It has been recently shown that (Ce, Zr)O2 mixed oxides provide improved catalytic performances compared to pure CeO2. Cerium oxide is the active Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) component in three way catalysts. However, higher performances, including OSC enhancement, can be achieved with thermally stable solid solutions of Ce and Zr oxides. In the present paper, we describe the structure and the advantages of Ce rich (Ce, Zr)O2 solid solutions and the improved catalytic properties of these materials when used in association with platinum. Various analytical techniques were used including thermo-reduction methods, OSC measurements, surface area measurements, XRD, HRTEM, XPS, and XANES/EXAFS.
Limited and non-regulated emissions of scooters were analysed during several annual research programs of the Swiss Federal Office of Environment (BAFU) *). Small scooters, which are very much used in the congested centers of several cities, are a remarkable source of air pollution. Therefore every effort to reduce the emissions is an important contribution to improve the air quality in urban centers. In the present work detailed investigations of particle emissions of different 2-stroke scooters with direct injection and with carburettor were performed. The nanoparticulate emissions were measured by means of SMPS, (CPC) and NanoMet. Also the particle mass emission (PM) was measured with the same method as for Diesel engines. Extensive analyses of PM-residuum for SOF/INSOF, PAH and toxicity equivalence (TEQ), were carried out in an international project network. Particle mass emission (PM) of 2-S Scooters consists mostly of SOF.
The CBR  (Controlled Burn Rate) is a port deactivation concept developed by AVL and is already applied in series production cars. The benefit of this concept is the low engine-out emission (CO, HC and NOx) and good fuel economy. By creating turbulent kinetic energy at the correct time and place in the combustion chamber a rapid and stable combustion occurs which allows to run the engine well above a Lambda Excess Air Ratio of 1.5. The CBR system features two different intake ports, one charge motion port and one filling port. Additionally a device for port-deactivation (slider, butterfly) is applied. At part load points and lower engine speeds the filling port is switched off. The CBR concept was now evoluted for compact engines as CCBR - with carburetor and as CBR Light - for engines with electronic fuel injection. CCBR stands for Carbureted Controlled Burn Rate.
This paper deals with some recent advances in the field of 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in complex s.i. engine pipe-systems, involving a catalytic converter. In particular, a numerical simulation code has been developed to allow the simulation of chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst, in order to predict the chemical specie concentration in the exhaust gas from the cylinder to the tailpipe outlet, passing through the catalytic converter. The composition of the exhaust gas, discharged by the cylinder and then flowing towards the converter, is calculated by means of a thermodynamic two-zone combustion model, including emission sub-models. The catalytic converter can be simulated by means of a 1D fluid dynamic and chemical approach, considering the laminar flow in each tiny channel of the substrate.
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
The introduction of more stringent standards for engine emissions requires a steady development of exhaust gas aftertreatment in addition to an optimized cylinder combustion. The reduction of the cold start phase can help significantly to lower cycle emissions. With the goal of optimizing the overall emission performance this study presents a comprehensive simulation approach. A well established 1D gas dynamics and engine simulation model is extended by three key features. These are models for combustion and pollutant production in the cylinder, models for the pollutant conversion in a catalyst, and a general species transport model. This allows to consider an arbitrary number of chemical species and reactions in the entire system.
This work describes an experimental and numerical investigation of the thermal transient of i.c. engine exhaust systems. A prototype of exhaust system has been investigated during a NEDC cycle in two different configurations. Firstly an uncoated catalyst has been adopted to consider only the effect of the gas-wall heat transfer. The measurements have been repeated on the same exhaust system equipped with a coated catalyst to point out the contribution of the chemical reactions to the thermal transient of the system. The measured values have been compared to the predicted results carried out with a 1D thermo fluid dynamic code, developed in-house to account for the thermal transient of the system and the chemical reactions occurring in the catalyst.
This paper describes some recent advances of the research work concerning the 1D fluid dynamic modeling of unsteady reacting flows in s.i. engine pipe-systems, including pre-catalysts and main catalysts. The numerical model GASDYN developed in previous work has been further enhanced to enable the simulation of the catalyst. The main chemical reactions occurring in the wash-coat have been accounted in the model, considering the mass transfer between gas and solid phase. The oxidation of CO, C3H6, C3H8, H2 and reduction of NO, the steam-reforming reactions of C3H6, C3H8, the water-gas shift reaction of CO have been considered. Moreover, an oxygen-storage sub-model has been introduced, to account for the behavior of Cerium oxides. A detailed thermal model of the converter takes into account the heat released by the exothermic reactions as a source term in the heat transfer equations. The influence of the insulating mat is accounted.
