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Technical Paper

1978 to 1980 Ford On-Road Fuel Economy

1981-02-01
810383
Since 1978 Ford Motor Company has been surveying the fuel economy of employes who lease new light duty vehicles from the Company. Winter and summer survey data for the three years are analyzed and compared. Car results show a significant and steady increase in average on-road fuel economy over the three year period. The percent differential between EPA measured and actual on-road fuel economy has lessened substantially since 1978. Furthermore, the percent difference between EPA and on-road is essentially constant over the range of EPA values for each of the three years. Limited fuel economy results for 1980 trucks are also discussed.
Journal Article

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Modeling of Reacting Flows inside Three-Way Catalytic Converters

2009-04-20
2009-01-1510
In this work a detailed model to simulate the transient behavior of catalytic converters is presented. The model is able to predict the unsteady and reacting flows in the exhaust ducts, by solving the system of conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and transport of reacting chemical species. The en-gine and the intake system have not been included in the simulation, imposing the measured values of mass flow, gas temperature and chemical composition as a boundary condition at the inlet of the exhaust system. A detailed analysis of the diffusion stage triggering is proposed along with simplifications of the physics, finalized to the reduction of the calculation time. Submodels for water condensation and its following evaporation on the monolith surface have been taken into account as well as oxygen storage promoted by ceria oxides.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 1

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/3A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 1

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/3
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 2

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/2
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 35, Class 1, Grade 190, Fiber 2

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/2A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 38, Class 2, Grade 193, Style 3K-70-PW, Fiber 1

2019-03-12
WIP
AMS3961/1A
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Standard

350 °F Autoclave Cure, Low Flow Toughened Epoxy Prepregs, Type 38, Class 2, Grade 193, Style 3K-70-PW, Fiber 1

2015-12-02
CURRENT
AMS3961/1
The intent of this specification is for the procurement of the material listed on the QPL and, therefore, no qualification or equivalency threshold values are provided. Users that intend to conduct a new material qualification or equivalency program shall refer to the Quality Assurance section of the base specification, AMS3961. All material qualification and equivalency data has been archived and is available for review upon request. Contact the CMH-17 Secretariat (www.cmh17.org) for additional information.
Journal Article

3D Auditory Displays for Parking Assistance Systems

2017-04-11
2017-01-9627
The objective of this study was to investigate if 3D auditory displays could be used to enhance parking assistance systems (PAS). Objective measurements and estimations of workload were used to assess the benefits of different 3D auditory displays. In today’s cars, PAS normally use a visual display together with simple sound signals to inform drivers of obstacles in close proximity. These systems rely heavily on the visual display, as the sound does not provide information about obstacles' location. This may cause the driver to lose focus on the surroundings and reduce situational awareness. Two user studies (during summer and winter) were conducted to compare three different systems. The baseline system corresponded to a system normally found in today’s cars. The other systems were designed with a 3D auditory display, conveying information of where obstacles were located through sound. A visual display was also available. Both normal parking and parallel parking was conducted.
Technical Paper

94 GHz MMW Imaging Radar System

1991-09-01
912208
The 94 GHz MMW airborne radar system that provides a runway image in adverse weather conditions is now undergoing tests at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This system, which consists of a solid state FMCW transceiver, antenna and digital signal processor, has an update rate of 10 times per second, 0.35° azimuth resolution and up to 3.5 meter range resolution. The radar B scope (range versus azimuth) image, once converted to C scope (elevation versus azimuth), is compatible with the standard TV presentation and can be displayed on the Head Up Display (HUD) or Head Down Display (HDD) to aid the pilot during landing and takeoff in limited visibility conditions.
Technical Paper

A Carburetor Icing Field Test: Procedures and Results

1964-01-01
640368
The test procedures and some of the results obtained in a carburetor icing field test at Vancouver, British Columbia, during the Winter of 1962-1963 are described. One hundred twenty-nine cars were involved in the test which lasted approximately four months. A total of about 15,000 test runs was made. Fifty percent of the cars stalled at much higher rates under weather conditions conducive to carburetor icing than under other conditions. Thus, carburetor icing was found to be a significant field problem even with effective antiicing additives present in the gasoline. There was much variation among car makes in their tendencies to stall, indicating the possibilities of design improvements in reducing the problem. There was an indication that recent model cars stalled at lower rates than earlier models, showing that some improvement has been made.
Technical Paper

A Case Study of Stormwater Runoff Containing Deicing / Anti-icing Fluids Treatment at DFW Airport

2003-06-16
2003-01-2123
Airline tenants at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW Airport) use deicing/anti-icing chemicals, as may be needed, to maintain wintertime operations. DFW Airport has implemented best management practices for pollution prevention measures relating to deicing/anti-icing activities. However, as the planes leave the deicing pads, deicing/anti-icing fluids can drip from the planes onto the runways, taxiways, and ramp areas. As planes take off, the fluids can also shear off onto Airport property. During winter storm events, these deicing/anti-icing fluids are flushed off the runways, etc., with the stormwater. Stormwater containing deicing/anti-icing fluids can discharge through outfalls into Trigg Lake located in the southwestern part of the DFW Airport property.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on the Response Surface Method Applied to the Optimization of the Dynamical Behavior of Vehicles

