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Technical Paper

(Particle) Emissions of Small 2-& 4-Stroke Scooters with (Hydrous) Ethanol Blends

2010-04-12
2010-01-0794
The objectives of the present work are to investigate the regulated and unregulated (particle) emissions of a classical and modern 2-stroke and a typical 4-stroke scooter with different ethanol blend fuels. There is also comparison of two different ethanol fuels: pure ethanol (E) *) and hydrous ethanol (EH) which contains 3.9% water and is denatured with 1.5% gasoline. Special attention is paid in this research to the hydrous ethanol, since the production costs of hydrous ethanol are much less than those for (dry) ethanol. The vehicles are with carburettor and without catalyst, which represents the most frequent technology in Eastern Asia and offers the information of engine-out emissions. Exhaust emissions measurements have been performed with fuels containing ethanol (E), or hydrous ethanol (EH) in the portion of 5, 10, 15 and 20% by volume. During the test systematical analysis of particle mass (PM) and nano-particles counts (NP) were carried out.
Technical Paper

10 KWe Dual-Mode Space Nuclear Power System for Military and Scientific Applications

1992-08-03
929072
A 10 KWe dual-mode space power system concept has been identified which is based on INEL's Small Externally-fueled Heat Pipe Thermionic Reactor (SEHPTR) concept. This power system will enhance user capabilities by providing reliable electric power and by providing two propulsion systems; electric power for an arc-jet electric propulsion system and direct thrust by heating hydrogen propellant inside the reactor. The low thrust electric thrusters allow efficient station keeping and long-term maneuvering. The direct thrust capability can provide tens of pounds of thrust at a specific impulse of around 730 seconds for maneuvers that must be performed more rapidly. The direct thrust allows the nuclear power system to move a payload from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) in less than one month using approximately half the propellant of a cryogenic chemical stage.
Technical Paper

1970s Development of 21st Century Mobile Dispersed Power

1973-02-01
730709
A mobile and dispersed power system is necessary for an advanced technological-industrial society. Today's petroleum-based system discharges waste products and heat and is growing exponentially. Energy resource commitment has already intersected “ultimate” low-cost petroleum supplies in the United States and will do so for the world before 2000; this portends major changes and cost increases. The twenty-first century system for mobile-dispersed power will reflect the energy source selected to replace petroleum-for example, coal, solar insolation, or uranium. It will incorporate a fuel intermediate such as methanol, ammonia, or hydrogen, and a suitably matched “engine.” The complete change will require more than 25 years because of the magnitude, fragmentation, structural gaps, complexity, and variety of the mobile-dispersed power system.
Technical Paper

1980 CRC Fuel Rating Program - The Effects of Heavy Aromatics and Ethanol on Gasoline Road Octane Ratings

1982-02-01
821211
A gasoline Road Octane study was conducted by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC) to evaluate the effects of heavy aromatics (C9 and heavier) and ethanol content on Road Octane performance independent of Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON). Maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON’s were found to be well predicted by equations containing only RON and MON terms. Heavier aromatics were found to have a small adverse effect on both maximum-throttle and part-throttle Road ON independent of its direct effects on RON and MON. The all-car data did not show a significant ethanol-content effect, but eight of the thirty-seven cars did show significant effects for ethanol content.
Technical Paper

2-Stroke CAI Operation on a Poppet Valve DI Engine Fuelled with Gasoline and its Blends with Ethanol

2013-04-08
2013-01-1674
Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), is one of the most promising combustion technologies to reduce the fuel consumption and NOx emissions. Currently, CAI combustion is constrained at part load operation conditions because of misfire at low load and knocking combustion at high load, and the lack of effective means to control the combustion process. Extending its operating range including high load boundary towards full load and low load boundary towards idle in order to allow the CAI engine to meet the demand of whole vehicle driving cycles, has become one of the key issues facing the industrialisation of CAI/HCCI technology. Furthermore, this combustion mode should be compatible with different fuels, and can switch back to conventional spark ignition operation when necessary. In this paper, the CAI operation is demonstrated on a 2-stroke gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine equipped with a poppet valve train.
Technical Paper

3D Numerical Characterization of a Multi-Holes Injector in a Quiescent Vessel and Its Application in a Single-Cylinder Research Engine Using Ethanol

