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Technical Paper

"Electro Gyro-Cator" New Inertial Navigation System for Use in Automobiles

1983-02-01
830659
The Electro Gyro-Cator allows a driver to monitor his progress, plot and follow courses to a destination, select alternate routes, and drive more safely on unfamiliar roads or at night. Employing a sealed helium gas-rate gyro, the Electro Gyro-Cator offers visual display (CRT display) of a car's present location, direction and route, with overlay maps for fast, simple route selection and monitoring. The primary elements of the unit include trip and direction sensors, a 16-Bit central processing unit, a CRT display screen and a collection of transparent overlay maps fitted to the screen.
Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Technical Paper

(CS)2 for Distributed Control Systems: A Better Approach to Developing and Maintaining ECU SW

2007-10-30
2007-01-4182
Electronic control units (ECUs) offer a modular, networked approach to real time machine control and diagnostics. Software embedded in these controllers offer agile and customizable solutions because of the intimate relationship with the ECU hardware and its inputs/outputs. In an idealistic view, embedded software should support the machine's life - 30 years or longer. Developing and maintaining software for these systems requires a strategy. A framework demonstrating common building blocks and long-term centralized support for ECUs on a machine is presented. This strategy reduces the detailed knowledge of the specific machine controls needed by ECU developers and provides the components and infrastructure key to extending the life and functionality of the ECU.
Standard

(ISO/IEC 12207) Standard for Information Technology - Software Life Cycle Processes

2015-07-01
CURRENT
IEEEEIA12207_0
ISO/IEC 12207 provides a common framework for developing and managing software. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 consists of the clarifications, additions, and changes accepted by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) as formulated by a joint project of the two organizations. IEEE/EIA 12207.0 contains concepts and guidelines to foster better understanding and application of the standard. Thus this standard provides industry a basis for software practices that would be usable for both national and international business.
Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Standard

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

2009-11-19
HISTORICAL
J2735_200911
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Journal Article

(R)evolution of E/E Architectures

2015-04-14
2015-01-0196
This paper presents an overview of the evolution & revolution of automotive E/E architectures and how we at Bosch, envision the technology in the future. It provides information on the bottlenecks for current E/E architectures and drivers for their evolution. Functionalities such as automated driving, connectivity and cyber-security have gained increasing importance over the past few years. The importance of these functionalities will continue to grow as these cutting-edge technologies mature and market acceptance increases. Implementation of these functionalities in mainstream vehicles will demand a paradigm shift in E/E architectures with respect to in-vehicle communication networks, power networks, connectivity, safety and security. This paper expounds on these points at a system level.
Technical Paper

04 Emission Reduction by Cylinder Wall Injection in 2-Stroke S.I. Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1773
A direct injection system in which fuel was injected through the cylinder wall was developed and detailed investigation was made for the purpose of reducing short-circuit of fuel in 2-stroke engines. As a result of dynamo tests using 430cc single cylinder engine, it was found that the injector was best attached at a location as close to TDC as possible on the rear transfer port side, and that the entire amount of fuel should be injected towards the piston top surface. Emissions were worsened if fuel was injected towards the exhaust port or spark plug. Although the higher injection pressure resulted in large emissions reduction effects, it did not have a significant effect on fuel consumption. When a butterfly exhaust valve, known to be effective against irregular combustion in the light load range, was applied, it was found to lead to further reductions in HC emission and fuel consumption while also improving combustion stability.
Technical Paper

04Road Feel Feedback Design for Vehicle Steer-by-Wire via Electric Power Steering

2013-11-27
2013-01-2898
A new road feel feedback control design of steer-by-wire (SBW) is proposed, which is produce the steering feel of conventional vehicle with equipped electronic power steering (EPS) system, due to SBW system removes mechanical linkages between steering system and front wheels. A dynamic model is established to study the road feel generation and deal with the need of computed rack force of steer system. Based on the analysis of the assisting characteristic and the active damping control strategy of the EPS system, an integrated road feel algorithm is proposed. For rack force is difficult to measure, an estimator is presented to estimate rack force by Kalman filter (KF). The hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) test bench results show that the proposed road feel control design make drivers get road feel information and SBW system can improve the vehicle maneuverability and comfortably.
Technical Paper

09 AVL Lean Burn Systems CCBR and CBR Light for Fuel Economy and Emission Optimization on 4-Stroke Engines

2002-10-29
2002-32-1778
The CBR [1] (Controlled Burn Rate) is a port deactivation concept developed by AVL and is already applied in series production cars. The benefit of this concept is the low engine-out emission (CO, HC and NOx) and good fuel economy. By creating turbulent kinetic energy at the correct time and place in the combustion chamber a rapid and stable combustion occurs which allows to run the engine well above a Lambda Excess Air Ratio of 1.5. The CBR system features two different intake ports, one charge motion port and one filling port. Additionally a device for port-deactivation (slider, butterfly) is applied. At part load points and lower engine speeds the filling port is switched off. The CBR concept was now evoluted for compact engines as CCBR - with carburetor and as CBR Light - for engines with electronic fuel injection. CCBR stands for Carbureted Controlled Burn Rate.
Technical Paper

