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Wing Inspection Lights – Design Criteria

This SAE Aerospace Recommend Practice (ARP) is intended to cover the external lights on fixed wing aircraft for illuminating the wing leading edge and engine nacelles and the upper surfaces of the wing. The addition of an ice detection system should be implemented when the areas to inspect are not visible from the aircraft cockpit. It is not intended that this Recommended Practice require the use of any particular light source such as Halogen, LED or other specific design of lamp.
Technical Paper

Wing Leading Edges for Air Breathing Launchers

Actively cooled and re-radiative leading edges were investigated as typical thermal protection elements for thermally high loaded areas of advanced launchers. A performance trade-off led to the selection of a C/SiC thermostructural concept. Mechanical and thermal analyses demonstrated the adequacy of the selected design. Manufacturing leading edge demonstrators with a small nose radius, different thicknesses of the outer skin and the integration of stringers was realised with good surface smoothness and contour accuracy. Thermal cycle tests with temperatures up to 1000°C in an oxidising environment were performed without any visible damage.
Technical Paper

Wing Manufacturing: Next Generation

Due to the part size and technological limitations of the available assembly equipment, traditional wing manufacturing has consisted of a three stage process. Parts are first manually tacked together in an assembly jig, They are then removed from the jig, rotated horizontally and craned into an automated fastening machine. Finally they are removed from the fastening machines and craned to a third station where the manual tacks are removed and the parts are prepped for final wing box assembly. With the advent of electromagnetic riveting (EMR) and the traveling yoke assembly machine this traditional approach has been replaced with single station processing. Wing panels and spars can now be automatically tacked together under continuous clamp up in their assembly jigs using EMR. This eliminates the requirement for disassembly, debur and cleaning required with the manual process.
Technical Paper

Wing Modification for Increased Spin Resistance

A simple wing leading-edge modification has been developed that delays outer wing panel stall, thus maintaining roll damping to higher angles of attack and delaying the onset of autorotation. The stall angle of attack of the outer wing panel has been shown to be a function of the spanwise length of the leading-edge modification. The margin of spin resistance provided by the modification is being explored through flight tests. Preliminary results have been used to evaluate spin resistance in terms of the difference in angle of attack between outer wing panel stall and the maxiumum attainable angle of attack.
Technical Paper

Wing Structural Assembly Methodology

This paper reviews today's aircraft wing production assembly methodology and technologies as well as innovative ideas for advancing the high-level wing assembly state-of-the-art. Automated wing assembly systems are only being utilized to rivet/fasten first level subassemblies like panels, spars, and ribs. All other high level assembly tasks are performed manually, incurring associated increases in recurring costs due to production inefficiencies, long lead times, expensive rate tooling, and difficult assembly tasks performed inside small wing compartments. Existing assembly methods, process parameters, and the process characteristics of manual, machine, and man/machine systems provide many opportunities for improving wing assembly.
Technical Paper

Wing-Diffuser Interaction on a Sports Car

Amongst the aerodynamic devices often found on race cars, the diffuser is one of the most important items. The diffuser can work both to reduce drag and also to increase downforce. It has been shown in previously published studies, that the efficiency of the diffuser is a function of the diffuser angle, ground clearance and most importantly, the base pressure. The base pressure of a car is defined by the shape of the car and in particular the shape at the rear end, including the rear wheels. Furthermore, on most race cars, a wing is mounted at the rear end. Since the rear wheels and wing will influence the base pressure it is believed that, for a modern race car, there could be a strong interaction between these items and the diffuser. This work aims to systematically study the interaction between the rear wheels and wing; and the diffuser of a contemporary, sports car type, race vehicle.
Technical Paper

Wing-Lift Augmentation Methods for the Improvement of Low-Speed Performance of High-Speed Aircraft

FOR more than half a century, aeronautical researchers have attempted to augment wing-lift beyond the capabilities of mechanical flaps, slots, and the like. Theoretical studies and wind tunnel tests promised large gains in aircraft performance, but flight installations all over the world proved a long series of failures. Because of the problems inherent in the operation of high-speed jet aircraft, the Department of Defense revived interest in lift-increase systems. A development of the Bureau of Aeronautics recently flight-tested on a Grumman jet fighter demonstrated what is considered the first practical, operationally suitable lift-augmentation system. Under the name of the BuAer Supercirculation System, whereby engine power was successfully diverted to create lift, it has provided new impetus for industry-wide research in the field.
Technical Paper

Wing/Fuselage Structural Concept Study for a Subsonic Transport Aircraft

Results of a brief study program to devise and evaluate new structural materials and concepts for a subsonic, transport-type aircraft are presented. Comparisons of several wing concepts to the state-of-the-art baseline concept indicate a weight saving of 10%, but with corresponding total cost increases of 50-75%. One fuselage concept indicates a 7% weight saving with a 5% total cost saving. Corresponding aircraft performance payoffs with and without resizing are also established. The overall payoffs are somewhat nominal, based on the new concept impact on participating structure only. Both baseline and new concept analyses are based on a common set of requirements for ultimate strength, fatigue life, damage tolerance, and flutter rigidity. The study is directed to metallic concepts.
Technical Paper

Wing/Ground Ice Detection System for Aircraft

The ability to accurately and reliably annunciate the presence of aircraft wing contaminants greatly reduces the hazards of aircraft operation in winter precipitation environments. A new wing contamination detection system was designed to detect contaminants on the surface of an aircraft wing. Testing on a Fokker F100 aircraft was completed during the 1992-1993 winter icing season. The testing revealed that the system was able to detect ice, frost, hoar frost, and deicing fluid mixtures on the wing. The system performance was evaluated against Fokker's current requirements for an operational system.
Technical Paper