2017-11-07
2017-36-0360
The fuel injection in internal combustion engines plays a crucial role in the mixture formation, combustion process and pollutants' emission. Its correct modeling is fundamental to the prediction of an engine performance through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. In the first part of this work a tridimensional numerical simulation of a multi-hole’s injector, using ethanol as fuel, is presented. The numerical simulation results were compared to experimental data from a fuel spray injection bench test in a quiescent vessel. The break up model applied to the simulation was the combined Kelvin-Helmholtz Rayleigh-Taylor, and a sensitivity analysis of the liquid fuel penetration curve, as well on the overall spray shape was performed according to the model constants. Experimental spray images were used to aid the model tuning. The final configuration of the KH-RT model constants that showed best agreement with the measured spray was C3 equal to 0.5, B1, 7 and Cb, 0.
Technical Paper

48V Mild-Hybrid Architecture Types, Fuels and Power Levels Needed to Achieve 75g CO2/km

2019-04-02
2019-01-0366
48V mild hybrid powertrains are promising technologies for cost-effective compliance with future CO2 emissions standards. Current 48V powertrains with integrated belt starter generators (P0) with downsized engines achieve CO2 emissions of 95 g/km in the NEDC. However, to reach 75 g/km, it may be necessary to combine new 48V powertrain architectures with alternative fuels. Therefore, this paper compares CO2 emissions from different 48V powertrain architectures (P0, P1, P2, P3) with different electric power levels under various driving cycles (NEDC, WLTC, and RTS95). A numerical model of a compact class passenger car with a 48V powertrain was created and experimental fuel consumption maps for engines running on different fuels (gasoline, Diesel, E85, CNG) were used to simulate its CO2 emissions. The simulation results were analysed to determine why specific powertrain combinations were more efficient under certain driving conditions.
Standard

70 MPa Compressed Hydrogen Surface Vehicle Fuelling Connection Device and Optional Vehicle to Station Communications

2007-05-24
HISTORICAL
J2799_200705
This technical information report specifies a guideline for the hardware requirements for fueling a Hydrogen Surface Vehicle (HSV) with compressed hydrogen storage at a Nominal Working Pressure of 70MPa. It contains a description of the receptacle geometry and optional communication hardware and communications protocol to refuel the HSV. The intent of this document is to enable harmonized development and implementation of the hydrogen fueling interfaces. It is intended to be utilized for the hydrogen vehicle field evaluation until enough information is collected to enable standardardization. The receptable portion of this TIR is to be reevaluated utilizing international field data in approximately 2 years and subsequently superseded by J2600 in the 2009 timeframe.
Technical Paper

90 Ah Dependent Pressure Vessel (DPV) Nickel Hydrogen Battery Qualification Test Results

1999-08-02
1999-01-2590
In 1995, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) began a program to investigate whether a 90 Ah dependent pressure vessel (DPV) NiH2 battery pack could be a lower volume replacement for a 90 Ah NiH2 IPV spacecraft battery. Nickel Hydrogen (NiH2) dependent pressure vessel (DPV) battery cells are presumed to offer all the features of the NiH2 IPV battery cell with considerably less volume. To achieve this reduction in volume, the DPV cell utilizes a canteen shaped pressure vessel with reduced thickness wall, flat sides and curved ends. The cells can be packaged similar to prismatic nickel cadmium battery cells. Moreover, like NiCd cells, a fully charged DPV cell must rely upon an adjacent battery cell or structure for support and to maintain pressure vessel integrity. Seventeen 90 Ah NiH2 DPV cells were delivered to NR in 1998 for qualification tests. An eleven-cell half battery pack was manufactured and tested to validate the advantages of the DPV design.
Technical Paper

A 322,000 kilometer (200,000 mile) Over the Road Test with HySEE Biodiesel in a Heavy Duty Truck

2000-09-11
2000-01-2647
In July 1997, the Pacific Northwest and Alaska Regional Bioenergy Program, in cooperation with several industrial and institutional partners initiated a long-haul 322,000 km (200,000 mile) operational demonstration using a biodiesel and diesel fuel blend in a 324 kW (435 HP), Caterpillar 3406E Engine, and a Kenworth Class 8 heavy duty truck. This project was designed to: develop definitive biodiesel performance information, collect emissions data for both regulated and non-regulated compounds including mutagenic activity, and collect heavy-duty operational engine performance and durability information. To assess long-term engine durability and wear; including injector, valve and port deposit formations; the engine was dismantled for inspection and evaluation at the conclusion of the demonstration. The fuel used was a 50% blend of biodiesel produced from used cooking oil (hydrogenated soy ethyl ester) and 50% 2-D petroleum diesel.
Technical Paper

