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Technical Paper

Wing-Diffuser Interaction on a Sports Car

Amongst the aerodynamic devices often found on race cars, the diffuser is one of the most important items. The diffuser can work both to reduce drag and also to increase downforce. It has been shown in previously published studies, that the efficiency of the diffuser is a function of the diffuser angle, ground clearance and most importantly, the base pressure. The base pressure of a car is defined by the shape of the car and in particular the shape at the rear end, including the rear wheels. Furthermore, on most race cars, a wing is mounted at the rear end. Since the rear wheels and wing will influence the base pressure it is believed that, for a modern race car, there could be a strong interaction between these items and the diffuser. This work aims to systematically study the interaction between the rear wheels and wing; and the diffuser of a contemporary, sports car type, race vehicle.
Technical Paper

Wing-Lift Augmentation Methods for the Improvement of Low-Speed Performance of High-Speed Aircraft

FOR more than half a century, aeronautical researchers have attempted to augment wing-lift beyond the capabilities of mechanical flaps, slots, and the like. Theoretical studies and wind tunnel tests promised large gains in aircraft performance, but flight installations all over the world proved a long series of failures. Because of the problems inherent in the operation of high-speed jet aircraft, the Department of Defense revived interest in lift-increase systems. A development of the Bureau of Aeronautics recently flight-tested on a Grumman jet fighter demonstrated what is considered the first practical, operationally suitable lift-augmentation system. Under the name of the BuAer Supercirculation System, whereby engine power was successfully diverted to create lift, it has provided new impetus for industry-wide research in the field.
Technical Paper

Wing/Fuselage Structural Concept Study for a Subsonic Transport Aircraft

Results of a brief study program to devise and evaluate new structural materials and concepts for a subsonic, transport-type aircraft are presented. Comparisons of several wing concepts to the state-of-the-art baseline concept indicate a weight saving of 10%, but with corresponding total cost increases of 50-75%. One fuselage concept indicates a 7% weight saving with a 5% total cost saving. Corresponding aircraft performance payoffs with and without resizing are also established. The overall payoffs are somewhat nominal, based on the new concept impact on participating structure only. Both baseline and new concept analyses are based on a common set of requirements for ultimate strength, fatigue life, damage tolerance, and flutter rigidity. The study is directed to metallic concepts.
Technical Paper

Wing/Ground Ice Detection System for Aircraft

The ability to accurately and reliably annunciate the presence of aircraft wing contaminants greatly reduces the hazards of aircraft operation in winter precipitation environments. A new wing contamination detection system was designed to detect contaminants on the surface of an aircraft wing. Testing on a Fokker F100 aircraft was completed during the 1992-1993 winter icing season. The testing revealed that the system was able to detect ice, frost, hoar frost, and deicing fluid mixtures on the wing. The system performance was evaluated against Fokker's current requirements for an operational system.
Technical Paper

Winging It in the 1980's: Why Guidelines are Needed for Cockpit Automation

There have been many reasons for the introduction of automation into the cockpit of the modern airliner. In some cases the forces driving technology have caused the design of automated systems which compromise the ability of the pilot to fulfill his responsibilities for the safety of the airplane under his command. This paper will examine how these forces can lead to unnecessary cockpit automation, and will discuss what must be done to avoid the introduction of automated systems which have the effect of removing the human operator from the information and control processes.
Technical Paper

Wings-a Coordinated System of Basic Design

TAKING as basic requirements such fundamental characteristics as can be largely separated from the problem of wing design or assumed as attributes of the complete airplane, the author discusses the independent variables consisting mainly of the geometrical characteristics that can be varied to obtain maximum performance without changing the basic requirements. He develops a weight and a drag equation, each founded on the chosen basic requirements and including in the simplest possible form the combined effect of the independent variables. The terms in these equations are defined and the equations are applied to a low-wing monoplane in power and gliding fight and to a rectangular-wing biplane in gliding flight. The results are tabulated in some instances but are principally shown on charts. The accuracy of the results obtained is stated to depend largely upon the proper choice of approximations with an appreciation of their limitations.
Technical Paper

Wingtip Vortex Turbine Investigation for Vortex Energy Recovery

A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15° twist (washin) and one with no twist. The power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.

