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Technical Paper

‘FM’ - A High Efficiency Combustion System for the Future Light Duty Engine?

1982-02-01
820760
Consideration of the approaching ‘energy crisis’ reveals two requirements for future light duty automotive engines. 1) maximum economy and 2) the ability (perhaps with detail design re-optimisation) to accept a range of fuels of petroleum or other extract, of differing ignition characteristics. One combustion system which meets these requirements is the MAN ‘FM’, the potential of which has already been demonstrated in truck-size engines but on which little information has been published in light-duty engine bore sizes. The paper describes both design and experimental work carried out to evaluate the application of the FM combustion system to a light duty passenger car engine. Consideration is given to the critical design parameters associated with the application of the FM system to a multi-cylinder gasoline based engine and how the criteria can be met. Details of the design and construction of a single cylinder derivative of the multi-cylinder engine are given.
Technical Paper

‘Issues and Behaviors of Airborne Particulate Matters under Microgravity Environment’

2004-07-19
2004-01-2328
During several ISS missions, there were false alarms at both US and Russian smoke detectors. High local airborne particulate concentrations and interior deposits are considered the causes for such anomalies. Alternatives are proposed to replace or complement these faulty smoke detectors. The entrained zeolite particles may play a role in causing problems with check valves and air save pumps in CDRA and Vozdukh. Another incidence has been the dispersion of particulates out of Metox regeneration oven. Particulate matters with aerodynamic diameter of 15 microns and above, which normally settle down on earth, stay airborne under micro-gravity and thereby cause the above-mentioned nuisances. The motion of such a particle along a gas stream with an initial velocity can be expressed by theoretical equations. Stokes' Law leads to the descriptions of inertial precipitation of aerosols that are important in solving the issues.
Article

‘Military-grade’ Aluminum

2016-07-27
While the cracking debacle on 263 U.S. naval vessels didn’t cause the Navy to halt aluminum use in all ship construction, it did prompt a re-think of future architectures and materials.
Article

‘Minecraft' getting kids into coding

2014-10-22
Stephen Foster, CEO and Co-Founder of ThoughtSTEM, has a new outlook on STEM education and the utilities that can be used to get kids involved in software coding.
Technical Paper

‘Motoring Which?’ — Eighteen Years of Human Factors in Comparative Car Testing — An Historical Review

1980-02-01
800332
In 1961 the Consumers’ Association in Britain set up a car test unit, and in 1962 the first car test reports were published. These later became the ‘Motoring Which?’ quarterly supplement to ‘Which?’ magazine. The methods and general sequence of the CA car testing procedure are first outlined. The Human Factors contribution to this testing programme is then described. The contribution broadly takes two forms. First, human factors reference data and guidance are provided to assist with the planning and interpretation of the objective measurement programme run by the test unit. Second, an extensive Human Factors Questionnaire (HFQ) programme is organised, and the results are reported, quarterly for every group of test cars. The initial planning of the Human Factors contribution is described; then the essential features of the HFQ programme, and its successive stages of development over the years to the current form with computerised analysis and output are reviewed.
Technical Paper

‘Regulated’ and ‘Non-regulated’ Emissions from Modern European Passenger Cars

2006-04-03
2006-01-1516
Regulated emissions from four current production European vehicles were measured over the Common Artemis Driving Cycles (CADC). Particulate Mass and Particle Number measurements were made in accordance with the newly-developed draft Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) developed for the UN-ECE's expert group on pollution and energy (GRPE). During the test programme measurements were also made of currently non-regulated emissions including PAHs and speciation of the particulate material and key hydrocarbons. CADC results are presented for each of the four vehicles tested (one conventional gasoline vehicle, two different types of diesel without Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) and one diesel with DPF) with results measured on the regulated New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) test for comparison. The emissions results on the Artemis cycles showed some significant differences from those on the regulated (NEDC) test cycle.
Technical Paper

‘Skins’ by Design: Humans to Habitats

2003-07-07
2003-01-2655
Whether we live on land, underwater, or out there in space, what makes it possible is our ‘skin’. The one we were born with, the one we wear, the one we live in, and the one we travel in. The skin is a response to where we live: it protects as our first line of defense against a hostile environment; it regulates as part of our life-support system; and, it communicates as our interface to everything within and without. In the context of space architecture – we, our space suits, vehicles and habitats are all equipped with highly specialized ‘skins’ that pad us, protect us and become an integral part of the design expression. This paper approaches the subject from a holistic perspective considering ‘skins’ and their manifestation as structure, as vessel, as texture, and as membrane. The paper then goes on to showcase innovative use of materials in practice through two case studies: the ‘spacesuit’ and ‘inflatable habitats’.
Technical Paper

‘Sleeping With the Stars’ – The Design of a Personal Crew Quarter for the International Space Station

2001-07-09
2001-01-2169
As the International Space Station (ISS) takes shape, the prospect of living in space for prolonged periods becomes a reality for a greater number of individuals. Crewmembers aboard the ISS will live alongside each other for months, in confined spaces, under difficult conditions. Living in a hermetic environment, with other individuals from a variety of cultural backgrounds, will inevitably cause stresses. The living environment must meet a variety of needs in order to be conducive to the well being of the individual and the crew community. This Master’s design project addresses the design of a private, individual, crew quarter. The goal is to meet a crewmember’s functional requirements, as well as providing the means to achieve privacy and comfort while considering the qualitative aspects of the personal space.
Technical Paper