A 3D-Simulation with Detailed Chemical Kinetics of Combustion and Quenching in an HCCI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1655
A 3D-CFD model with detailed chemical kinetics was developed to investigate the combustion characteristics of HCCI engines, especially those fueled with hydrogen and n-heptane. The effects of changes in some of the key important variables that included compression ratio and chamber surface temperature on the combustion processes were investigated. Particular attention was given, while using a finer 3-D mesh, to the development of combustion within the chamber crevices between the piston top-land and cylinder wall. It is shown that changes in the combustion chamber wall surface temperature values influence greatly the autoignition timing and location of its first occurrence within the chamber. With high chamber wall temperatures, autoignition takes place first at regions near the cylinder wall while with low surface temperatures; autoignition takes place closer to the central region of the mixture charge.
Technical Paper

A Before Treatment Method for Reduction of Emissions in Diesel Engines

2000-10-16
2000-01-2791
Through an addition of a small amount of hydrogen to the main fuel, combustion process can be considerably enhanced in internal combustion engines producing significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions. This improvement in combustion can be mainly attributed to the faster and cleaner burning characteristics of hydrogen in comparison to conventional liquid and gaseous fuels. An oxygen-enrichment of a fuel-air mixture also improves thermal efficiency and reduces especially particulate, carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbon emissions in exhaust. This contribution describes the results of experimental investigation where a small amount of hydrogen and oxygen is produced by Hydrogen Generating System through the electrical dissociation of water and are added to the intake of a compression ignition engine operating on a commercial diesel fuel. It is shown that level of exhaust emissions including NOx can be moderately reduced using such a pre-treatment method in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

A COMPARISON OF GRID-CONNECTED HYBRID AND HYDROGEN FUEL-CELL ELECTRIC VEHICLES

2007-09-16
2007-24-0073
For fuelling road transportation in the future, particularly light-duty vehicles, there has been much speculation about the use of hydrogen and fuel cells to provide electrical power to an all-electric drive train. An alternative powertrain would use a simple battery to store electricity directly, using power from the electrical grid to charge the battery when the vehicle is not in use. The energy efficiency of these two different approaches has been compared, using a complete “energy conversion chain analysis”. The successful development and introduction into the marketplace of grid-connected hybrid vehicles could eliminate the need for road vehicles to use petroleum fuels, at least for the majority of miles traveled. If electricity were to be generated primarily from sustainable primary energy sources, then road transportation would also become sustainable, resulting in an “Electricity Economy”, rather than a “Hydrogen Economy.
Technical Paper

A Case Study for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an Energy Decision Making Tool: The Production of Fuel Ethanol from Various Feedstocks

1998-11-30
982205
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) considers the key environmental impacts for the entire life cycle of alternative products or processes in order to select the best alternative. An ideal LCA would be an expensive and time consuming process because any product or process typically involves many interacting systems and a considerable amount of data must be analysed for each system. Practical LCA methods approximate the results of an ideal analysis by setting limited analysis boundaries and by accepting some uncertainty in the data values for the systems considered. However, there is no consensus in the LCA field on the correct method of selecting boundaries or on the treatment of data set uncertainty. This paper demonstrates a new method of selecting system boundaries for LCA studies and presents a brief discussion on applying Monte Carlo Analysis to treat the uncertainty questions in LCA.
Technical Paper

A Characterization of Exhaust Emissions from Lean Burn, Rotary, and Stratified Charge Engines

1977-02-01
770301
This paper reports the results of an exhaust emissions characterization from the non-catalyst control systems employed on the Mazda RX-4 rotary, the Honda CVCC, and the Chrysler electronic lean burn. Throughout the paper, exhaust emissions from these vehicles are compared to those from a Chrysler equipped with an oxidation catalyst and an air pump. The emissions characterized are carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, sulfates, hydrogen sulfide, carbonyl sulfide, hydrogen cyanide, aldehydes, particulate matter, and detailed hydrocarbons. A brief description of the sampling and analysis procedures used is included within the discussion.
Technical Paper