A 2001 General Motors 4.3 liter V-6 marine engine was baseline emissions tested and then equipped with catalysts. Emission reduction effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) were also explored. Because of a U.S. Coast Guard requirement that inboard engine surface temperatures be kept below 200°F, the engine's exhaust system, including the catalysts, was water-cooled. Engine emissions were measured using the ISO-8178-E4 5-mode steady-state test for recreational marine engines. In baseline configuration, the engine produced 16.6 g HC+NOx/kW-hr, and 111 g CO/kW-hr. In closed-loop control with catalysts, HC+NOx emissions were reduced by 75 percent to 4.1 g/kW-hr, and CO emissions were reduced by 36 percent to 70 g/kW-hr of CO. The catalyzed engine was then installed in a Sea Ray 190 boat, and tested for water reversion on both fresh and salt water using National Marine Manufacturers Association procedures.
The performance of three way and NOx catalysts was evaluated on vehicles utilizing non-feedback fuel control and electronic feedback fuel control. The vehicles accumulated 80,450 km (50,000 miles) using fuels representing the extremes in hydrogen-carbon ratio available for commercial use. Feedback carburetion compared to non-feedback carburetion improved highway fuel economy by about 0.4 km/l (1 mpg) and reduced deterioration of NOx with mileage accumulation. NOx emissions were higher with the low H/C fuel in the three way catalyst system; feedback reduced the fuel effect on NOx in these cars by improving conversion efficiency with the low H/C fuel. Feedback had no measureable effect on HC and CO catalyst efficiency. Hydrocarbon emissions were lower with the low H/C fuel in all cars. Unleaded gasoline octane improver, MMT, at 0.015g Mn/l (0.06 g/gal) increased tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions by 0.05 g/km (0.08 g/mile).
4 different engine concepts with Catalyst have been developed in regard to pollutant emission, fuel efficiency and performance. Despite the wide power range from 1,2 HP to 12 HP and the different applications of these engines to Mopeds, Chainsaws and Motorcycles, the problems to solve have been similar. Internal measures such as optimized carburetion, cooling, piston shape and clearance, scavenging and tuning of the exhaust must enable the engine to run on the lean side. This is imperative to supply sufficient oxygen for the exothermal reaction and to keep the energy to be converted in the Oxidation Catalyst at a minimum. Secondary measures have been taken to shorten the Catalyst's light-off and to keep the temperature range in limits.
In Sports Motorcycles category, fuel injection systems have been employed more popularly in recent years, and we have been also developing motorcycles introducing fuel injection systems in the category of 600cc - 1400cc displacement. Sports Motorcycles need to be controlled in a wide range from idling to over 10000rpm. Better throttle response, high power and low fuel consumption are also required. Therefore, adding to optimizations of inlet system layout, fuel injection amount, injection timing and ignition timing, the authors have applied to some models electric control devices such as SDTV (Dual Throttle Valve System) that controls intake air amount with secondary throttle valve located upstream of primary throttle valve and SET (Exhaust Tuning System) that controls exhaust pressure by opening angle of an exhaust valve installed in an exhaust pipe to improve the torque characteristics.
In regard to small utility engines used in lawn and garden equipment and other commercial or industrial equipment, exhaust emission regulations have been implemented since 1995 in USA. In the State of California, USA, California Air Resources Board (CARB) Tier 2 emission regulations became effective from 2000. At this stage, the handheld engines are almost two-stroke engines, but this Tier 2 emission regulations are very stringent for HC emissions. In addition, the handheld engines are small, and so they do not have enough muffler volume to be equipped with larger catalysts. This paper describes the newly developed catalyst for two-stroke small engines, which is compact and excellent in HC conversion, to meet above requirements.
Characteristics of mass emission of unburned Oil-Particulate Matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from two-stroke scooter were investigated. The tests were carried out under with and without oxidation catalyst and various air-fuel ratio ranging from 12 to 16 at 50:1 of fuel-oil mixing ratio for easy sampling. Unburned Oil-Particulate Matter and 4- to 7-rings polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were trapped on filter. These compounds were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Mass emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and unburned Oil-Particulate Matter tends to decrease as air-fuel ratio which increased up to stoichiometric ratio. The highest conversion ratio of unburned Oil-Particulate Matter on the oxidation catalyst was 64%. Conversion ratio of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increased as rings are smaller.
A 3 way catalytic converter (3WCC) model based on a global kinetic model was developed and validated against laboratory scale and engine test bench experiments. Various equivalence ratios and temperatures were tested. A methodology was finalized and applied to calibrate the kinetic constants. Laboratory scale experiments were first used to characterize the reaction mechanism during light-off, including the way reduction and oxidation reactions begin and compete with each other when temperature increases. The numerical results are in good agreement with the laboratory scale light-off results. Also, when adapted to simulate the engine test bench experiments, the model is able to correctly reproduce both the light-off tests and the 3WCC conversion efficiency evolution versus equivalence ratio. A calibration method in two steps was thus established and successfully used. The combination of modeling with experimental work appeared to be a powerful tool to determine the reaction mechanism.