL) EGR system on NOx level and BSFC of a heavy-duty diesel engine. A WAVE model was created to simulate EURO 3 engine and each component of the engine was modeled using CATIA and WaveMesher.
Technical Paper

Current Developments in Spark-Ignition Engines

This paper reviews the major changes that have occurred in spark-ignition engine design and operation over the last two decades. The automobile air pollution problem, automobile emission standards, and automobile fuel economy standards -- the factors which have and are producing these changes -- are briefly described. The major components in spark-ignition engine emission control systems are outlined, and advances in carburetion, fuel injection, ignition systems, spark retard and exhaust gas recycle strategies, and catalytic converters, are reviewed. The impact of these emission controls on vehicle fuel economy is assessed. The potential for fuel economy improvements in conventional spark-ignition engines is examined, and promising developments in improved engine and vehicle matching are outlined.
Technical Paper

Development and Use of a Cycle Simulation to Predict SI Engine Efficiency and NOx Emissions

A computer simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition engine cycle has been developed for studies of the effects of variations in engine design and operating parameters on engine performance, efficiency and NO emissions. The simulation computes the flows into and out of the engine, calculates the changes in thermodynamic properties and composition of the unburned and burned gas mixtures within the cylinder through the engine cycle due to work, heat and mass transfers, and follows the kinetics of NO formation and decomposition in the burned gas. The combustion process is specified as an input to the program through use of a normalized rate of mass burning profile. From this information, the simulation computes engine power, fuel consumption and NO emissions. Predictions made with the simulation have been compared with data from a single-cylinder CFR engine over a range of equivalence ratios, spark-timings and compression ratios.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of SOF Effects on Deposit Characteristics of the EGR Cooler Using a PM Generator

The high concentration of particulate matter (PM) in diesel exhaust gas causes significant soot deposition on the wall of EGR cooler, and reduces the heat transfer performance of the EGR cooler and the reduction rate of NOx. The deposition of PM tends to be occurred more severely with "heavy wet PM," which is more frequently at the LTC (low temperature combustion) engine. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of soluble organic fraction (SOF) on deposit characteristics of the EGR cooler. To measure reliable mean particle concentration values and surrogate SOFs, the soot generator with SOF vaporizer was used. As for two surrogate SOFs, n-dodecane and diesel lube oil, deposit mass increased when they were injected. Especially from the experiment results, it was found that the lube oil effect was more significant than the n-dodecane effect and lube oil also had a stronger effect on reduction of thermal conductivity by filling pores in deposits.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions for Prototype Production Engines

A model has been developed which predicts engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) emissions for spark-ignition engines. The model consists of a set of scaling laws that describe the individual processes that contribute to HC emissions. The model inputs are the critical engine design and operating variables. This set of individual process scaling relations was then calibrated using production spark-ignition engine data at a fixed light-load operating point. The data base consisted of engine-out HC emissions from two-valve and four-valve engine designs with variations in spark timing, valve timing, coolant temperature, crevice volume, and EGR, for five different engines. The model was calibrated separately for the three different engines to accommodate differences in engine design details and to determine the relative magnitudes of each of the major sources. A good fit to this database was obtained.
Technical Paper

Parametric Studies of Performance and NOx Emissions of the Three-Valve Stratified Charge Engine Using a Cycle Simulation

The trade-off between engine operating efficiency and NOx emissions in the prechamber three-valve stratified-charge engine is examined in a series of parametric studies using an improved model developed at M.I.T. (1). Engine geometric, operating, and combustion parameters are varied independently and the effects on brake-specific-fuel-consumption, exhaust temperature and brake-specific-NO observed. Parameters chosen for study are: timing of the start of combustion, overall air-fuel ratio, prechamber air-fuel ratio at the start of combustion, main-chamber combustion duration, prechamber size (prechamber volume and orifice diameter), EGR (in main and prechamber intakes), and load. The results quantify trade-off opportunities amongst these design and operating variables which are available to the engine designer.
Technical Paper

Predicting NOx Emissions and Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation in Spark-Ignition Engines

An improved theoretical model that predicts the nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust of a spark-ignition engine has been evaluated over a wide range of fuel-air ratios, percentage of exhaust gas recycled, and engine speed. Experiments were carried out in a standard CFR single-cylinder engine. Comparison of the measured and calculated exhaust nitric oxide concentrations shows good agreement over all operating conditions. It is shown that in lean mixtures, nitric oxide concentrations freeze early in the expansion stroke. For rich mixtures, freezing occurs later after all the charge has been burned and substantial nitric oxide decomposition takes place. In addition, effects of exhaust gas recirculation on flame speed, ignition delay, and cycle-to-cycle pressure variations were evaluated. A simple model relating cycle-to-cycle variations with changes in ignition delay is presented.