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Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Journal Article

0W-16 Fuel Economy Gasoline Engine Oil Compatible with Low Speed Pre-Ignition Performance

2017-10-08
2017-01-2346
It has been long established fact that fuel economy is a key driving force of low viscosity gasoline engine oil research and development considered by the original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and lubricant companies. The development of low viscosity gasoline engine oils should not only focus on fuel economy improvement, but also on the low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) prevention property. In previous LSPI prevention literatures, the necessity of applying Ca/Mg-based detergents system in the engine oil formulations was proposed. In this paper, we adopted a specific Group III base oil containing Ca-salicylate detergent, borated dispersant, Mo-DTC in the formulation and investigated the various effects of Mg-salicylate and Mg-sulfonate on the performance of engine oil. It was found that Mg-sulfonate showed a significant detrimental impact on silicone rubber compatibility while the influence from Mg-salicylate remains acceptable.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

1937 Road Knock Tests

1938-01-01
380145
THIS paper deals with the road-test portion of the extensive efforts made during 1937 by the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee to get as precise a correlation as possible between the laboratory knock ratings of automobile fuels and their corresponding ratings in cars on the road. It is anticipated that the comprehensive results of car tests reported here, taken together with the results of the laboratory rating program reported in the companion paper, will serve as the basis of the continuing studies aimed at developing the best possible correlation between road and laboratory knock ratings. Work similar to that reported here has been conducted concurrently in England by the Institution of Petroleum Technologists, using British cars and fuels. An exchange of information between the British and American groups working on this problem is being made.
Technical Paper

1940 ROAD DETONATION TESTS - (Compiled from Report1 of The Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1941-01-01
410107
THE 1940 CFR Road Tests have developed new information that can be used for the development of fuels and engines. Application of the principles worked out in these tests is expected to result in a more efficient utilization of fuel antiknock properties and more effective engine design and adjustment to meet the requisites of current motor fuels. These tests indicate that the ASTM octane number alone, or even a road octane number as determined by methods heretofore widely used, does not give sufficient information for present needs relative to fuel behavior in service. Neither do test methods previously used provide sufficient information concerning the fuel requirements and knocking characteristics of engines. The new methods of approach which have been developed furnish needed information relative to the fuel and engine relationship that heretofore has been obscure, and indicate paths for future developments.
Technical Paper

1941 CFR ROAD DETONATION TESTS - Further Experience with New Methods (Compiled from Report of the Cooperative Fuel Research Committee)

1942-01-01
420122
The cooperative road tests carried out during 1941 have added considerable information and experience to that already existing on the subject of road detonation testing. Extensive data were obtained on the fuel requirements of the 1940 and 1941 models of the three most popular cars. Corresponding data were obtained on the knocking characteristics of current gasolines representing the bulk of the sales volume in various parts of the United States. On account of large variations in octane-number requirement among different cars of the same make - due to differences in ignition timing, combustion-chamber deposit, and other causes - and on account of variations in commercial gasolines, it has been necessary to use statistical methods of analysis in the appraisal of fuel and engine relationships. These methods of analysis have been applied in a number of ways, and have proved very useful.
Technical Paper

1963 Pure Oil Performance Trials

1963-01-01
630280
Background of the Pure Oil performance trials on six classes of automobiles is presented and the evolution of test requirements described. Three tests are run: the economy test to establish how far a vehicle can go over a prescribed course on one gallon of gasoline; the acceleration test which determines acceleration time from 25 to 70 mph in seconds; and the braking test where stopping distance in feet is measured for a stop from 60 mph. Each test is described from the point of view of rules, recording instruments, and penalties for infractions of rules. Test results are presented.
Technical Paper

1970s Development of 21st Century Mobile Dispersed Power

1973-02-01
730709
A mobile and dispersed power system is necessary for an advanced technological-industrial society. Today's petroleum-based system discharges waste products and heat and is growing exponentially. Energy resource commitment has already intersected “ultimate” low-cost petroleum supplies in the United States and will do so for the world before 2000; this portends major changes and cost increases. The twenty-first century system for mobile-dispersed power will reflect the energy source selected to replace petroleum-for example, coal, solar insolation, or uranium. It will incorporate a fuel intermediate such as methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen, and a suitably matched “engine.” The complete change will require more than 25 years because of the magnitude, fragmentation, structural gaps, complexity, and variety of the mobile-dispersed power system.
Technical Paper