Wing’s UAS delivery service has FAA certification

Alphabet’s Wing project has become the first UAS delivery service to obtain air carrier certification from the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and will test autonomous commercial air delivery services in southwest Virginia.
Technical Paper

Winnebago Combines Stirling Technology with Unique Motor Home Design

The operational characteristics of low noise, low vibration, and inherent reliability of the Stirling engine make it highly desirable as the power source for a total energy system in a motor home. In this application, the Stirling engine has made possible the development of new electrical, heating, and air conditioning systems offering much higher levels of comfort, convenience, and reliability to the motor home user. As an auxiliary power source in the motor home, the Stirling engine generates electricity to operate all-electric appliances and recharge batteries, provides efficient hot water baseboard heat to the interior of the motor home, and eliminates the need for LP gas usage in the motor home. And integrated into the cooling system for the Stirling engine is a new, low noise air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Winnebago Front-Wheel Drive Motor Home Design and Assembly

The development of this vehicle is described from concept, through design and assembly. The design intent of this unique vehicle was high fuel efficiency, good ride and handling characteristics, and a high degree of passenger safety at a competitive cost. A combination of some of the latest in automotive and motor home construction technology was used to meet the desired goals.
Technical Paper

Winter Oils for Automobile Engines

THE factors involved in cold starting of automobile engines, including the effects of temperature and oil viscosity on cranking speed and torque, have been known for many years. Many papers have been presented before the various Sections of the Society on these subjects. The S.A.E. crankcase-oil viscosity-numbers, which were adopted in July, 1926, provided for the classification of the lower-viscosity oils at 130 deg. fahr. and the higher-viscosity oils at 210 deg. fahr. It was recognized by 1930 that a classification for winter oils must be based on the viscosity of the oil at the starting temperature, and work was started on this problem. In June, 1933, the 10-W and 20-W oils, which are classified in accord with their viscosity at 0 deg. fahr., were adopted for publication and trial. The results of the use of these oils during the winter of 1933-1934, together with their advantages, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Winter Testing of Cars and Tires for Magazine Comparisons

Winter testing of cars and tires for consumer comparisons is not an easy task to begin with; this is further complicated by the fact that reliable methods for evaluating performance and access to good testing conditions are unavailable to most magazines. The testing group at Tekniikan Maailma Magazine, Finland, has been fortunate to have both the right conditions as well as reasonable resources to develop methods of testing to the extent that they provide sufficiently reliable data to assess vehicle and tire performance in winter conditions. Before any final evaluations are published in the magazine, the weighing of different factors, i.e. the amount of importance placed on different performance characteristics, is carefully considered. In order to achieve a meaningful ranking of these products in relation to different characteristics, constant reference runs, statistical research methods, and highly skillful test drivers are employed.
Technical Paper

Winter Tire Testing

The performance of winter tires is characterized by snow traction and ice skid tests. Winter tire testing is reviewed in regards to the hardware used, design of a test program, site selection, and data analysis. The description of the hardware includes a review of a new traction measurement system. The system incorporates a traction truck with an instrumented axle at a driven wheel position interfaced with a mini-computer which controls the test, stores the measurements, and performs the data analysis.
Technical Paper

Winter Tire Testing as Seen by the Independent Tester

A review of tire testing in the winter environment is presented from the viewpoint of an independent testing laboratory. The independent tester, by necessity, must satisfy the particular requirements of individual customers. A description of the drive traction truck which was designed to meet these individual client requirements is presented. Also, a comparison of results obtained by the various techniques of analysis is included.
Technical Paper

Winterization Of Construction Equipment - Report of CIMTC Subcommittee XV—Winterization

SINCE 1954 the CIMTC Subcommittee has been engaged in a program to meet military requirements through industry's production of construction equipment which can give satisfactory cold weather performance down to temperatures of −65 F. Individual contracts for three crawler tractors and one motor grader were negotiated by ERDL for these projects, and their performance is discussed. Industry participation was subsequently expanded to include engineering tests in the cold weather conditions of the Mesabi Iron Range. This joint report of the Winterization Sub-committee of the CIMTC and ERDL Winterization Section consists of separate papers by various members and consultants of this Sub-committee and ERDL personnel.
Technical Paper

Winterization of Commercial Vehicles to -50 F

The development trend in construction machinery has been to produce equipment having a high level of reliability. The dollar loss that occurs when a major piece of equipment breaks down on the job is sufficiently great to justify the cost of providing reliable operation. In the development of the North the need for increased reliability is greater than ever. In extreme low temperature conditions as found on the NORTH SLOPE operation in Alaska, the harshness of the environment places additional stress both on the equipment and the operators. The development of winterization kits for construction and heavy engineering equipment to date has been slow, probably because of a comparatively small market and because the work could be postponed or accomplished by protecting the equipment and operator by temporary means to meet the purpose. The results have not been economical or as efficient as desired but efficient enough to be acceptable.
Technical Paper

Winterization of Diesel Fuel Systems in Large Coal Mining Haul Trucks

This work shows how winterized diesel-powered mining vehicles can operate on No. 2 diesel fuel at low winter temperatures without using No. 1 diesel fuel as a diluent to lower cloud point. A study of low temperature fuel requirements was made during the 1976–1977 winter. Fuel system temperatures were compared to ambient temperatures and vehicle operability. Once the diesel equipment was warmed up and operating, fuel system temperatures remained high enough that wax plugging did not occur with No. 2 diesel fuel. Based on this data, a recirculating fuel system heater was designed to be used while vehicles were shut down and parked. This approach was successfully tested during the 1978–1979 winter.