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Technical Paper

"Nickel electroformed" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0272
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. While rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP and RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured by combining Stereolithography (SL), RP technique, with nickel electroforming process. The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called Accurate Clear Epoxy Solid (ACES).
Technical Paper

"Quick" tools development through stereolithography (SLA) for sheet metal forming~An evaluation study

2000-06-12
2000-05-0270
Currently, advancements in Rapid Prototyping (RP) technologies have led to considerable amount of research activities and has been playing a major role in the area of tooling development for which Rapid Tooling (RT) term was coined. Rapid prototyping techniques are employed to make prototype tools. While, the basic idea of the rapid tooling is to produce prototype and zero series parts by using prototype tools so the parts truly represent the future production. This paper will present an evaluation of a RP & RT technique in developing tools (punch and dies) for sheet metal forming, which had been manufactured and tested. Both punch and die have been manufactured directly from Stereolithography (SL). The stereolithography technique that had been utilized in developing models for the tools had been built with modeling pattern called QuickCast infiltrated with Aluminum-Filled Epoxy, designated as Quick Tool.
Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

2007-10-30
2007-01-4182
Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Technical Paper

(Paint) Film Finishing in Practice

1992-02-01
920732
(Paint) film as an alternative to spray applied paint has received growing attention in recent years. The potential for economic and environmental advantage and quality enhancement with this technology has been reported in several technical papers (Ref. 1, 3 and 4). The actual practice of film finishing, however, has received only limited notice. Film finishes have been applied to aluminum, stainless steel, PVC, and ABS. Starting in 1982, part applications include: wheel covers, door edge guards, window surrounds, roof drip moldings, lower windshield moldings, rocker panels, body side moldings, B pillars, and A pillars. Industry awareness and acceptance of film finishing as a viable alternative to spray applied paint is increasing. The two technologies are similar in many ways, yet distinctly different in other ways. They share a common goal: To yield a durable finish, economically and with superior visual impact. This paper reviews the unique aspects of film finishing.
Technical Paper

1.2GPa Advanced High Strength Steel with High Formability

2014-04-01
2014-01-0991
To reduce the Body in White (BIW) mass, it is necessary to expand the application of Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) to complex shaped parts. In order to apply AHSS to complex shaped parts with thinner gauge, high formability steel is required. However, higher strength steels tend to display lower elongations, compared with low/medium strength steels. Current AHSS are applied to limited parts for this reason. The new 1.2GPa material, with high formability, was developed to solve this issue. The mechanical property targets for the high elongation 1.2GPa material were achieved by precise metallurgical optimization. Many material aspects were studied, such as formability, weldabilty, impact strength, and delayed fracture. As the result of this development, 1.2GPa AHSS has been applied to a new vehicle launched in 2013.The application of this material was the 1st in the world, and achieved a 11kg mass reduction.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

100 Hour Endurance Testing of a High Output Adiabatic Diesel Engine

1994-03-01
940951
An advanced low heat rejection engine concept has successfully completed a 100 hour endurance test. The combustion chamber components were insulated with thermal barrier coatings. The engine components included a titanium piston, titanium headface plate, titanium cylinder liner insert, M2 steel valve guides and monolithic zirconia valve seat inserts. The tribological system was composed of a ceramic chrome oxide coated cylinder liner, chrome carbide coated piston rings and an advanced polyolester class lubricant. The top piston compression ring Included a novel design feature to provide self-cleaning of ring groove lubricant deposits to prevent ring face scuffing. The prototype test engine demonstrated 52 percent reduction in radiator heat rejection with reduced intake air aftercooling and strategic forced oil cooling.
Technical Paper

12 Present situation of Automated Guided Vehicle

2002-10-29
2002-32-1781
Many automated guided golf cars using the electromagnetic guide technology are used in Japan to obtain more convenient and safer golf play. Now this technology is beginning to be used outside of the golf course as an on-demand people mover system. This paper presents an example of the engineering system of automated guided golf cars along for the 2 principles of automated guided vehicle. The first principle is “the steering control system including the automatic sensitivity adjustment function”, and the other principle is “the vehicle speed control system”.
Technical Paper

14 Degree-of-Freedom Vehicle Model for Roll Dynamics Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-1277
A vehicle model is an important factor in the development of vehicle control systems. Various vehicle models having different complexities, assumptions, and limitations have been developed and applied to many different vehicle control systems. A 14 DOF vehicle model that includes a roll center as well as non-linear effects due to vehicle roll and pitch angles and unsprung mass inertias, is developed. From this model, the limitations and validity of lower order models which employ different assumptions for simplification of dynamic equations are investigated by analyzing their effect on vehicle roll response through simulation. The possible limitation of the 14 DOF model compared to an actual vehicle is also discussed.
Technical Paper

1979 Firebird - An Advanced (Part 581) Soft Bumper System

1979-02-01
790335
Weight and performance characteristics of the 1979 Pontiac Firebird soft bumper system are compared to those for a typical new (1979) metal/hydraulic design to evaluate the effects of the new standard. This study demonstrates the changing competitive environment in the automotive bumper market due to the introduction of the Part 581 Standard. The deep soft bumper concept is also discussed including its potential for achieving weight reductions in future elastomeric bumper systems.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1984 Continental Mark VII/Lincoln Continental Electronically-Controlled Air Suspension (EAS) System

