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Technical Paper

“A Flame Ionization Technique for Measuring Total Hydrocarbons in Diesel Exhaust”

1968-02-01
680419
The method of flame ionization was used for measuring total hydrocarbons in both single-cylinder and multicylinder 4-cycle, direct injection diesel engine exhaust. Use of the emission parameters of hydrocarbon concentration, per cent unburned fuel, specific hydrocarbon rate, mass of hydrocarbons per million cycles, mass of hydrocarbons per mile, and mass of hydrocarbons per ton-mile are discussed. The basic approach used in the flame ionization detector is shown. The hydrocarbon sample was transferred from the exhaust system through a heated sample line and oven operating at 375 F. The sample line was aspirated to reduce the sample residence time to 2 sec. The effect various sampling locations have on hydrocarbon measurements from a single-cylinder engine is shown and discussed. The effects of load, speed, and injection timing on hydrocarbon emission data are shown for a single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

“A Study of Factors Affecting Carburetor Performance at Low Air Flows”

1969-02-01
690137
Carburetor repeatability at idle was investigated both on the carburetor precision flow stand and on a chassis dynamometer equipped with exhaust emission test equipment. It was determined that some factors which significantly affect idle fuel flow repeatability on the carburetor test stand are: 1 Surface roughness of mating parts in the fuel bowl inlet system. 2 Inlet valve eccentricity. 3 Hydraulic shock in the fuel supply circuit. In addition, vehicle testing had demonstrated that carbon monoxide changes at idle may occur with constant fuel-air ratio due to changes in fuel temperature. Cycle tests have also shown a relationship between fuel temperature and carbon monoxide levels.
Technical Paper

“A Study on Simulated Down-hill Brake Test Method for Motorcycles”

1987-11-08
871184
As a part of testing the braking performance of motorcycles, the method designed for evaluating the very changes caused in brake characteristics due to heat fade has been recently receiving the close attention of ISO and ECE. With the cooperation of the members of the Motorcycle Brake Subcommittee of Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association we measured temperature changes in the brakes and braking force distribution in motorcycles being driven downhill, based on which we find simple and highly reliable simulation test methods on a flat test course. As for test method, we found the STOP method of repeated starting and stopping more suitable to motorcycles than the SNUB, method of making non-stop running. For both methods we also found test conditions offering the highest correlation to actual down-hill driving.
Technical Paper

“A Successful Electronic Ignition System thru Fundamental Problem Analysis”

1974-02-01
740154
For 1974, Ford Motor Company is providing, as standard equipment, a solid state ignition system on all 400 CID and 460 CID engines as well as on all California vehicles equipped with 200 through 351 CID engines. This paper explains the Ford solid state ignition system and the objectives and design philosophy that was used in the development of the system. Further, a review of the design and production validation test plans is discussed. With this background, specific examples of the effectiveness of complete problem analysis for fundamental cause and corrective action is presented in addition to control methods and evaluation of corrective action. This problem analysis system allowed this automotive electronic product to go into production with a high degree of confidence in meeting the reliability goals.
Technical Paper

“ACCU-DRIVE” STABILITY WITH COMFORT THE 1969 BUICK CHASSIS

1969-02-01
690490
Buick engineers are well pleased with their '69 Chassis. Benefits of a unique front suspension camber curve are documented. The effects of various suspension parameters on ride and handling are explained. These were varied independently of one another in the course of evaluating over 30 suspension configurations.
Technical Paper

“Active Mass Absorber” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3682
The extensive use of rotative machines in the diverse branches of the modern world has made the rising undesirable mechanical and acoustic vibration levels to be a problem of special importance for the machines normal operation as for the communities that are each time more affected by the problem. It makes the study of vibration and acoustic phenomena also to be even more important and the applications of its concepts more sophisticated. Several are the concepts used for decreasing vibration levels, like common dampers, hydraulic dampers, active dampers, natural frequencies changes and others. The choice of use of one or another depends greatly on the engineering possibilities (weight, energy, physical space, other components functional interference, vibration levels, etc.) as well as the cost of implementation of each one.
Technical Paper

“All Electric” Controls and Accessories for Ground Vehicle Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems

1986-02-01
860238
This paper discusses the use of electromechanical devices as the kinematic portions of a microprocessor based gas turbine control system. Specific applications are: 1. An electric motor driven, positive displacement pump, which provides metered high pressure fuel to the distribution manifold. Fuel metering to be provided by varying the motor angular velocity. 2. An electric motor driven lube oil pump. 3. Electromechnical actuators for motion and control of compressor and power turbine variable geometry. 4. A starter/generator integral with the gas generator. Topics covered include: Comparison to conventional hydro-mechanical systems. Response characteristics of the fuel pump and actuator systems. Brushless D.C. motor characteristics. Power electronics requirements for brushless D.C. motors. Control electronics interface with brushless D.C. motor systems. Reliability and maintainability issues. Diagnostic/prognostic enhancements.
Technical Paper

“Aviation Transportation Security”

2003-03-03
2003-01-1346
This essay presents a brief history of aviation security measures, including problems exploited by terror attacks such as those of September 11th. Recent policy modifications are also discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and rationally developed into a policy proposal for developing a more secure system of domestic aviation transportation.
Technical Paper

“Biberonnage” Makes an Electric Car Practical with Existing Batteries

1980-02-01
800204
Tests made with a converted Audi show that a “45 km (27 mi) range” vehicle can be driven over 100 km (60 mi) in a day if the batteries are charged when the vehicle is not in use (such charging is called “biberonnage” by the French). The tests were conducted in an urban area, with the vehicle making frequent short trips, characteristic of urban driving missions. Advantage is taken of the fact that during such driving, the effective speed is only 30 km/h (20 mph). Graphs are presented for calculating the vehicle range in a given number of operating hours, with different assumed average speeds, and different assumed battery charging rates. It is shown how a range of 160 km (100 mi) per day can be achieved with existing batteries, employing biberonnage. Biberonnage allows the use of a battery pack lighter than normally employed, thus reducing vehicle weight, initial and operating costs, and energy consumption (Wh/km).
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