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Technical Paper

A Generic Modeling Approach for Automotive Power Net Consumers

The integration of safety-critical and major power-consuming electrical systems presents a challenge for the development of future automotive electrical networks. Both reliability and performance must be enhanced in order to guarantee the power supply to essential electrical consumers at a sufficient degree of power quality. Often, in order to cope with these requirements, merely an upgrade of the existing wiring harness design is used, resulting in additional complexity, weight, and cost [3]. A characterization of the wiring harness and its electrical consumers facilitates a systematic optimization approach aimed at designing new automotive power networks [1, 5]. Measurement and analysis methods to characterise the thermal behaviour of the wiring harness have been presented and discussed in a previous paper [4] This paper presents and compares two methods aimed at modeling the electrical behavior of consumers at various voltages and temperatures.
Journal Article

A New Approach to the Test, Assessment and Optimization of Robust Electrical Distribution Systems

Both the electrical portion of the powertrain and the rising number of auxiliary systems will considerably increase the electrical power requirements in future vehicles. In addition, multiple voltage supply levels will enhance the complexity of the electrical distribution system (EDS), while strict cost, weight, packaging, and safety constraints must be upheld, posing serious design challenges in terms of robustness, reliability and energy efficiency. Currently, a self-contained integral test or evaluation of the EDS is normally not applied. For such a purpose, quantitative quality criteria are introduced here which allow a comparative assessment of an EDS by addressing the dynamic and static stability of the supply voltage, the reliability of the fusing system, and the ability to provide the required electrical power. The presented approach uses both precisely-defined test scenarios and a comprehensive EDS test bench.
Journal Article

A Statistical Analysis of Electrical Power Requirements in Vehicles

The increasing power and safety requirements of electrical systems present a challenge for future automotive electrical networks. However, the modeling of use-profiles and the overall power consumption of electrical systems proves to be difficult as the number of potential on/off combinations of the loads is tremendous. Furthermore, the operation of some loads is correlated or depends upon the operating conditions. Thus, simple worst-case calculations applied to this complexity often lead to an over-specification of components. The proposed approach is based on the probabilities of loads being in the on-state and their respective interdependencies with each other and with boundary conditions such as time of day. Applying basic statistics and a new iterative algorithm, it allows the calculation of the probability of consumed total power for a given set of boundary conditions and of, very importantly, its expected continuous period.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Test of Automotive Electrical Power Networks

The integration of safety-critical and major power-consuming electrical systems presents a challenge for the development of future vehicle power nets. Reliability and performance of the electrical network must be enhanced in order to guarantee the power supply to essential electrical consumers at a sufficient degree of power quality. This paper presents a test bench for automotive electrical networks based on a hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) platform. The test bench is used to assess the power and temperature behavior of the wiring harness and the connected power consumers. This characterisation facilitates the development of new tailored automotive electrical networks to meet the increased requirements while efficiently using the available resources.
Technical Paper

Electrical Power System Assessment Method Based on Bayesian Networks

The impact of the design of automotive electrical distribution systems (EDS) is becoming more and more significant with the continuous integration of new safety-relevant functions and the substitution of mechanical systems having reached a high degree of robustness. The introduction of hybrid and electric vehicles amplify this trend and lead to the design of even more complex electrical networks with multiple voltage levels and new challenges. To assess electrical power systems with respect to their ability to supply the involved electrical consumers in various driving and consuming situations at a high level of reliability and voltage stability simulation studies, bench testing and driving tests are conducted. However, a sustained strategy to define relevant consuming and driving situations in order to test the EDS under consistent loading conditions is missing.
Technical Paper

Optical Spray Investigations on OME3-5 in a Constant Volume High Pressure Chamber

Synthetic fuels generated with surplus renewable electricity, water and captured CO2, so called E-fuels, offer the possibility to easily store excess energy over long periods of time. Therefore, the ALIGN-CCUS-project seeks to use them for power-generation and as a fuel for the transport-sector. Polyoxymethylene-dimethyl-ethers (POMDMEs, short: OME) are promising E-fuels for passenger-car applications. Their molecular structure is CH3-O-(CH2O)n-CH3. For passenger-car applications, OME-mixtures with n between 3 and 5 seem most suitable, as the mixture is liquid under normal ambient conditions, offers a high cetane-number and sufficient lubricity. Their high flash-point, low toxicity and good miscibility with conventional diesel-fuel also may ease their market-introduction.
Technical Paper

Optimization and Evaluation of 12V/48V Architectures Based on EDS Simulation and Real Drive Cycles

Both the rising number of electrical systems and the electrical part of the powertrain are considerably increasing the electrical power requirements of vehicles. As a consequence, multiple voltage supply levels have been introduced. However, even if only the 12V/48V configuration is considered, as in this paper, the number of possible electrical distribution system (EDS) architectures is greatly enlarged. Additional degrees of freedom are the allocation of the loads to the voltage levels, the dimensioning of new components, and the control strategy. Hence, the optimization of such architectures must be based on simulation, which allows the evaluation of a multitude of variants and test scenarios within an acceptable time frame. While strict cost, weight, and quality constraints must be upheld, the stability of the voltage supply is a major focus because a significant part of future electrical systems is highly safety-critical.