Winging It in the 1980's: Why Guidelines are Needed for Cockpit Automation

There have been many reasons for the introduction of automation into the cockpit of the modern airliner. In some cases the forces driving technology have caused the design of automated systems which compromise the ability of the pilot to fulfill his responsibilities for the safety of the airplane under his command. This paper will examine how these forces can lead to unnecessary cockpit automation, and will discuss what must be done to avoid the introduction of automated systems which have the effect of removing the human operator from the information and control processes.
Technical Paper

Wings-a Coordinated System of Basic Design

TAKING as basic requirements such fundamental characteristics as can be largely separated from the problem of wing design or assumed as attributes of the complete airplane, the author discusses the independent variables consisting mainly of the geometrical characteristics that can be varied to obtain maximum performance without changing the basic requirements. He develops a weight and a drag equation, each founded on the chosen basic requirements and including in the simplest possible form the combined effect of the independent variables. The terms in these equations are defined and the equations are applied to a low-wing monoplane in power and gliding fight and to a rectangular-wing biplane in gliding flight. The results are tabulated in some instances but are principally shown on charts. The accuracy of the results obtained is stated to depend largely upon the proper choice of approximations with an appreciation of their limitations.
Technical Paper

Wingtip Vortex Turbine Investigation for Vortex Energy Recovery

A flight test investigation has been conducted to determine the performance of wingtip vortex turbines and their effect on aircraft performance. The turbines were designed to recover part of the large energy loss (induced drag) caused by the wingtip vortex. The turbine, driven by the vortex flow, reduces the strength of the vortex, resulting in an associated induced drag reduction. A four-blade turbine was mounted on each wingtip of a single-engine, T-tail, general aviation airplane. Two sets of turbine blades were tested, one with a 15° twist (washin) and one with no twist. The power recovered by the turbine and the installed drag increment were measured. A trade-off between turbine power and induced drag reduction was found to be a function of turbine blade incidence angle. This test has demonstrated that the wingtip vortex turbine is an attractive alternate, as well as an emergency, power source.

Wing’s UAS delivery service has FAA certification

Alphabet’s Wing project has become the first UAS delivery service to obtain air carrier certification from the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and will test autonomous commercial air delivery services in southwest Virginia.
Technical Paper

Winnebago Combines Stirling Technology with Unique Motor Home Design

The operational characteristics of low noise, low vibration, and inherent reliability of the Stirling engine make it highly desirable as the power source for a total energy system in a motor home. In this application, the Stirling engine has made possible the development of new electrical, heating, and air conditioning systems offering much higher levels of comfort, convenience, and reliability to the motor home user. As an auxiliary power source in the motor home, the Stirling engine generates electricity to operate all-electric appliances and recharge batteries, provides efficient hot water baseboard heat to the interior of the motor home, and eliminates the need for LP gas usage in the motor home. And integrated into the cooling system for the Stirling engine is a new, low noise air conditioning system.
Technical Paper

Winnebago Front-Wheel Drive Motor Home Design and Assembly

The development of this vehicle is described from concept, through design and assembly. The design intent of this unique vehicle was high fuel efficiency, good ride and handling characteristics, and a high degree of passenger safety at a competitive cost. A combination of some of the latest in automotive and motor home construction technology was used to meet the desired goals.
Technical Paper

Winter Oils for Automobile Engines

THE factors involved in cold starting of automobile engines, including the effects of temperature and oil viscosity on cranking speed and torque, have been known for many years. Many papers have been presented before the various Sections of the Society on these subjects. The S.A.E. crankcase-oil viscosity-numbers, which were adopted in July, 1926, provided for the classification of the lower-viscosity oils at 130 deg. fahr. and the higher-viscosity oils at 210 deg. fahr. It was recognized by 1930 that a classification for winter oils must be based on the viscosity of the oil at the starting temperature, and work was started on this problem. In June, 1933, the 10-W and 20-W oils, which are classified in accord with their viscosity at 0 deg. fahr., were adopted for publication and trial. The results of the use of these oils during the winter of 1933-1934, together with their advantages, are discussed.
Technical Paper

Winter Testing of Cars and Tires for Magazine Comparisons

Winter testing of cars and tires for consumer comparisons is not an easy task to begin with; this is further complicated by the fact that reliable methods for evaluating performance and access to good testing conditions are unavailable to most magazines. The testing group at Tekniikan Maailma Magazine, Finland, has been fortunate to have both the right conditions as well as reasonable resources to develop methods of testing to the extent that they provide sufficiently reliable data to assess vehicle and tire performance in winter conditions. Before any final evaluations are published in the magazine, the weighing of different factors, i.e. the amount of importance placed on different performance characteristics, is carefully considered. In order to achieve a meaningful ranking of these products in relation to different characteristics, constant reference runs, statistical research methods, and highly skillful test drivers are employed.
Technical Paper

Winter Tire Testing

The performance of winter tires is characterized by snow traction and ice skid tests. Winter tire testing is reviewed in regards to the hardware used, design of a test program, site selection, and data analysis. The description of the hardware includes a review of a new traction measurement system. The system incorporates a traction truck with an instrumented axle at a driven wheel position interfaced with a mini-computer which controls the test, stores the measurements, and performs the data analysis.
Technical Paper

Winter Tire Testing as Seen by the Independent Tester

A review of tire testing in the winter environment is presented from the viewpoint of an independent testing laboratory. The independent tester, by necessity, must satisfy the particular requirements of individual customers. A description of the drive traction truck which was designed to meet these individual client requirements is presented. Also, a comparison of results obtained by the various techniques of analysis is included.