1971 Cars and the “New” Gasolines

1971-02-01
710624
The recent introduction of lower compression ratio engines and the concurrent marketing of unleaded and low-lead content gasolines of generally lower octane number made it appropriate to investigate the interrelationships of engine performance and gasoline octane quality using the “new” engines and fuels. Programs were carried out to compare fuel economy and acceleration performance of eight matched pairs of 1970 and 1971 automobiles. In addition, octane requirements were obtained on 43 1971 cars with 3,000-12,000 deposit miles. A total of 146 unleaded, low-lead, and leaded regular gasolines obtained at service stations throughout the country were analyzed, and the road octane performance of these gasolines was determined using 1970 and 1971 cars designed for regular gasoline.
Technical Paper

1980 CRC Fuel Rating Program - The Effects of Heavy Aromatics and Ethanol on Gasoline Road Octane Ratings

1982-02-01
821211
A gasoline Road Octane study was conducted by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) to evaluate the effects of heavy aromatics (C9 and heavier) and ethanol content on Road Octane performance independent of Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON’s were found to be well predicted by equations containing only RON and MON terms. Heavier aromatics were found to have a small adverse effect on both maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON independent of its direct effects on RON and MON. The all-car data did not show a significant ethanol-content effect, but eight of the thirty-seven cars did show significant effects for ethanol content.
Technical Paper

1D and 3D CFD Investigation of Burning Process and Knock Occurrence in a Gasoline or CNG fuelled Two-Stroke SI Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0526
The paper presents a combined experimental and numerical investigation of a small unit displacement two-stroke SI engine operated with gasoline and Natural Gas (CNG). A detailed multi-cycle 3D-CFD analysis of the scavenging process is at first performed in order to accurately characterize the engine behavior in terms of scavenging patterns and efficiency. Detailed CFD analyses are used to accurately model the complex set of physical and chemical processes and to properly estimate the fluid-dynamic behavior of the engine, where boundary conditions are provided by a in-house developed 1D model of the whole engine. It is in fact widely recognized that for two-stroke crankcase scavenged, carbureted engines the scavenging patterns (fuel short-circuiting, residual gas distribution, pointwise lambda field, etc.) plays a fundamental role on both of engine performance and tailpipe emissions.
Technical Paper

1D-3D Analysis of the Scavenging and Combustion Process in a Gasoline and Natural-Gas Fuelled Two-Stroke Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1087
The paper presents a 1D-3D numerical model to simulate the scavenging and combustion processes in a small-size spark-ignition two-stroke engine. The engine is crankcase scavenged and can be operated with both gasoline and Natural Gas (NG). The analysis is performed with a modified version of the KIVA3V code, coupled to an in-house developed 1D model. A time-step based, two-way coupled procedure is fully described and validated against a reference test. Then, a 1D-3D simulation of the whole two-stroke engine is carried out in different operating conditions, for both gasoline and NG fuelling. Results are compared with experimental data including instantaneous pressure signals in the crankcase, in the cylinder and in the exhaust pipe. The procedure allows to characterize the scavenging process and quantify the fresh mixture short-circuiting, as well as to analyze the development of the NG combustion process for a diluted mixture, typically occurring in a two-stroke engine.
Technical Paper

2-Butanone Laminar Burning Velocities - Experimental and Kinetic Modelling Study

2015-09-01
2015-01-1956
2-Butanone (C4H8O) is a promising alternative fuel candidate as a pure as well as a blend component for substitution in standard gasoline fuels. It can be produced by the dehydrogenation of 2-butanol. To describe 2-butanone's basic combustion behaviour, it is important to investigate key physical properties such as the laminar burning velocity. The laminar burning velocity serves on the one hand side as a parameter to validate detailed chemical kinetic models. On the other hand, especially for engine simulations, various combustion models have been introduced, which rely on the laminar burning velocity as the physical quantity describing the progress of chemical reactions, diffusion, and heat conduction. Hence, well validated models for the prediction of laminar burning velocities are needed. New experimental laminar burning velocity data, acquired in a high pressure spherical combustion vessel, are presented for 1 atm and 5 bar at temperatures of 373 K and 423 K.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

