The increase in the amount and importance of software and electronics in the vehicle presents several critical issues the automotive industry must address. The shift from mechanical to primarily software-and electronics- based vehicle innovations has the potential to transform the entire industry. How effectively manufacturers and suppliers adjust their products, business processes and core competencies to adapt to this change will determine future success.
Today our primary concerns regarding patents are whether there is infringement or not infringement or whether a patent is valid or invalid. The writers of the Constitution, however, had this in mind “… to promote the progress of science and useful arts”. The material presented deals with the question as to whether, in fact, the patent powers provided by Congress under the Constitution do “promote the progress of science and useful arts”.
Design load values are a prime consideration in space suit design. Pressurized garment assemblies can be accurately modeled as a cylindrical shell under pressure to determine the resulting pressure loads. But, the resulting longitudinal loads are not a complete picture of the load environment. The man induced loads generally act longitudinally and are very often the larger loads the space suit restraint system must withstand. This paper presents the data collected to fill out the human strength data base in the glove area along with a short description of how this data was collected. Also, a description of how this data was used in the design and flight certification of the current Shuttle Extravehicular Mobility Unit space suit is included along with a discussion of techniques to extend this model to include future space suit design.
Alcohol amongst our teenagers is the #1 problem facing our young people today. There are many solutions to this problem, which includes prevention and education. New youth organizations, legislation and innovative educational efforts are being offered to those who wish to become involved in helping solve this problem.
Development of car production industry in Yugoslavia has three ecological phases. The first one is to satisfy ECE Rules by optimization of engine and vehicle equipment. The second phase is to enter the American market with help of professional foreign development institutions. The third phase is now in focus; to adjust to new European regulations. For the development tasks it is typical to lean on foreign licenses. The real development jobs were occasionally given to faculties, while the research units in factories were overburdened by operative tasks from production. Research jobs were always at mother companies, only some small segment of them was, for the short period, at some faculty or larger institute.
Schlieren and shadowgraph imaging have been used for many years to identify refractive index gradients in various applications. For evaporating fuel sprays, these techniques can differentiate the boundary between spray regions and background ambient gases. Valuable information such as the penetration rate, spreading angle, spray structure, and spray pattern can be obtained using schlieren diagnostics. In this study, we present details of a z-type schlieren system setup and its application to port-fuel-injection gasoline sprays. The schlieren high-speed movies were used to obtain time histories of the spray penetration and spreading angle. Later, these global parameters were compared to specifications provided by the injector manufacturer. Also, diagnostic parameters such as the proportion of light cut-off at the focal point and the orientation of knife-edge (schlieren-stop) used to achieve the cut-off were examined.