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Technical Paper

"Electro Gyro-Cator" New Inertial Navigation System for Use in Automobiles

The Electro Gyro-Cator allows a driver to monitor his progress, plot and follow courses to a destination, select alternate routes, and drive more safely on unfamiliar roads or at night. Employing a sealed helium gas-rate gyro, the Electro Gyro-Cator offers visual display (CRT display) of a car's present location, direction and route, with overlay maps for fast, simple route selection and monitoring. The primary elements of the unit include trip and direction sensors, a 16-Bit central processing unit, a CRT display screen and a collection of transparent overlay maps fitted to the screen.
Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
Technical Paper

12-Volt Vacuum Fluorescent Display Drive Circuitry for Electronically Tuned Radios

The trend towards battery voltage vacuum fluorescent displays continues the technological advances in design and construction of VFD's, as they are applied to the automobile environment. With the ever increasing use of electronic displays for electronically tuned radios (ETR's), compact disc (CD) players, and other entertainment systems, advances in battery voltage displays and their associated drive circuitry have become a necessity. With the inherent advantages of low voltage operation and high information density, VFD's will continue to dominate the automobile audio markets. This paper will discuss battery voltage displays, the basic circuitry necessary to operate a vacuum fluorescent display, and comment on the “off the shelf” controller and driver circuitry available.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

145 - 210 Horsepower Agricultural Tractor Noise Reduction Program

This paper summarizes the techniques and guidelines which were used to reduce the driver perceived noise level of a 145-210 HP series of agricultural tractors. Graphs of case study test results and comments on subjective noise quality are provided to guide the acoustic novice through the complexities of the vehicle sound environment in a methodical problem solving format.
Technical Paper


CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

1987 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe Programmed Ride Control (PRC) Suspension

This paper describes Programmed Ride Control (PRC), the automatic adjustable shock absorber system designed and patented by Ford Motor Company. The system utilizes low shock absorber damping under normal driving conditions to provide soft boulevard ride, automatically switching to firm damping when required for improved handling. The system's microprocessor control module “learns” where the straight ahead steering wheel position is, allowing the system to respond to absolute steering wheel angle. A closed loop control strategy is used to improve system reliability and to notify the driver in the event of a system malfunction. Fast acting rotary solenoids control the damping rate of the shock absorbers.
Technical Paper

1991 Model Year Chrysler Mini-Van All Wheel Drive Vehicle

This paper presents the Chrysler 1991 Model Mini-Van All-Wheel-Drive (AWD) System. The AWD system is an enhanced traction system requiring no driver input or additional driving skills. It is transparent to the driver in that there is no perceived operating and/or handling difference relative to a front wheel driven vehicle. The system is aimed at safety and security in driving under all conditions. The paper further describes the design and development of the AWD vehicle system.
Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine

This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
Technical Paper

2 Stroke Fuel Injected Outboard Motor with Oxygen Sensor Feedback Control System

This paper describes new 2 stroke fuel injected spark ignition outboard motor equipped with unique oxygen sensor feed back control system to assure constantly optimized air/fuel ratio. First, the general concept and the engineering target of commercial model are explained, and then the design and arrangement of oxygen sensor feedback fuel injection control system are described. Common automotive oxygen sensor is utilized in this system, and it is devised to overcome the problems inherent in 2-stroke engines. This paper also describes the controlled combustion system that enhances consistent and stable performance, and improves fuel efficiency. Applying these technologies, 40% less fuel consumption in cruise range was demonstrated by the comparative test with conventional fuel injected 2-stroke model.
Technical Paper

2-Butanone Laminar Burning Velocities - Experimental and Kinetic Modelling Study

2-Butanone (C4H8O) is a promising alternative fuel candidate as a pure as well as a blend component for substitution in standard gasoline fuels. It can be produced by the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol. To describe 2-butanone's basic combustion behaviour, it is important to investigate key physical properties such as the laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity serves on the one hand side as a parameter to validate detailed chemical kinetic models. On the other hand, especially for engine simulations, various combustion models have been introduced, which rely on the laminar burning velocity as the physical quantity describing the progress of chemical reactions, diffusion, and heat conduction. Hence, well validated models for the prediction of laminar burning velocities are needed. New experimental laminar burning velocity data, acquired in a high pressure spherical combustion vessel, are presented for 1 atm and 5 bar at temperatures of 373 K and 423 K.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
Technical Paper

2-Way Driven Compressor for Hybrid Vehicle Climate Control System

The environment is one of the most important issues currently facing the world and the automobile industry is required to respond with eco-cars. To meet this requirement, the hybrid vehicle is one of the most optimal solutions. The hybrid system automatically stops engine idling (idling stop), or stops the engine during deceleration to recover energy. The engine stop however creates a problem concerning the vehicle's climate control system. Because the conventional climate control system incorporates a compressor driven by engine belt, there is almost no cooling performance while the engine is stopped. Until now, when a driver needed more cooling comfort the engine has been switched back on as a compromise measure. To realize cabin comfort that is consistent with fuel saving, a 2-way driven compressor has been developed that can be driven both by engine belt while the engine is running and by electric motor when the engine is stopped.
Technical Paper

2002 Joint EPA/SAE-ESSC Workshop Environmental Systems Decision Making

This is a report of a workshop held in mid-August of 2002 at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, to explore what it takes to make a decision regarding environmental systems in the US. The participants in the workshop represented federal government, industry, non-governmental organizations and academia. During the two and a half day workshop, discussions were held on the policy drivers, the strategies and tactics (through a SWOT analysis), the decisions the automotive industry is facing today and the tools available to support decision making.