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Technical Paper

X-Ray Determination of Residual Stresses and Hardness in Steel Due to Thermal, Mechanical, and Fatigue Deformations

Residual stress and hardness in steel due to thermal, mechanical, and fatigue deformations are determined by an X-ray diffraction method. The sharp temperature rise associated with electrical discharge machining causes austenitizing, rehardening, and tempering, and results in high tensile residual stress. Shot-peening quality is evaluated from residual stress and hardness induced by the peening. Rolling contact fatigue of carburized and hardened bearings causes a transformation of austenite to martensite, and thereby generates more residual compression, and also causes permanent fatigue softening. Less softening is observed in inner races of consutrode and cross-forged steels than in air-melted steel, and the former steels exhibit greater fatigue life at early and mean failure levels.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Measurements of High Pressure Diesel Sprays

A quantitative and time-resolved technique has been developed to probe the fuel distribution very near the nozzle of a high-pressure diesel injector. This technique uses the absorption of synchrotron x-rays to measure the fuel mass with good time and position resolution. The penetrating power of x-rays allows measurements that are difficult with other techniques, such as quantitative measurements of the mass and penetration measurements of the trailing edge of the spray. Line-of-sight measurements were used to determine the fuel density as a function of time. The high time resolution and quantitative nature of the measurement also permit an accurate measure of the instantaneous mass flow rate through the nozzle.
Journal Article

X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Radiography and CFD Studies of the Spray G Injector

The salient features of modern gasoline direct injection include cavitation, flash boiling, and plume/plume interaction, depending on the operating conditions. These complex phenomena make the prediction of the spray behavior particularly difficult. The present investigation combines mass-based experimental diagnostics with an advanced, in-house modeling capability in order to provide a multi-faceted study of the Engine Combustion Network’s Spray G injector. First, x-ray tomography is used to distinguish the actual injector geometry from the nominal geometry used in past works. The actual geometry is used as the basis of multidimensional CFD simulations which are compared to x-ray radiography measurements for validation under cold conditions. The influence of nozzle diameter and corner radius are of particular interest. Next, the model is used to simulate flash-boiling conditions, in order to understand how the cold flow behavior corresponds to flashing performance.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Rocking Curve Analysis of the Aging and Deformation Characteristics in the Al-Li Alloy

A non-destructive x-ray technique, the double crystal diffractometer method, is presented as a tool to investigate the aging and deformation behavior of the Al-Li alloy. This is a sensitive method for measuring the strain and dislocation density within individual grains through the x-ray rocking curve. In addition, models were developed to describe the aging and deformation characteristics of this alloy.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Stress Analysis as Related to Tempering and Tempering Kinetics*

With X-ray stress and fine structure analyses, results have been obtained that are inconsistent with present views of the structure and tempering kinetics of hardened steels. Experimental results are reported, and an attempt is made to establish a model of the tempering kinetics of hardened steels. It is shown that the Snoek and Cottrell effects are the dominating mechanisms of diffusion and that they lead to the formation of two α phases of differing carbon content; the phase with the accumulated carbon finally results in the formation of cementite.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Study of the Human Neck During Voluntary Motion

Radiographs were taken of the cervical spines of male subjects during voluntary motion from full flexion to full extension. Approximately 16 radiographs were taken during a period of 3 1/2 seconds. The resulting motions of the cervical vertebrae were analyzed. A simple pinned-link model of the spine under these conditions is presented.
Technical Paper

X-Ray Study of the Human Neck Motion Due to Head Inertia Loading

This study presents results from x-ray analysis of live human head/neck motion in sled test simulations of low-speed frontal, lateral, and rear-end vehicle impacts. The test subjects were 26 male and female adults, aged 22 to 61 years. Head/neck motion and the kinematic responses of each test subject were measured and analyzed by cineradiograph, high-speed film, accelerometers, and electromyography of the neck muscles. The methodology used may provide insight into the mechanism of neck injuries caused by the head inertia loading. The actual kinematic responses of the head/neck were found to be more complex than previously thought. The experimental results suggest that the most significant factor of the head/neck response is the initial curvature of the cervical and thoracic spine. Looking specifically at the early motion of the head and neck in rear-end impacts, the cervical forward curvature (lordosis) and the thoracic rearward curvature (kyphosis) were found to straighten.
Technical Paper

X-Rays and Gamma Rays-Their Industrial Application

THE X-ray spectrum readily adapts itself to problems in chemical analysis and crystal formation. It is effective on very minute particles which otherwise cannot be segregated. A permanent record is made, and the specimens may be used over and over again, as the X-ray is non-destructive. As a means of inspection, X-ray clearly shows the interior of objects such as weldings castings, forgings, cold-worked metals, and so on. Inhomogeneities that are very slight in width and a fraction of one per cent in thickness are seen easily on a radiograph. Defects thus found may be eliminated summarily by checking various steps in production.
Technical Paper

X-Wing: A Low Disc-Loading V/STOL for the Navy

The X-Wing concept employs a single lifting system for all modes of flight. The lifting system is comprised of four very rigid, circulation control wings with blowing for lift modulation and control. For hover and low speed flight, the wings rotate such as the rotor of a helicopter. For high speed flight, the wings are stopped in an “X” configuration across the fuselage - from which the name of the concept is derived - with two forward-swept wings and two aft-swept wings. Such a vehicle is also envisioned to have an integrated gas turbine propulsive system for all flight modes. At low speeds, the gas generators) would drive a shaft to turn the wings and the circulation control compressor as well as a set of propulsive fans. For high-speed flight, the shaft would drive only the compressor and accessories as the fans propel the vehicle. The X-Wing concept has been underdevelopment for over 15 years.
Technical Paper