A Combustion Products Analyzer for Contingency Use During Thermodegradation Events on Spacecraft

1991-07-01
911479
As mission length and the number and complexity of payload experiments increase, so does the probability of thermodegradation contingencies (e.g. fire, chemical release and/or smoke from overheated components or burning materials), which could affect mission success. When a thermodegradation event occurs on board a spacecraft, potentially hazardous levels of toxic gases could be released into the internal atmosphere. Experiences on board the Space Shuttle have clearly demonstrated the possibility of small thermodegradation events occurring during even relatively short missions. This paper will describe the Combustion Products Analyzer (CPA), which is being developed under the direction of the Toxicology Laboratory at Johnson Space Center to provide necessary data on air quality in the Shuttle following a thermodegradation incident.
Technical Paper

A Compact 10 kW Electric Power Range Extender Suitable for Plug-In and Series Hybrid Vehicles

2011-09-11
2011-24-0085
The paper discusses the concept, specification and overall performance of a 10 kW electric power range extender suitable for electric plug-in and series hybrid vehicles, based on a single cylinder, high speed, four stroke internal combustion engine, tested and developed at Istituto Motori CNR of Italy. This unit has been conceived from the beginning as a compact on board recharging system for the mentioned kind of means, and especially for city cars and small commercial vehicles. The paper starts by defining some characteristics, advantages and drawbacks of an electric city car, followed by the criteria adopted to characterize the nominal power of the range extender. Then, the ratio which leaded to the adoption of a single cylinder internal combustion engine is discussed, followed by an explanation of the main design characteristics of the whole unit.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Direct Injection into a Pressurized Chamber Using an Automatic Image Treatment Methodology

2016-10-25
2016-36-0163
A multi-hole direct injection injector was studied by means of image analysis. Methodologies based on an automatic process of cone angle measurement and edge detection were applied for the spray images generated by a 100 bar injection pressure discharged into a pressurized rigid chamber. A criterion based on pixel values was taken to localize the spray edges as angular coordinates and also with x and y position data. The high pixel values were associated with liquid phase while the low pixel values were associated to its absence. Computational codes written in MATLAB environment were used to analyze the numerical matrices associated to the images. Using the written MATLAB codes, a comparison of the effect of atmospheric back pressure, inside the chamber, on the spray pattern, cone angle and spray penetration were evaluated. The chamber was pressurized with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 bar of back pressure. The tested fluid injected was EXXSOL D60 for simulating ethanol fuel behavior.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis of Ethanol Versus Gasoline as a Fuel in Production Four-Stroke Cycle Automotive Engines

1995-12-01
952749
This paper presents the findings of a study that compared the fuel efficiency, power, emissions, engine wear and material compatability characteristics of automotive four-stroke cycle engines fueled by E95 (95 % ethyl alcohol and 5% lead free regular gasoline) and 87 pump octane number lead-free gasoline. A group of six senior Automotive Engineering Technology students, conducted the research over a one-year period. Two Mankato State University faculty served as directors for the project. The laboratory facilities at Mankato State University were used for vehicle modification and testing. Two identically equipped 1994 Geo Metros with 1.0 liter, three cylinder, throttle body fuel injected engines were used for this study. After a 6440 km (4000 mile) break-in period, to assure the cars performance characteristics were equal, one of the vehicles was converted to run on E95.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Analysis on the Spray Penetration of Ethanol, Gasoline and Iso-Octane Fuel in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1413
This study aims to clarify the spray development of ethanol, gasoline and iso-octane fuel, delivered by a multi-hole injector and spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) fuelling system. The focus is on how fuel properties impact temporal and spatial evolution of sprays at realistic ambient conditions. Two optical facilities were used: (1) a constant-flow spray chamber simulating cold-start conditions and (2) a single-cylinder SIDI engine running at normal, warmed-up operating conditions. In these optical facilities, high-speed Mie-scattering imaging is performed to measure penetrations of spray plumes at various injection pressures of 4, 7, 11 and 15 MPa. The results show that the effect of fuel type on the tip penetration length of the sprays depends on the injection conditions and the level of fuel jet atomisation and droplet breakup.
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