This wire/busbar type junction block consists of busbar layers and a wire layer used for the output circuits. The wire layer is assembled onto the lower cover. The wire connects to a terminal which leads out of the cover for connection. Circuit routing is easy to change in this type of junction block (J/B); especially when compared to the traditional busbar type J/B. Because changing the wire routing is easy, many different vehicles can use the same J/B and development time is short. Fewer busbar layers result in a reduction in busbar tooling and weight of the J/B.
This paper presents an overview of a new class of wireless acceleration sensor chips being developed by Evigia Systems and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) that can record the magnitude and duration of exposure to external impact without requiring any battery or any other external power source. The combination of the magnitude and duration of the acceleration event provides the information needed for quantification of the impact energy after extracting the recorded data from the sensor array. The light-weight, small form-factor, and wireless link features of these chips enables them to be readily inserted in earplugs, helmets, protective gear, on sections of vehicles. Further, their low cost, make them well suited for the Go-Kart, Sprint Car, Rally and Motocross races where the budgets are lower than IRL or NASCAR.
Pedestrians A method of locating a charging target device (vehicle) in a parking lot scenario by the evaluation of Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI) of the Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) signal and Global Positioning System (GPS) data is proposed in this paper. A metric call Location Image (LI) is defined based on the RSSI received from each charger and the physical location of the parking associated to that charger. The central parking lot processor logs the GPS coordinates and LI received from the vehicle. Each pairing attempt by a vehicle loads a new LI into the central processor's database. Utilizing the LI and the proposed methods the vehicle will achieve expedited charger to system pairing while in the company of multiple chargers.
Around the world, the major automakers are developing their strategies for conductive and wireless charging technologies, with concerted efforts to establish technical standards on wireless electric vehicle charging, mainly focused on the safety considerations and inter-operability. Wireless Charging Technology and the Future of Electric Transportation covers the current status of wireless power transfer (WPT) technology and its potential applications to the future road and rail transportation systems. Focusing on the applications of WPT technology to electric vehicle charging and the future green transportation field, Wireless Charging Technology and the Future of Electric Transportation was written collaboratively by nine experts in the field, led by Dr. In-Soo Suh, a professor and researcher from the Korean Advanced Institute of Technology (KAIST).
Due to the rapid development in the technological aspect of the autonomous vehicle (AV), there is a compelling need for research in the field vehicle efficiency and emission reduction without affecting the performance, safety and reliability of the vehicle. Electric vehicle (EV) with rechargeable battery has been proved to be a practical solution for the above problem. In order to utilize the maximum capacity of the battery, a proper power management and control mechanism need to be developed such that it does not affect the performance, reliability and safety of vehicle. Different optimization techniques along with deterministic dynamic programming (DDP) approach are used for the power distribution and management control. The battery-operated electric vehicle can be recharged either by plug-in a wired connection or by the inductive mean (i.e. wirelessly) with the help of the electromagnetic field energy.
Over the past years many have been predicting various dramatic changes in the vehicle including automatic route guidance, the office in the vehicle, and the auto PC. There are a number of factors which need to come together before significant momentum can develop toward realizing any of these predictions. This paper enumerates these factors and explores the current state and possible evolution of each. While each of these factors could stall progress, the linchpin is likely to be wireless communication. The current state of wireless and its capabilities going forward are examined in depth.
5G? V2X? Edge Computing? Where will it end for enabled digital services and connectivity? Where should we be investing our time and in which technology? How do we manage it and what are the best tools for each situation? Experts talk about these and other technologies that make Terabits of information flowing through tomorrow’s vehicle. Hear experts address technical drivers to meet known and unknown customer expectation? Navigation is critical to ensuring passengers get to their destinations quickly, safely, and as efficiently as possible. HD mapping is critical function for ensuring automated vehicles (L2+ and L4+) are able to effectively navigate their environments by avoiding obstructions, obstacles, road closures, and traffic to ensure safe and reliable transportation.
