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Technical Paper

"Quattro"-Drive for Every Day Driving

1984-01-01
845070
An essential feature of the Audi Quattro permanent four-wheel drive system is in the inter-axle differential located on the hollow output shaft in the gearbox: the drive is taken from this differential forward to the front differential through the inside of the hollow shaft, and rearward to a propellor shaft driving the rear differential. The major advantages in everyday driving include improved traction and a reduced tendency toward throttle induced changes of attitude. The greater traction allows not only better progress in difficult road conditions; it also gives better acceleration in difficult traffic situations, such as when joining a busy main road. The more easily predictable handling response to throttle changes means that Quattro vehicles have better tracking stability. Altogether, the active safety and "roadability" are considerably improved.
Standard

"Startle Effect" and Crew Performance

2019-05-24
WIP
ARP7218
The scope of this ARP, "Startle Effect" and Crew Performance, includes pilots of turbine powered transport category aircraft and may also pertain to general aviation, the military, and/or other sectors of aircraft operations. It is focused on flight crews certified by the United States, however, may also pertain to crews certified by other countries. The scope describes all phases of training (initial, recurrent, upgrade, remedial, and operational) in both domestic and international flight operations, with the intent of assisting flight crews in responding to "startle effect".
Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Standard

(R) Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Message Set Dictionary

2009-11-19
HISTORICAL
J2735_200911
This SAE Standard specifies a message set, and its data frames and data elements specifically for use by applications intended to utilize the 5.9 GHz Dedicated Short Range Communications for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (DSRC/WAVE, referenced in this document simply as “DSRC”), communications systems. Although the scope of this Standard is focused on DSRC, this message set, and its data frames and data elements have been designed, to the extent possible, to also be of potential use for applications that may be deployed in conjunction with other wireless communications technologies. This Standard therefore specifies the definitive message structure and provides sufficient background information to allow readers to properly interpret the message definitions from the point of view of an application developer implementing the messages according to the DSRC Standards.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

10 Year-Old Hybrid III ATD Positions in Panic Brake Conditions

2004-03-08
2004-01-0848
Panic braking can cause an “in-position” unbelted occupant to become “out-of-position.” Although the braking event dynamics and initial positioning of the occupant affect the final position at time of impact (if any), general trends are assumed. FMVSS208 now includes “out-of-position” (OOP) performance for Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) sizes twelve month to six year-old. Airbag suppression technologies currently address that range of OOP occupants. The objective of this study is to develop an approach to defining OOP test positions for the recently released 10 year old ATD and to assist restraint engineers in developing strategies to help reduce the risk of inflation induced injury to the larger out-of-position child. A series of panic brake tests was conducted with the 10 year-old Hybrid III to study panic braking kinematics. Antilock braking (ABS) generated the desired constant deceleration from high initial speeds (40 to 60mph) in three types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

1970s Development of 21st Century Mobile Dispersed Power

1973-02-01
730709
A mobile and dispersed power system is necessary for an advanced technological-industrial society. Today's petroleum-based system discharges waste products and heat and is growing exponentially. Energy resource commitment has already intersected “ultimate” low-cost petroleum supplies in the United States and will do so for the world before 2000; this portends major changes and cost increases. The twenty-first century system for mobile-dispersed power will reflect the energy source selected to replace petroleum-for example, coal, solar insolation, or uranium. It will incorporate a fuel intermediate such as methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen, and a suitably matched “engine.” The complete change will require more than 25 years because of the magnitude, fragmentation, structural gaps, complexity, and variety of the mobile-dispersed power system.
Technical Paper

