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Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Flow and Filtration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980545
A 2-D computational model was developed to describe the flow and filtration processes, in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state trap loading, as well as the transient behavior of the flow and filtration processes. The theoretical model includes the effect of a copper fuel additive on trap loading and transient operation. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations. The filtration theory incorporated in the time dependent numerical code included the diffusion, inertia, and direct interception mechanisms. Based on a measured upstream particle size distribution, using the filtration theory, the downstream particle size distribution was calculated. The theoretical filtration efficiency, based on particle size distribution, agreed very well (within 1%) with experimental data for a number of different cases.
Technical Paper

A 2-D Computational Model Describing the Heat Transfer, Reaction Kinetics and Regeneration Characteristics of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap

1998-02-23
980546
A 2-D CFD model was developed to describe the heat transfer, and reaction kinetics in a honeycomb structured ceramic diesel particulate trap. This model describes the steady state as well as the transient behavior of the flow and heat transfer during the trap regeneration processes. The trap temperature profile was determined by numerically solving the 2-D unsteady energy equation including the convective, heat conduction and viscous dissipation terms. The convective terms were based on a 2-D analytical flow field solution derived from the conservation of mass and momentum equations (Opris, 1997). The reaction kinetics were described using a discretized first order Arrhenius function. The 2-D term describing the reaction kinetics and particulate matter conservation of mass was added to the energy equation as a source term in order to represent the particulate matter oxidation. The filtration model describes the particulate matter accumulation in the trap.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Characteristics of Silicon Carbide and Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970187
The purpose of this research was to study the pressure drop profiles and regeneration temperature characteristics of Silicon Carbide (SiC) filters with and without a copper-based additive in the fuel, and also to compare their performance with two cordierite traps designated as EX-47 and EX-80. The collection of the particulate matter inside the trap imposes a backpressure on the engine which requires a periodic oxidation or regeneration of the particulate matter. The presence of copper additive in the fuel reduces the particulate ignition temperature from approximately 500 to 375°C. Two SiC systems were tested during this research. The first system consisted of one 14 L SiC trap, while the second system, the dual trap system (DTS), consisted of two 12 L SiC traps mounted in parallel. The test matrix included two types of regeneration tests, controlled and uncontrolled and three levels of Cu fuel additive (0, 30, and 60 ppm).
Technical Paper

A Study of the Regeneration Process in Diesel Particulate Traps Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1996-02-01
960136
The goals of this research are to understand the regeneration process in ceramic (Cordierite) monolith traps using a copper fuel additive and to investigate the various conditions that lead to trap regeneration failure. The copper additive lowers the trap regeneration temperature from approximately 500 °C to 375 °C and decreases the time necessary for regeneration. Because of these characteristics, it is important to understand the effect of the additive on regeneration when excessive particulate matter accumulation occurs in the trap. The effects of particulate mass loading on regeneration temperatures and regeneration time were studied for both the controlled (engine operated at full load rated speed) and uncontrolled (trap regeneration initiated at full load rated speed after which the engine was cut to idle) conditions. The trap peak temperatures were higher for the uncontrolled than the controlled regeneration.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Regeneration Process in a Silicon Carbide Particulate Trap Using a Copper Fuel Additive

1997-02-24
970188
The purpose of this study was to investigate the pressure drop and regeneration characteristics of a silicon carbide (SiC) wall-flow diesel particulate filter. The performance of a 25 μm mean pore size SiC dual trap system (DTS) consisting of two 12 liter traps connected in parallel in conjunction with a copper (Cu) fuel additive was evaluated. A comparison between the 25 μm DTS and a 15 μm DTS was performed, in order to show the effect of trap material mean pore size on trap loading and regeneration behavior. A 1988 Cummins LTA 10-300 diesel engine was used to evaluate the performance of the 15 and 25 μm DTS. A mathematical model was developed to better understand the thermal and catalytic oxidation of the particulate matter. For all the trap steady-state loading tests, the engine was run at EPA mode 11 for 10 hours. Raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap system in order to determine the DTS filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Ceramic Particulate Traps for Diesel Emissions Control - Effects of a Manganese-Copper Fuel Additive

1988-02-01
880009
The effect of the use of a manganese-copper fuel additive with a Corning EX-47 particulate trap on heavy-duty diesel emissions has been investigated; reductions in total particulate matter (70%), sulfates (65%), and the soluble organic fraction (SOF) (62%) were measured in the diluted (15:1) exhaust and solids were reduced by 94% as measured in the raw exhaust. The use of the additive plus the trap had the same effect on gaseous emissions (hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen) as did the trap alone. The use of the additive without the trap had no effect on measured gaseous emissions, although sulfate increased by 20%. Approximately 50% of the metals added to the fuel were calculated to be retained in the engine system. The metals emitted by the engine were collected very efficiently (>97%) by the trap even during regeneration, which occured 180°C lower when the additive was used.
Technical Paper

Effects of a Ceramic Particle Trap and Copper Fuel Additive on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions

1994-10-01
942068
This research quantifies the effects of a copper fuel additive on the regulated [oxides of nitrogen (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC) and total particulate matter (TPM)] and unregulated emissions [soluble organic fraction (SOF), vapor phase organics (XOC), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, particle size distributions and mutagenic activity] from a 1988 Cummins LTA10 diesel engine using a low sulfur fuel. The engine was operated at two steady state modes (EPA modes 9 and 11, which are 75 and 25% load at rated speed, respectively) and five additive levels (0, 15, 30, 60 and 100 ppm Cu by mass) with and without a ceramic trap. Measurements of PAH and mutagenic activity were limited to the 0, 30 and 60 ppm Cu levels. Data were also collected to assess the effect of the additive on regeneration temperature and duration. Copper species collected within the trap were identified and exhaust copper concentrations quantified.
Technical Paper

Impact of a Ceramic Trap and Manganese Fuel Additive on the Biological Activity and Chemical Composition of Exhaust Particles from Diesel Engines Used in Underground Mines

1987-09-14
871621
This study examines the effect of a ceramic particle trap and a manganese fuel additive on the mutagenic activity and chemical composition of diesel exhaust particulate matter from a heavy-duty mining engine. Particles were collected by dilution tunnel sampling from a 4-cylinder, Caterpillar 3304, naturally-aspirated, indirect-injection engine operated at six steady-state conditions. Depending on engine load and speed the ceramic particle trap reduced the following emissions: particulate matter, 80 – 94%; soluble organic fraction (SOF), 83 – 95%; 1-nitropyrene, 94 – 96%; and SOF mutagencity, 72% (cycle-weighted average). When the Mn fuel additive was used without a ceramic particle trap the total cycle mutagenic activity emitted increased 7-fold, in part, due to elevated emissions of 1-nitropyrene.
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