X-by-Wire Functionality, Performance and Infrastructure

The key-enabler for tomorrow's X-by-wire systems is the mastery of today's advanced active chassis control systems that are highly safety critical, distributed and complex. The only feasible way is to compose future X-by- wire systems with established and field approved functional management, components and infrastructure technologies, which are addressed in this paper.
Technical Paper

X-by-Wire: Opportunities, Challenges and Trends

This paper will outline the results of a study performed to analyze the market introduction of x-by-wire applications in the context of weak global industry environment, technological and legislative challenges, standardization issues and end customer benefits. This paper attempts to provide a bird-view on influence factors and impacts for the x-by-wire market, including e.g. the end customer's acceptance and legal environment driving further development in specific areas. Further, major driving forces on semiconductor/component level will be outlined regarding e.g. pin-count, computation performance and heat dissipation, but also possible scenarios and solutions towards safe and efficient system design and partitioning.
Journal Article

X-ray Imaging of Cavitation in Diesel Injectors

Cavitation plays a significant role in high pressure diesel injectors. However, cavitation is difficult to measure under realistic conditions. X-ray phase contrast imaging has been used in the past to study the internal geometry of fuel injectors and the structure of diesel sprays. In this paper we extend the technique to make in-situ measurements of cavitation inside unmodified diesel injectors at pressures of up to 1200 bar through the steel nozzle wall. A cerium contrast agent was added to a diesel surrogate, and the changes in x-ray intensity caused by changes in the fluid density due to cavitation were measured. Without the need to modify the injector for optical access, realistic injection and ambient pressures can be obtained and the effects of realistic nozzle geometries can be investigated. A range of single and multi-hole injectors were studied, both sharp-edged and hydro-ground. Cavitation was observed to increase with higher rail pressures.
Technical Paper

XA-100 Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The experimental XA-100 is a 5-passenger 4-door Chevrolet Corsica that has been retrofitted with an electric-motor propulsion system, batteries, and an on-board engine/alternator system. The XA-100 is designed 1) to travel on around-town and short freeway commute trips on battery power alone with zero exhaust emissions (zero-emissions vehicle (ZEV)) and 2) to travel as an ultra-low-emissions vehicle (ULEV) on long distance trips using an on-board engine/alternator (i.e., an auxiliary power unit (APU)) for electric power. In all other respects (e.g., performance, handling, user interface), the XA-100 is designed to retain the characteristics of the conventional Corsica to the greatest degree possible. The XA-100 was developed as a result of research sponsored in part by the California Energy Commission (CEC), with labor donated by members of the Electric Auto Association (EAA) and faculty, staff and students of Stanford University.
Technical Paper

XB-70 Ground Servicing and Safety Precautions

Planning for ground servicing and maintenance started in the proposal phase and has been followed by test program experience with the XB-70 Mach 3 air vehicle. Servicing and associated safety requirements are summarized. Discussion of maintenance and support actions includes mention of equipment provided to meet the requirements. Preflight, postflight, and periodic operations are outlined, along with some indication of changes that resulted when plans were put into practice. The demands of a high performance flight test air vehicle limit movements toward simplification.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Laboratory for Progress

The development of the XB-70 research aircraft produced advancements in many fields of technology. This paper covers a few of these advancements in the areas of materials, equipment, and manufacturing. These include honeycomb construction, PH 15-7 alloy steel, vacuum melted H-11 steel, equipment capable of withstanding high temperatures, chemical milling of many different alloys, miniaturized welding equipment, and exothermic brazing techniques.
Technical Paper

XB-70A Mach 3 Design and Operating Experience

The XB-70A represents the most advanced example of the evolution and technological advances of manned aircraft in the past decade. It is, in effect, the forerunner of SST type aircraft and in itself is responsible for many items or features that have been subsequently embodied in contemporary military aircraft. This paper describes the unique aerodynamic concepts and configuration of the XB-70A and its airborne systems. Results of the current flight test program are summarized along with discussions on “gremlin” areas during fabrication and flight testing, and how they were or are being solved. Examples of improvements in air vehicle No. 2 as a result of air vehicle No. 1 experience are presented, including a summary of major system reliability demonstrated during the flight test program as an indicator of the potential refinements in cost and performance possible for future large high-speed aircraft.
Technical Paper

XC-142A Control System

Five XC-142 aircraft have been manufactured to provide operational prototypes of a V/STOL tactical transport for tri-service evaluation. This paper presents a description of the flight control and stability augmentation systems. Special emphasis is placed on the programmed functions which are characteristic of VTOL airplanes. Proposed changes in the control systems of production models of the C-142 are identified, and the simulation and flight test programs are outlined.
Technical Paper

XLV Truck Cab - Designed for Low Volume Production Overseas

United States automotive manufacturers, to maintain their pre-eminent position in world motor vehicle production, must expand their operations overseas. Tooling amortization expenses for the highly sophisticated domestic models are exorbitant because of low production volumes overseas. Therefore, it has been desirable to develop a vehicle which can be easily manufactured overseas for minimum capital expenditures. Chrysler International’s XLV truck cab has been styled, designed, and processed for low volume production overseas. This paper deals with the XLV program -- from the original idea to production in Turkey.