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Technical Paper

<PP/SEBS> Compounds: Sealing an Easier Future for Automotive Designers and Specifiers

There is a definite trend toward the increasing use of “Glass Encapsulation Technology” in the automotive industry. In this technology a glass object such as a window is placed within a mould and an elastomer is injected around the window giving a tight sealing system. A wide variety of materials are currently used as the sealing materials in either static or semi-static encapsulated glazing systems, including a wide range of “elastomers”. New thermoplastic elastomer compounds are being developed that are characterized by their consistent properties; including high melt-fluidity, very good surface appearance, sealing properties, and resistance to weathering. Compound performance is highly dependent on formulation variables as well as the chemistries of the base materials. KRATON® SEBS polymers1 are block copolymers of styrene and ethylene/butylene.
Technical Paper

110 Ton Payload on Two Axles with Hydro-Mechanical Drive

Late developments in tires and in lightweight, high horsepower engines and transmissions have enabled the earthmoving and mining industry equipment manufacturers to design and produce several types of preproduction 100-ton capacity trucks. A straight-forward approach to the design of a 110-ton end dump truck on two axles with a hydro-mechanical drive was followed by KW-Dart Truck Co. to produce a low cost per ton-mile vehicle.
Technical Paper

1974 Vw Energy-Absorbing Bumper System

The energy-absorbing bumper system designed for the 1974 Volkswagen in described. Theoretical requirements in bumper design are explained, with emphasis on bumper height, energy tolerance needs, energy absorption, and systems for absorbing the energy involved. The six systems studied are assessed, and the final design chosen is explained. The paper also compares bumper requirements as specified in Europe and the United States.
Technical Paper

1985 Body Corrosion Field Survey - 5 and 6 Year Old Vehicles

The Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) concluded that an automotive body corrosion survey for public consumption was needed. The committee proceeded to develop a survey methodology and conducted an initial survey in the Detroit area. Similar surveys can be conducted at regular biyearly intervals for comparison to track the results of industry wide improvements in corrosion protection. Over two hundred 1980 and 1981 model year vehicles were surveyed covering a wide range of domestic models and some foreign models. Twenty six panel or partial panel categories were developed and evaluated for a closed car parking lot survey. Each panel was checked for perforation, blistering and surface rust.
Technical Paper

1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker Body structure Analysis

This paper presents a summary of body structural analysis applied to the 1989 Suzuki Sidekick/Geo Tracker at various stages of development and design. The structure analysis techniques were applied previously to rigidity, vibration, strength, crashworthiness and optimization. The studies confirm that the CAE technique for body structure analysis is more beneficial if it is utilized in the earlier structure development stages particularly for vibration and crashworthiness. Through the extensive use of the structural analysis technique in conjunction with the experiment, the design concept of the Sidekick/Tracker body has been optimized to a most extent.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Interior Trim & Electrical

Driven by a tight vehicle development schedule and unique performance and styling goals for the new Ford GT, a Ford-Lear team delivered a complete interior and electrical package in just 12 months. The team used new materials, processes and suppliers, and produced what may be the industry's first structural instrument panel.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Vehicle Aerodynamics - Updating a Legend

This paper documents the processes and methods used by the Ford GT team to meet aerodynamic targets. Methods included Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, wind tunnel experiments (both full-size and scale model), and on-road experiments and measurements. The goal of the team was to enhance both the high-speed stability and track performance of the GT. As a result of the development process, significant front and rear downforce was achieved while meeting the overall drag target.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium I/P Structure

This paper describes a new concept for a Ford GT instrument panel (IP) based on structural magnesium components, which resulted in what may be the industry's first structural IP (primary load path). Two US-patent applications are ongoing. Design criteria included cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness (NVH) performance, and durability. Die casting requirements included feasibility for production, coating strategy and assembly constraints. The magnesium die-cast crosscar beam, radio box and console top help meet the vehicle weight target. The casting components use an AM60 alloy that has the necessary elongation properties required for crashworthiness. The resulting IP design has many unique features and the flexibility present in die-casting that would not be possible using conventional steel stampings and assembly techniques.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Powertrain - Supercharged Supercar