2-step Variable Valve Actuation: System Optimization and Integration on an SI Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0040
2-step variable valve actuation using early-intake valve closing is a strategy for high fuel economy on spark-ignited gasoline engines. Two discrete valve-lift profiles are used with continuously variable cam phasing. 2-step VVA systems are attractive because of their low cost/benefit, relative simplicity, and ease-of-packaging on new and existing engines. A 2-step VVA system was designed and integrated on a 4-valve-per-cylinder 4.2L line-6 engine. Simulation tools were used to develop valve lift profiles for high fuel economy and low NOx emissions. The intake lift profiles had equal lift for both valves and were designed for high airflow & residual capacity in order to minimize valvetrain switching during the EPA drive cycle. It was determined that an enhanced combustion system was needed to maximize fuel economy benefit with the selected valve lift profiles. A flow-efficient chamber mask was developed to increase in-cylinder tumble motion and combustion rates.
Book

2015 Passenger Car and 2014 Concept Car Yearbook

2014-11-21
Every year global automakers introduce new or significantly re-engineered passenger vehicles with increasingly advanced technology intended to exceed consumer expectations and satisfy increasingly stringent government regulations. Some of these technologies are firsts-of-their-kind and start trends that other automakers soon follow—with the innovations becoming adopted across the board. The supply community is also increasingly playing a more significant role in helping the original equipment manufacturers research, develop, and introduce the latest engineering innovations that help bring competitive advantage for their automaker partners. Each year, the editors of SAE’s Automotive Engineering magazine publish many articles focused on the technology and engineering innovations of new passenger and concept vehicles, and these articles have been collected into this volume.
Technical Paper

21 Development of a Small Displacement Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

2002-10-29
2002-32-1790
We have developed a small-displacement gasoline direct-injection engine (1.3L). Gasoline direct-injection engines rely on ultra-lean stratified combustion to deliver significantly better fuel economy, and are already used in many practical applications. When gasoline direct-injection is applied to a small-displacement engine, however, the amount of wall wetting of fuel on the piston surface will increase because the traveled length of the fuel spray is short. This may result in problems such as smoke production, high emissions of unburned HC, and poor combustion efficiency.
Technical Paper

3-D PIV Analysis of Structural Behavior of D.I. Gasoline Spray

2001-09-24
2001-01-3669
Three-dimensional behaviors of direct injection (D.I.) gasoline sprays were investigated using 2-D and 3-D particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. The fuel was injected with a swirl type injector for D.I. gasoline engines into a constant volume chamber in which ambient pressure was varied from 0.1 to 0.4 MPa at room temperature. The spray was illuminated by a laser light sheet generated by a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser (wave length: 532 nm) and the succeeding two tomograms of the spray were taken by a high-resolution CCD camera. The 2-D and 3-D velocity distributions of the droplet cloud in the spray were calculated from these tomograms by using the PIV technique. The effects of the swirl groove flows in the injector and the ambient pressure on the structural behavior of the droplet cloud in the spray were also examined.
Technical Paper

3-dimensional Simulation of Knock in a Heavy-Duty LPG Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2700
Three-dimensional transient simulation was performed and an autoignition model was implemented to predict knock occurrence and autoignition site in a heavy-duty liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) engine. A flame area evolution (FAE) premixed combustion model was applied to simulate flame propagation. Engine experiments using a single-cylinder research engine were performed to calibrate the reduced kinetic model and to verify the result of this modeling. A pressure transducer and a head-gasket type ion-probe circuit board were installed to detect knock occurrence, flame arrival angle, and autoignition site. The simulation result shows good agreement with engine experiments. It also provides much information about in-cylinder phenomena and some ways to reduce knocking tendency. This knock simulation can be used as a development tool of engine design.
Technical Paper

3.5 hp in an 8 lb Package

1966-02-01
660007
A new lightweight gasoline, two-cycle engine for portable tools is described. The total weight of 8 lb with an output of 3.5 hp was achieved by means of compact design with the use of standardized parts wherever possible, rather than by creating all new parts.
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