1974 Accident Experience with Air Cushion Restraint Systems

1975-02-01
750190
An air cushion restraint system has been available to the public on certain model passenger cars since January 1974. In response to this opportunity to obtain field experience, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has established a nationwide reporting network and investigative capability for accidents involving air-bag equipped cars. The reporting criteria for accidents require that the car be towed as a result of the accident, or that a front-seat occupant was injured, or that bag deployment occurred. The principal objective is to obtain the injury-reducing effectiveness of this restraint system in the total accident environment. This environment encompasses “towaway” accidents resulting in bag deployment and non-deployment. Definitive results are expected at the conclusion of the study. This paper summarizes the experience during the first year of the program, during which time the rate of accident occurrence was far less than originally expected.
Technical Paper

1980 CRC Fuel Rating Program - The Effects of Heavy Aromatics and Ethanol on Gasoline Road Octane Ratings

1982-02-01
821211
A gasoline Road Octane study was conducted by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) to evaluate the effects of heavy aromatics (C9 and heavier) and ethanol content on Road Octane performance independent of Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON’s were found to be well predicted by equations containing only RON and MON terms. Heavier aromatics were found to have a small adverse effect on both maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON independent of its direct effects on RON and MON. The all-car data did not show a significant ethanol-content effect, but eight of the thirty-seven cars did show significant effects for ethanol content.
Technical Paper

1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker Body structure Analysis

1989-11-01
892536
This paper presents a summary of body structural analysis applied to the 1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker at various stages of development and design. The structure analysis techniques were applied previously to rigidity, vibration, strength, crashworthiness and optimization. The studies confirm that the CAE technique for body structure analysis is more beneficial if it is utilized in the earlier structure development stages particularly for vibration and crashworthiness. Through the extensive use of the structural analysis technique in conjunction with the experiment, the design concept of the Sidekick/Tracker body has been optimized to a most extent.
Technical Paper

2 Development of Motorcycle Using Electronic Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission

2002-10-29
2002-32-1771
Recently, society has demanded better performance from motorcycle regarding comfort, fuel economy, exhaust emission, and safety, in addition to traditional performance indicators. In the development of power trains, therefore, compact and lightweight hardware with improved transmission efficiency has been introduced, along with system technologies that optimize the engine revolution speed range and reduction ratio to suit driving conditions. This approach focuses on improving overall efficiency and addressing the issues of easier drivability and greater active safety. Electronic Controlled Continuously Variable Transmission (ECCVT) with high transmission efficiency is characterized by a Dry Hybrid Belt, in addition to an electronic controlled DC motor-driven shift mechanism, and an Electronic Controlled wet multi-plates Clutch (ECC).
Technical Paper

2-Color Thermometry Experiments and High-Speed Imaging of Multi-Mode Diesel Engine Combustion

2005-10-24
2005-01-3842
Although in-cylinder optical diagnostics have provided significant understanding of conventional diesel combustion, most alternative combustion strategies have not yet been explored to the same extent. In an effort to build the knowledge base for alternative low-temperature combustion strategies, this paper presents a comparison of three alternative low-temperature combustion strategies to two high-temperature conventional diesel combustion conditions. The baseline conditions, representative of conventional high-temperature diesel combustion, have either a short or a long ignition delay. The other three conditions are representative of some alternative combustion strategies, employing significant charge-gas dilution along with either early or late fuel injection, or a combination of both (double-injection).
Standard

2-D CAD Template for SAE J826 H-point Machine

2016-10-13
CURRENT
J826/2_201610
This document describes the 2-D computer-aided design (CAD) template for the HPM-1 H-point machine or HPD available from SAE. The elements of the HPD include the curve shapes, datum points and lines, and calibration references. The intended purpose for this information is to provide a master CAD reference for design and benchmarking. The content and format of the data files that are available are also described.
Technical Paper

