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Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

1970s Development of 21st Century Mobile Dispersed Power

1973-02-01
730709
A mobile and dispersed power system is necessary for an advanced technological-industrial society. Today's petroleum-based system discharges waste products and heat and is growing exponentially. Energy resource commitment has already intersected “ultimate” low-cost petroleum supplies in the United States and will do so for the world before 2000; this portends major changes and cost increases. The twenty-first century system for mobile-dispersed power will reflect the energy source selected to replace petroleum-for example, coal, solar insolation, or uranium. It will incorporate a fuel intermediate such as methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen, and a suitably matched “engine.” The complete change will require more than 25 years because of the magnitude, fragmentation, structural gaps, complexity, and variety of the mobile-dispersed power system.
Technical Paper

1980 CRC Fuel Rating Program - The Effects of Heavy Aromatics and Ethanol on Gasoline Road Octane Ratings

1982-02-01
821211
A gasoline Road Octane study was conducted by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) to evaluate the effects of heavy aromatics (C9 and heavier) and ethanol content on Road Octane performance independent of Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON’s were found to be well predicted by equations containing only RON and MON terms. Heavier aromatics were found to have a small adverse effect on both maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON independent of its direct effects on RON and MON. The all-car data did not show a significant ethanol-content effect, but eight of the thirty-seven cars did show significant effects for ethanol content.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

25-Ah Li Ion Cell for the Mars 2001 Lander

1999-08-02
1999-01-2640
BlueStar Advanced Technology Corporation (BATC) as part of its participation in the USAF/NASA Li Ion Battery Development Consortium has developed a candidate 25-Ah cell for the Mars 2001 Lander. Although the capacity and cycle life requirements for this application are relatively modest, the low temperature performance (−20°C) and pulse discharge requirements (60A) are somewhat more challenging. Geometric requirements within the spacecraft also constrain the cell design leading to a cell with an aspect ratio quite different from those 25-Ah Li ion cells previously developed by BATC. The design of this cell and its compliance with the performance requirements of the mission will be discussed.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Characterization of a Multi-Holes Injector in a Quiescent Vessel and Its Application in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine Using Ethanol

2017-11-07
2017-36-0360
The fuel injection in internal combustion engines plays a crucial role in the mixture formation, combustion process and pollutants' emission. Its correct modeling is fundamental to the prediction of an engine performance through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. In the first part of this work a tridimensional numerical simulation of a multi-hole’s injector, using ethanol as fuel, is presented. The numerical simulation results were compared to experimental data from a fuel spray injection bench test in a quiescent vessel. The break up model applied to the simulation was the combined Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor, and a sensitivity analysis of the liquid fuel penetration curve, as well on the overall spray shape was performed according to the model constants. Experimental spray images were used to aid the model tuning. The final configuration of the KH-RT model constants that showed best agreement with the measured spray was C3 equal to 0.5, B1, 7 and Cb, 0.
Technical Paper

48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

2019-04-02
2019-01-0366
48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions.
Technical Paper

50 to 100-Ah Lithium Ion Cells for Aircraft and Spacecraft Applications

1997-06-18
971230
As a part of a program jointly supported by the USAF and Canada's Department of National Defense, BlueStar is developing large (50 to 100-Ah)lithium ion cells for aircraft and spacecraft applications. Presently, 20-Ah cells are being developed as the first stage of the scale-up process and the design of these cells involves several tradeoffs related to the specific nature of this application. This paper will present the design of this first generation cell in the context of these tradeoffs as well as presenting the results of the performance and life testing of these cells.
Standard

70 MPa Compressed Hydrogen Surface Vehicle Fuelling Connection Device and Optional Vehicle to Station Communications

2007-05-24
HISTORICAL
J2799_200705
This technical information report specifies a guideline for the hardware requirements for fueling a Hydrogen Surface Vehicle (HSV) with compressed hydrogen storage at a Nominal Working Pressure of 70MPa. It contains a description of the receptacle geometry and optional communication hardware and communications protocol to refuel the HSV. The intent of this document is to enable harmonized development and implementation of the hydrogen fueling interfaces. It is intended to be utilized for the hydrogen vehicle field evaluation until enough information is collected to enable standardardization. The receptable portion of this TIR is to be reevaluated utilizing international field data in approximately 2 years and subsequently superseded by J2600 in the 2009 timeframe.
Technical Paper

747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft/Space Shuttle Orbiter Mated Ground Vibration Test: Data via Transient Excitation and Fast Fourier Transform Analysis

1977-02-01
770970
The experimental procedure employed to define the natural modes of vibration of the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft and Space Shuttle Orbiter mated configuration is described. A discussion of test results and comparison to structural analysis results is also included. Random transient signals were used as inputs to electromagnetic shakers to provide excitation to the mated vehicle test configuration. Acceleration signals were processed via the Fast Fourier Transform algorithm. Magnitude and phase transfer functions were formed and processed to produce modal frequencies, damping, and modal displacements.
Technical Paper

90 Ah Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel Hydrogen Battery Qualification Test Results

1999-08-02
1999-01-2590
In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began a program to investigate whether a 90 Ah dependent pressure vessel (DPV) NiH2 battery pack could be a lower volume replacement for a 90 Ah NiH2 IPV spacecraft battery. Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) dependent pressure vessel (DPV) battery cells are presumed to offer all the features of the NiH2 IPV battery cell with considerably less volume. To achieve this reduction in volume, the DPV cell utilizes a canteen shaped pressure vessel with reduced thickness wall, flat sides and curved ends. The cells can be packaged similar to prismatic nickel cadmium battery cells. Moreover, like NiCd cells, a fully charged DPV cell must rely upon an adjacent battery cell or structure for support and to maintain pressure vessel integrity. Seventeen 90 Ah NiH2 DPV cells were delivered to NR in 1998 for qualification tests. An eleven-cell half battery pack was manufactured and tested to validate the advantages of the DPV design.
Technical Paper