2001-03-05
2001-01-3850
This paper describes the application of statistical techniques related to the condensation of computational models so that gradient based optimization procedures can be used more effectively. The adoption of these techniques is encouraged by the possibility of an important reduction in time and cost associated to the vehicle development process. A sophisticated computational model of a Mini-baja vehicle is defined in the virtual environment by means of CAD/CAE software, intending to provide the major information related to the study of its dynamic behaviour and to define the statistical surrogates (approximate models). The creation of the computational model deals with the determination of physical and geometric properties, and is fed by stiffness and damping parameters obtained through experimental procedures.
Technical Paper

A Coating for the Preservation of Fracture Surfaces

1975-02-01
750967
In order to perform a meaningful examination of a fracture surface in the scanning electron microscope it is necessary for the examined surface to be in a condition as close to the fractured condition as possible. Laboratory preservation techniques are not available to the engineer in the field so the fracture surfaces are best preserved by coating them with a material that can be easily removed later without damage to the fractures. In this paper, a preservative is described that is suitable for the protection of fracture surfaces both in the field and in the laboratory. The restrictions and limitations of the preservative are discussed and examples of fracture surfaces before coating and after coating and exposure to a humidity cabinet are shown.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Magnesium Front End Autoparts: A Revision to 2010-01-0275

2012-12-31
2012-01-2325
The Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project under the sponsorship of Canada, China, and USA aims to develop key technologies and a knowledge base for increased use of magnesium in automobiles. The primary goal of this life cycle assessment (LCA) study is to compare the energy and potential environmental impacts of advanced magnesium based front end parts of a North American-built 2007 GM-Cadillac CTS using the current steel structure as a baseline. An aluminium front end is also considered as an alternate light structure scenario. A “cradle-to-grave” LCA is conducted by including primary material production, semi-fabrication production, autoparts manufacturing and assembly, transportation, use phase, and end-of-life processing of autoparts. This LCA study was done in compliance with international standards ISO 14040:2006 [1] and ISO 14044:2006 [2].
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Non-Asbestos Organics vs. Low Steel Lomets for Humidity Sensitivity

2012-09-17
2012-01-1788
Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) disc pads and Low Steel Lomet disc pads were subjected to high and low humidity conditions to discover how humidity affects these two classes of formulations for physical properties, friction, wear and noise characteristics. The 2 classes of formulations show similarities and differences in response to increasing humidity. The humidity effect on deformation of the surface microstructure of the gray cast iron disc is also investigated. Humidity implications for pad quality control and brake testing are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Performance of Activated Carbon Canisters Using Different Purge Air Humidities

1994-03-01
940299
Although concerns have been raised that the performance of activated carbon canisters will decrease when exposed to air at higher humidities, results of a recently conducted test program do not substantiate these concerns. The results show that the purge efficiency and the working capacity of canisters that are purged with air at 75 grains per pound of dry air (GPPDA) humidity are equal or greater than those obtained with 50 GPPDA humidity purging. The results have been submitted to the California Air Resources Board (ARB) for use in aligning their evaporative emission testing regulations with the regulations promulgated by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Direct Vehicle Fuel Consumption Measurements with Simultaneous CVS Carbon-Balance Fuel Economy

2008-10-07
2008-36-0274
A chassis dynamometer test cell is employed along with a CVS system to test for both vehicle mass emissions and for fuel economy. In addition to the standard test equipment for gasoline vehicles, a highly accurate fuel flow meter is installed that measures the mass of fuel consumed by the engine during chassis dynamometer tests. A 3.8 liter V6 vehicle was tested over standard United States E.P.A. FTP and Highway Fuel Economy protocols, where it is found that the fuel flow meter mass measurements correlate with the carbon-balance fuel consumption results measured with the CVS. However, there are significant differences between the fuel flow meter and the CVS measured fuel consumption during vehicle cold-start tests. This is a concern because a large fraction of gasoline engine emissions are generated only during a cold-start. It is important to be able to relate mass emissions to mass fuel consumption in order to understand and control cold-start gasoline engine performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of INTELSAT VIII Spacecraft Thermal Vacuum Test Techniques

1997-07-01
972525
The INTELSAT VIII / VIIIA program consists of six communication satellites (of two different designs) being produced by Lockheed Martin Astro Space for the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT). Two spacecraft level thermal vacuum test facilities were required to test the first four spacecraft due to schedule constraints. The two facilities selected were the East Windsor, NJ (EW) 35 foot chamber and the 39 foot chamber at Lockheed Martin's Valley Forge, PA (VF) facility. INTELSAT 801 was tested in the EW 35 foot chamber which utilizes eight independently controlled shrouds to perform IR (hot wall) testing over an environmental temperature range of -180 to +80°C. INTELSAT 802 was tested in the VF 39 foot chamber which consists of shrouds flooded with LN2 at -180°C. Cal rods were used to independently control the thermal environments of the six spacecraft faces for this facility.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Ion Current Based Algorithms for Peak Pressure Position Control

2001-05-07
2001-01-1920
Combustion timing control of SI engines can be improved by feedback of the peak pressure position (PPP). However, pressure sensors are costly, and therefore, nonintrusive and cheap ion-current ‘soft sensors’ have been suggested. Three different algorithms have been proposed that extract information about PPP from the ion current signal. In this paper, these approaches are compared with respect to accuracy, operational range, implementation aspects, as well as sensitivity to engine load and inlet air humidity.
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