0D Modeling of Real-Driving NOx Emissions for a Diesel Passenger Vehicle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1761
NOx emissions from diesel passenger vehicles affect the atmospheric environment. It is difficult to evaluate the NOx emissions influenced by environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature, traffic conditions, driving patterns, etc. In the authors’ previous study, real-driving experiments were performed on city and highway routes using a diesel passenger car with only an exhaust gas recirculation system. A statistical prediction model of NOx emissions was considered for simple estimations in the real world using instantaneous vehicle data measured by the portable emissions measurement system and global positioning system. The prediction model consisted of explanatory variables, such as velocity, acceleration, road gradient, and position of transmission gear. Using the explanatory variables, NOx emissions on the city and highway routes was well predicted using a diesel vehicle without NOx reduction devices.
Technical Paper

0D-1D Coupling for an Integrated Fuel Economy Control Strategy for a Hybrid Electric Bus

2011-09-11
2011-24-0083
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are worldwide recognized as one of the best and most immediate opportunities to solve the problems of fuel consumption, pollutant emissions and fossil fuels depletion, thanks to the high reliability of engines and the high efficiencies of motors. Moreover, as transport policy is becoming day by day stricter all over the world, moving people or goods efficiently and cheaply is the goal that all the main automobile manufacturers are trying to reach. In this context, the municipalities are performing their own action plans for public transport and the efforts in realizing high efficiency hybrid electric buses, could be supported by the local policies. For these reasons, the authors intend to propose an efficient control strategy for a hybrid electric bus, with a series architecture for the power-train.
Journal Article

0W-16 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil Compatible with Low Speed Pre-Ignition Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2346
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
Technical Paper

1-D Modeling and Room Temperature Experimental Measurements of the Exhaust System Backpressure: Limits and Advantages in the Prediction of Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0676
It is well known that backpressure is one of the important parameters to be minimised during the exhaust system development. Unfortunately, during the first phases of an engineering process of a new engine, engine prototypes are not available yet. Due to this the exhaust system backpressure is generally evaluated using simulation software, and/or measuring the backpressure by a flow rig test at room temperature. Goal of this paper is to compare exhaust backpressure results obtained respectively: i) at the room temperature flow rig; ii) at the engine dyno bench; iii) by simulation with one of the most common 1D fluidodynamics simulation tool (Gt-Power). A correlation of the three different techniques is presented.
Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0030
In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Journal Article

1-D Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Highly Downsized Turbocharged SI Engine - Scavenge Valve Optimization

2014-04-01
2014-01-1656
Fuel efficiency and torque performance are two major challenges for highly downsized turbocharged engines. However, the inherent characteristics of the turbocharged SI engine such as negative PMEP, knock sensitivity and poor transient performance significantly limit its maximum potential. Conventional ways of improving the problems above normally concentrate solely on the engine side or turbocharger side leaving the exhaust manifold in between ignored. This paper investigates this neglected area by highlighting a novel means of gas exchange process. Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) is an alternative way of accomplishing the gas exchange process in turbocharged engines. The DEP concept engine features two exhaust valves but with separated function. The blow-down valve acts like a traditional turbocharged exhaust valve to evacuate the first portion of the exhaust gas to the turbine.
Journal Article

1-D+1-D PEM Fuel Cell Stack Model for Advanced Hardware-in-the-Loop Applications

2015-09-01
2015-01-1779
As part of a system model, a PEM fuel cell stack model is presented for functional tests and pre-calibration of control units on hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) test benches. From the basic idea to couple a 1-D membrane model with a spatially distributed abstraction of the gas channel, a real-time capable 1-D+1-D PEM FC stack model is constructed. Fundament for the HiL usage is an explicit formulation of the commonly implicit model equations. With that, not only calculation time can be reduced, but also model accuracy is preserved. A validation using test bench data emphasizes the accuracy of the model. Finally, a runtime and eigenvalue analysis of the stack model proves the real-time capability.
Journal Article

1-g Suit Port Concept Evaluator 2008 Test Results

2009-07-12
2009-01-2572
The Lunar Electric Rover (LER), which was formerly called the Small Pressurized Rover (SPR), is currently being carried as an integral part of the lunar surface architectures that are under consideration in the Constellation Program. One element of the LER is the suit port, which is the means by which crew members perform Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). Two suit port deliverables were produced in fiscal year 2008: a 1-g suit port concept evaluator for functional integrated testing with the LER 1-g concept vehicle and a functional and pressurizable Engineering Unit (EU). This paper focuses on the 1-g suit port concept evaluator test results from the Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS) October 2008 testing at Black Point Lava Flow (BPLF), Arizona. The 1-g suit port concept evaluator was integrated with the 1-g LER cabin and chassis concepts.
Article

1.0 megapixel imaging SOCs

2017-12-12
Two highly integrated 1.0 megapixel CMOS image-sensing products from ON Semiconductor provide a complete solution with the image sensor and processing functionality integrated within a low power SoC (system on chip) that simplifies and speeds adoption in applications such as rear and surround view cameras.
Article

1.7-megapixel automotive image sensor

2016-11-22
The OV10650 from OmniVision Technologies, Inc. is a wide-format image sensor that captures high quality color images and video in a 2:1 aspect ratio.
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