A -183°C Cryogenic Freezer for the International Space Station

2003-07-07
2003-01-2525
In the course of CRYOSYSTEM phase B (development phase) financed by the European Space Agency, AIR LIQUIDE (France) and Astrium Space Infrastructure (Germany) have developed an optimized design of a −183°C freezer to be used on board the International Space Station for the freezing and storage of biological samples. The CRYOSYSTEM facility consists of the following main elements: - the CRYORACK, an outfitted standard payload rack (ISPR) accommodating up to three identical Vial Freezers - the Vial Freezer, a dewar vessel capable of fast and ultra-rapid freezing, and storing up to approximately 900 vials below −183°C; the dewar is cooled by a Stirling machine producing > 6 W at 90 K. The Vial Freezer is operational while accommodated in the CRYORACK or attached to the Life Science Glovebox (LSG). One CRYORACK will remain permanently on-orbit for several years while four Vial Freezers and two additional CRYORACKs support the cyclic upload/download of samples.
Technical Paper

A -183°C Cryogenic Freezer for the International Space Station

2000-07-10
2000-01-2325
In the frame of the CRYOSYSTEM A-phase study financed by the European Space Agency, AIR LIQUIDE (France) and ORBITAL HYDRAULIC-BREMEN (Germany) have been studying a -183°C freezer to be used on-board the International Space Station for freezing and storing biological samples.
Technical Paper

A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySEE Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck

2000-09-11
2000-01-2647
In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,000 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear; including injector, valve and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl ester) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel.
Technical Paper

A 3D-Simulation with Detailed Chemical Kinetics of Combustion and Quenching in an HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1655
A 3D-CFD model with detailed chemical kinetics was developed to investigate the combustion characteristics of HCCI engines, especially those fueled with hydrogen and n-heptane. The effects of changes in some of the key important variables that included compression ratio and chamber surface temperature on the combustion processes were investigated. Particular attention was given, while using a finer 3-D mesh, to the development of combustion within the chamber crevices between the piston top-land and cylinder wall. It is shown that changes in the combustion chamber wall surface temperature values influence greatly the autoignition timing and location of its first occurrence within the chamber. With high chamber wall temperatures, autoignition takes place first at regions near the cylinder wall while with low surface temperatures; autoignition takes place closer to the central region of the mixture charge.
Technical Paper

A Baseline Design for the Space Station Habitat

1988-07-01
881119
A baseline design has been selected for the Space Station Habitat (HAB) element. The HAB provides the primary living space to support man's permanent presence in space. The HAB element is designed to provide an environment that maximizes safety and human productivity. This paper outlines some of the current design features including the common core elements and the man-systems hardware. The HAB is arranged in three areas based on crew activity and acoustical considerations. The first area is the quiet zone, which contains the crew quarters. The second area is a buffer zone for noise suppression, where the stowage, medical facilities, and personal hygiene facilities are located. The third area is the active zone which contains the galley/wardroom, laundry and exercise facilities. Each of these three areas will be discussed together with the applicable requirements, the common utility elements, and the man-systems hardware furnishings.
Technical Paper

A Bayesian Approach to Non-Deterministic Hypersonic Vehicle Design

2001-09-11
2001-01-3033
Affordable, reliable endo- and exoatmospheric transportation, for both the military and commercial sectors, grows in importance as the world grows smaller and space exploration and exploitation increasingly impact our daily lives. However, the impact of disciplinary, operational, and technological uncertainties inhibit the design of the requisite hypersonic vehicles, an inherently multidisciplinary and non-deterministic process. Without investigation, these components of design uncertainty undermine the designers’ decision-making confidence. In this paper, the authors propose a new probabilistic design method, using Bayesian Statistics techniques, which allows assessment of the impact of disciplinary uncertainty on the confidence in the design solution. The proposed development of a two-stage reusable launch vehicle configuration highlights the means to first quantify the fidelity of the disciplinary analysis tools utilized, then propagate such to the vehicle system level.
Technical Paper

A Before Treatment Method for Reduction of Emissions in Diesel Engines

2000-10-16
2000-01-2791
Through an addition of a small amount of hydrogen to the main fuel, combustion process can be considerably enhanced in internal combustion engines producing significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions. This improvement in combustion can be mainly attributed to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional liquid and gaseous fuels. An oxygen-enrichment of a fuel-air mixture also improves thermal efficiency and reduces especially particulate, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in exhaust. This contribution describes the results of experimental investigation where a small amount of hydrogen and oxygen is produced by Hydrogen Generating System through the electrical dissociation of water and are added to the intake of a compression ignition engine operating on a commercial diesel fuel. It is shown that level of exhaust emissions including NOx can be moderately reduced using such a pre-treatment method in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A British Reusable Booster Concept

1967-02-01
670389
With reusability accepted as a means of reducing operating costs, the size of the initial investment (research and development) is likely to determine the choice for the next generation boosters. High volume utilisation lifting bodies propelled by LH/LOX rockets in a vertical take-off mode are shown to be superior to several other concepts. This is largely due to the low manufactured weight without undue complexity or use of exotic materials, leading to low R&D and low unit cost. Even lower costs can be shown for a modular concept (MUSTARD) in which basically identical lifting bodies units are utilised as both boosters and spacecraft. The concept is shown to be feasible, and progress on some aspects of the associated structural analysis is described.
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