The Ford GT powertrain (see Figure 1) is an integrated system developed to preserve the heritage of the LeMans winning car of the past. A team of co-located engineers set out to establish a system that could achieve this result for today's supercar. Multiple variations of engines, transaxles, cooling systems, component locations and innovations were analyzed to meet the project objectives. This paper covers the results and achievements of that team.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe

This paper describes the engineering, manufacturing and integration necessary to produce the Corvette's first ever all-aluminum spaceframe (see Figure 1). The engineering and manufacturing of the spaceframe was a joint venture between General Motors and suppliers ALCOA (Aluminum Company of America) and Dana Corporation. ALCOA led the initial design of the spaceframe; Dana Corp led the manufacturing; General Motors' Engineering and Manufacturing groups led the integration of the assembly. The aluminum spaceframe design is modeled after the baseline steel structure of the Corvette coupe. The aluminum spaceframe reduces 140 lbs from the steel baseline and enters the plant at 285 lbs. This frame allows the 2006 Corvette Z06 to enter the market at a 3100 lbs curb weight. Aluminum casting, extruding, stamping, hydroforming, laser welding, Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding, Self Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining make up the main technologies used to produce this spaceframe.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Design and Engineering Technology

The General Motors (GM) Corvette design team was challenged with providing a C6 Z06 vehicle spaceframe that maintained the structural performance of its C5 predecessor while reducing mass by at least 56 kg. An additional requirement inherent to the project was that the design must be integrated into the C6 assembly processes with minimal disruption, i.e. seamless integration. In response to this challenge, a collaborative team was formed, consisting of design engineers from General Motors, Alcoa and Dana Corporation. The result of this collaborative effort is an aluminum Z06 spaceframe that satisfies the high performance expectations of the vehicle while reducing the mass by approximately 62 kg. The frame consists of aluminum extrusions, castings and sheets joined by MIG welding, laser welding and self-piercing rivets. The extrusions are 6XXX series alloys, the castings are permanent mold A356 while the sheet panels are formed from the 5XXX series of alloys.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06 Aluminum Spaceframe Manufacturing Technology

In October 1999, General Motors contracted Dana Corporation to manufacture an all-aluminum spaceframe for the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette Z06. Corvette introduced its first ever all-aluminum frame (see Figure 1) to the world at the 2005 North American International Auto Show (NAIAS) in Detroit, Michigan. The creation of this spaceframe resulted in a significant mass reduction and was a key enabler for the program to achieve the vehicle level performance results required for a Z06 in an ever-growing market. Dana Corporation leveraged ALCOA's (Aluminum Company of America) proven design capabilities while incorporating new MIG welding, laser welding, Self-Pierce Riveting (SPR), and full spaceframe machining to join General Motors (GM) Metal Fabrication Division's (MFD) hydroformed rails to produce the Corvette Z06's yearly requirement of 7000 units. This paper describes the technologies utilized throughout the assembly line and their effect on the end product.
Technical Paper

2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace

The 2013 SRT Viper Carbon Fiber X-Brace, styled by Chrysler's Product Design Office (PDO), is as much of a work of art as it is an engineered structural component. Presented in this paper is the design evolution, development and performance refinement of the composite X-Brace (shown in Figure 1). The single-piece, all Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) X-Brace, an important structural component of the body system, was developed from lightweight carbon fiber material to maximize weight reduction and meet performance targets. The development process was driven extensively by virtual engineering, which applied CAE analysis and results to drive the design and improve the design efficiency. Topology optimization and section optimization were used to generate the initial design's shape, form and profile, while respecting the package requirements of the engine compartment.
Technical Paper

3D Simulation Models Simplified to 2D Planar/Axisymmetric Problems in Automotive Structures

Abstract In automotive FEA analysis, there are many components or assemblies which can be simplified to two-dimensional (2D) plane or axisymmetric analytical problems instead of three-dimensional (3D) simulation models for quick modeling and efficient analysis to meet the timing in the design development process, especially in the advanced design phase and iteration studies. Even though some situations are not perfectly planar or axisymmetric problems, they may still be approximated in 2D planar or axisymmetric models, achieving results accurate enough to meet engineering requirements. In this paper, the authors have presented and summarized several complex 3D analytical situations which can be replaced by simplified plane axisymmetric models or 2D plane strain analytical models.