2-D Measurements of the Liquid Phase Temperature in Fuel Sprays

1995-02-01
950461
Cross-sectional distributions of the liquid phase temperatures in fuel sprays were measured using a laser-induced fluorescence technique. The liquid fuel (n-hexadecane or squalane) was doped with pyrene(C16H10). The fluorescence intensity ratios of the pyrene monomer and excimer emissions has temperature dependence, and were used to determine the liquid phase temperatures in the fuel sprays. The measurements were performed on two kinds of sprays. One was performed on pre-heated fuel sprays injected into surrounding gas at atmospheric conditions. The other was performed on fuel sprays exposed to hot gas flow. The spray was excited by laser radiation at 266nm, and the resulting fluorescence was imaged by an intensified CCD camera. The cross-sectional distribution of the liquid phase temperature was estimated from the fluorescence image by the temperature dependence of the intensity ratio.
Technical Paper

2-Door Vehicle Body Local Force Evaluation with the IIHS, EuroNCAP, and LINCAP Side Impact Barriers

2004-03-08
2004-01-0333
Structure enhancement based on data monitored in a traditional side impact evaluation is primarily a trial and error exercise resulting in a large number of computer runs. This is because how the structure gets loaded and the degree of contribution of local structural components to resist the impact while absorbing energy during a side collision is not completely known. Developing real time complete load profiles on a body side during the time span of an impact is not an easy task and these loads cannot be calculated from that calculated at the barrier mounting plate. This paper highlights the load distribution, calculated by a procedure using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools, on a typical 2-door vehicle body side when struck by moving deformable barriers used in the insurance institute for highway safety (IIHS), EuroNCAP and LINCAP side impact evaluations.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyurethane Construction

1995-02-01
950048
A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyurethane (PUR) plastic inner layer. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principle among the findings was that the impact response of prototype PUR 2-ply windshields does not differ that significantly from that of baseline 3-ply HPR (High Penetration Resistance) windshields for the subcompact vehicle geometry tested. However, the impact responses of both PUR 2-ply and 3-ply HPR subcompact vehicle windshields were found to be highly variable. Average performance of either construction could thus be enhanced if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Technical Paper

2-Ply Windshields: Laboratory Impactor Tests of the Polyvinyl Butyral/Polyester Construction

1995-02-01
950047
A test program was conducted to characterize the impact response of an experimental 2-ply windshield construction with a polyvinyl butyral / polyester (PVB/PET) inner plastic laminate. Windshield impact tests were conducted using a linear impactor test facility. Principal among the findings was that the measured impact response of prototype PVB/PET 2-ply windshields was highly variable. Average performance of this construction could thus be improved if ways could be found (and then implemented) to reduce this variability.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick Airbag Sensing System Development

2002-11-18
2002-01-3101
Airbag systems have been part of passenger car and truck programs since the mid-1980's. However, systems designed for medium and heavy duty truck applications are relatively new. The release of airbag systems for medium duty truck has provided some unique challenges, especially for the airbag sensing systems. Because of the many commercial applications within the medium duty market, the diversity of the sensing environments must be considered when designing and calibrating the airbag sensing system. The 2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick airbag sensing development included significant work, not only on the development of airbag deployment events but also non-deployment events – events which do not require the airbag to deploy. This paper describes the process used to develop the airbag sensing system deployment events and non-deployment event used in the airbag sensing system calibration.
Technical Paper

2009 Crown Victoria PCM EDR Accuracy in Steady State and ABS Braking Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-1000
The accuracy of the Powertrain Control Module (PCM) Event Data Recorder (EDR) was tested on a 2009 Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor during both straight line steady state conditions and maximum ABS braking, at the Michigan State Police training facility in Lansing, MI. Six runs were made starting from 64 km/h (40 mph) and six runs starting from 96km/h (60 mph). Data was collected from the PCM EDR and the primary speed reference instrumentation was a Racelogic VBOX III (with IMU) 100 Hz differential GPS speed data acquisition system. On selected runs Radar was used as additional steady state speed verification and for the braking portion a Vericom 3000 was used to verify speed loss and calculated stop distance. Visible ABS tire marks were documented following each test, and the length of marks was compared to the calculated braking distance from each measurement device. Graphs of PCM speed/brake/accel pedal data versus VBOX speed over time are presented.
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