1984-02-01
840342
This paper describes the Electronic Air Suspension (EAS) System developed by Ford Motor Company. Design trade-offs between load-carrying capacity necessary with conventional steel spring suspension systems and riding comfort are avoided when today's microcomputer technology is combined with a leveling air spring suspension. An electric air compressor with regenerative air dryer, three electronic “Hall Effect” height sensors, four air springs with integral solenoids, and a control module with a single chip microcomputer are the key EAS System components discussed.
Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0819
The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

1D Model of a Copper Exchanged Small Pore Zeolite Catalyst Based on Transient SCR Protocol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1578
Urea-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts are the leading aftertreatment technology for diesel engines, but there are major challenges associated with meeting future NOx emission standards, especially under transient drive cycle conditions that include large swings in exhaust temperatures. Here we present a simplified, transient, one-dimensional integral model of NOx reduction by NH₃ on a commercial small-pore Cu-zeolite urea-SCR catalyst for which detailed kinetic parameters have not been published. The model was developed and validated using data acquired from bench reactor experiments on a monolith core, following a transient SCR reactor protocol. The protocol incorporates NH₃ storage, NH₃ oxidation, NO oxidation and three global SCR reactions under isothermal conditions, at three space velocities and at three NH₃/NOx ratios.
Technical Paper

1D Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of a High Performance Lamborghini V12 S.I. Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0692
This paper describes the development and application of the 1D thermo-fluid dynamic research code GASDYN to the simulation of a Lamborghini 12 cylinder, V 60°, 6.2 L automotive S.I. engine. The model has been adopted to carry out an integrated simulation (thermodynamic, fluid dynamic and chemical) of the engine coupled to its intake and exhaust manifolds, in order to predict not only the wave motion in the ducts and its influence on the cylinder gas exchange process, but also the in-cylinder combustion process and the pollutant emission concentration along the exhaust system. The gas composition in the exhaust pipe system is dictated by the cylinder discharge process, after the calculation of the combustion via a thermodynamic multi-zone model, based on a “fractal geometry” approach.
Technical Paper

2 Stroke Fuel Injected Outboard Motor with Oxygen Sensor Feedback Control System

1997-10-27
978491
This paper describes new 2 stroke fuel injected spark ignition outboard motor equipped with unique oxygen sensor feed back control system to assure constantly optimized air/fuel ratio. First, the general concept and the engineering target of commercial model are explained, and then the design and arrangement of oxygen sensor feedback fuel injection control system are described. Common automotive oxygen sensor is utilized in this system, and it is devised to overcome the problems inherent in 2-stroke engines. This paper also describes the controlled combustion system that enhances consistent and stable performance, and improves fuel efficiency. Applying these technologies, 40% less fuel consumption in cruise range was demonstrated by the comparative test with conventional fuel injected 2-stroke model.
Technical Paper

2-Butanone Laminar Burning Velocities - Experimental and Kinetic Modelling Study

2015-09-01
2015-01-1956
2-Butanone (C4H8O) is a promising alternative fuel candidate as a pure as well as a blend component for substitution in standard gasoline fuels. It can be produced by the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol. To describe 2-butanone's basic combustion behaviour, it is important to investigate key physical properties such as the laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity serves on the one hand side as a parameter to validate detailed chemical kinetic models. On the other hand, especially for engine simulations, various combustion models have been introduced, which rely on the laminar burning velocity as the physical quantity describing the progress of chemical reactions, diffusion, and heat conduction. Hence, well validated models for the prediction of laminar burning velocities are needed. New experimental laminar burning velocity data, acquired in a high pressure spherical combustion vessel, are presented for 1 atm and 5 bar at temperatures of 373 K and 423 K.
Technical Paper

2-D Imaging of Fuel Vapor Concentration in a Diesel Spray via Exciplex-Based Fluorescence Technique

1993-10-01
932652
To measure the fuel vapor concentration in an unsteady evaporating spray injected into nitrogen atmosphere, the exciplex-forming method, which produces spectrally separated fluorescence from the liquid and vapor phase, was applied in this study. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the qualitative and quantitative applicability of the technique in a high temperature and high pressure atmosphere during the fuel injection period. One is to examine the thermal decomposition of TMPD dopant at a high temperature and a high pressure nitrogen atmosphere during a short period of time. The other is to calibrate the relationship between fluorescence intensity and vapor concentration of TMPD at different vapor temperatures. And then, the qualitative measurement of fuel vapor concentration distributions in diesel sprays was made by applying the technique.
Technical Paper

2-D Soot Visualization in Unsteady Spray Flame by means of Laser Sheet Scattering Technique

1991-02-01
910223
The two-dimensional distribution of a soot cloud in an unsteady spray flame in a rapid compression machine(RCM) was visualized using the laser sheet scattering technique. A 40 mm x 50 mm cross section on the flame axis was illuminated by a thin laser sheet from a single pulsed Nd:YAG laser(wavelength 532 nm). Scattered light from soot particles was taken by a CCD camera via a high speed gated image intensifier. The temporal variation of the scattered light images were presented with the injection pressure as a parameter. The results showed that scattered light was intense near the periphery of the flame tip and that the scattered light becomes weaker significantly and disappears fast after the end of injection as injection pressure is increased. This technique was also applied to the visualization of the two-dimensional distribution of liquid droplets in the non-evaporating spray to correlate it with the soot concentration distribution.
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