‘Tuning’ the Variable Stiffness Head Gasket an Interactive Computational Approach

1987-10-01
871998
Problems of bore distortion, combustion blowby and gasket fatigue in lightweight engine blocks are ultimately related to the gasket sealing pressure distribution. For both conventional embossed steel gaskets and composite ones this distribution can be modified by suitable local changes in gasket stiffness. Current methods of gasket optimization concentrate on large scale iterative finite element analysis of the head/gasket/block system, with major computational costs. We present a more economical alternative in which condensed compliance matrices are obtained either from elementary NASTRAN runs or by experimental means. The algorithm enables the gasket engineer to ‘tune’ the gasket to the desired sealing pressure profile with acceptable stiffness variations.
Technical Paper

‘Wheel Slip-Based’ Evaluation of Road Friction Potential for Distributed Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1667
As a typical parameter of the road-vehicle interface, the road friction potential acts an important factor that governs the vehicle motion states under certain maneuvering input, which makes the prior knowledge of maximum road friction capacity crucial to the vehicle stability control systems. Since the direct measure of the road friction potential is expensive for vehicle active safety system, the evaluation of this variable by cost effective method is becoming a hot issue all these years. A ‘wheel slip based’ maximum road friction coefficient estimation method based on a modified Dugoff tire model for distributed drive electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. It aims to evaluate the road friction potential with vehicle and wheel dynamics analyzing by using standard sensors equipped on production vehicle, and fully take the advantage of distributed EV that the wheel drive torque and rolling speed can be obtained accurately.
Technical Paper

“A Dry Aircraft is a Safer Aircraft – Beating Condensation by Using Dry Air”

2003-09-08
2003-01-3017
The airline industry seems to be providing more leisure features on planes like inflight entertainment, Internet access and Digital TV, but it seems the airline industry has ignored the issue of excess condensation on aircraft, which had plagued carriers since the birth of the airline industry. How safe are passengers when a wide body aircraft carries in excess almost a half ton of water and ice between the cabin and skin of the aircraft? Besides the added weight straining the aircraft, excess condensation soaks wires and connectors which can cause electrical shorts. There have been instances of emergency doors frozen shut, locked by ice stemming from excess water dripping inside the plane. Extra water also causes “rain-in-the-plane”, an issue that has gained national attention and causes passenger discomfort. It's time for the industry to address what has become a serious issue.
Technical Paper

“A Flame Ionization Technique for Measuring Total Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust”

1968-02-01
680419
The method of flame ionization was used for measuring total hydrocarbons in both single-cylinder and multicylinder 4-cycle, direct injection diesel engine exhaust. Use of the emission parameters of hydrocarbon concentration, per cent unburned fuel, specific hydrocarbon rate, mass of hydrocarbons per million cycles, mass of hydrocarbons per mile, and mass of hydrocarbons per ton-mile are discussed. The basic approach used in the flame ionization detector is shown. The hydrocarbon sample was transferred from the exhaust system through a heated sample line and oven operating at 375 F. The sample line was aspirated to reduce the sample residence time to 2 sec. The effect various sampling locations have on hydrocarbon measurements from a single-cylinder engine is shown and discussed. The effects of load, speed, and injection timing on hydrocarbon emission data are shown for a single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

“A Study of Factors Affecting Carburetor Performance at Low Air Flows”

1969-02-01
690137
Carburetor repeatability at idle was investigated both on the carburetor precision flow stand and on a chassis dynamometer equipped with exhaust emission test equipment. It was determined that some factors which significantly affect idle fuel flow repeatability on the carburetor test stand are: 1 Surface roughness of mating parts in the fuel bowl inlet system. 2 Inlet valve eccentricity. 3 Hydraulic shock in the fuel supply circuit. In addition, vehicle testing had demonstrated that carbon monoxide changes at idle may occur with constant fuel-air ratio due to changes in fuel temperature. Cycle tests have also shown a relationship between fuel temperature and carbon monoxide levels.
Technical Paper

“A Study on Simulated Down-hill Brake Test Method for Motorcycles”

1987-11-08
871184
As a part of testing the braking performance of motorcycles, the method designed for evaluating the very changes caused in brake characteristics due to heat fade has been recently receiving the close attention of ISO and ECE. With the cooperation of the members of the Motorcycle Brake Subcommittee of Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association we measured temperature changes in the brakes and braking force distribution in motorcycles being driven downhill, based on which we find simple and highly reliable simulation test methods on a flat test course. As for test method, we found the STOP method of repeated starting and stopping more suitable to motorcycles than the SNUB, method of making non-stop running. For both methods we also found test conditions offering the highest correlation to actual down-hill driving.
Technical Paper

“A Successful Electronic Ignition System thru Fundamental Problem Analysis”

1974-02-01
740154
For 1974, Ford Motor Company is providing, as standard equipment, a solid state ignition system on all 400 CID and 460 CID engines as well as on all California vehicles equipped with 200 through 351 CID engines. This paper explains the Ford solid state ignition system and the objectives and design philosophy that was used in the development of the system. Further, a review of the design and production validation test plans is discussed. With this background, specific examples of the effectiveness of complete problem analysis for fundamental cause and corrective action is presented in addition to control methods and evaluation of corrective action. This problem analysis system allowed this automotive electronic product to go into production with a high degree of confidence in meeting the reliability goals.
Technical Paper

“ACCU-DRIVE” STABILITY WITH COMFORT THE 1969 BUICK CHASSIS

1969-02-01
690490
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
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