This work falls in the context of aeronautical maintenance processes. The purpose is to increase the effectiveness and the efficiency of the operations carried out during the activities in the processes mentioned above, as well as the reduction of the incidence of the human error in the development of these activities, with consequent implicit increase of the safety of the aircrafts. Human error has been documented as a primary contributor to more than 70 percent of commercial airplane hull-loss accidents. While typically associated with flight operations, human error has also recently become a major concern in maintenance practices and air traffic management. We have tried to obtain an increment of the safety formalizing the information exchange process avoiding ambiguous, inaccurate or incomplete data that can indirectly encourage the deviation of the personnel from established procedures.
As automotive technology becomes more sophisticated the ability to troubleshoot and identify a malfunction becomes a more difficult and complex task, particularly without the assistance of specialised tools. A car manufacturer with the facility to identify and diagnose a malfunction before direct contact from the customer and possibly before the customer becomes aware that a problem exists would have a real competitive advantage in the market place. This paper proposes an architecture that may make this a reality. The architecture enables diagnostic information to be sent to a Case Based Reasoning (CBR) tool at the manufacturers premises when the car enters a hotspot (WI-FI enabled location). The CBR tool subsequently reviews diagnostic information to determine if a malfunction has occurred. If a malfunction is identified the customer is informed of the problem and is prompted to bring the car to a garage.
The wireless Spread Spectrum Ground Communication (SSGC) system will contribute to the enhancement of aircraft maintenance, flight, dispatch, and cargo operations efficiency. A concept layout of the wireless SSGC system implementation in an airport environment is illustrated in Figure 1. The SSGC system will provide both text/graphics data transmission and voice communication for flight crew, maintenance, and dispatch personnel in the airport gate environment. This system will link ground information system and onboard avionics systems, and provide access by ground crew to an information database through portable graphics terminals. The objective is to integrate both airborne avionics, ground crew, and ground based resources into a seamless operating system.
Second-generation radio access has been a major success story for the global telecommunications industry, delivering telephony and low bit-rate data services to mobile end-users. The growth rate of second-generation mobile telephony indicates that mobile communication is well on its way toward full mass-market penetration. Thanks to the tremendous growth of the Internet, multimedia is also penetrating the mass market at an explosive pace. Combined, the digital cellular footprint and the multimedia services of the Internet form the basis of tomorrows integrated wireless. The transition to third-generation capabilities must be based on a feasible migration path that defines a way of integrating multimedia, packet switching and wideband radio access into the dominating second-generation systems of our day.
The Wireless Integrated Cockpit Information Display (WICID) program developed a method for pilots to remotely control and display carry-on laptop based applications from the aircraft cockpit. Because flight safety concerns do not allow the pilot/copilot to use the standard keyboard and mouse devices during flight, the WICID program developed a multifunction display (MFD) that uses customized input devices such as bezel keys and a touch screen. The subsequent design of the WICID system became especially valuable in enhancing certain technologies critical to the military cockpit. This paper will address how the WICID system topology is uniquely suited to improve cockpit access to four main technology categories: Enhanced Situation Awareness (SA), Mission Planning/On-board Replanning, Enhanced Communication, and Navigation Aids.
The Wireless Integrated Cockpit Information Display (WICID) program originated as a request to remotely control and display laptop based applications from a cockpit without use of the standard keyboard and mouse devices. The resulting system utilized multifunction displays to allow control and display from a single device. The foundations of this system are divided into three technologies: 1) remote display, 2) customized input interface, and 3) application control. This modular approach provides a highly flexible and extendible system capable of remotely controlling several Microsoft Windows based applications, hosted across several processors, without requiring any modifications to those applications.
Future vehicles will have many features that include, but are not limited to, drive-by-wire, telematics, pre-crash warning, highway guidance and traffic alert systems. From time to time the vehicles will need to have their software modules updated for various reasons, such as to introduce new features in vehicles, the need to change the navigation map, the need to fine tune various features of the vehicles, etc. A remote software update has a number of advantages, such as it does not require consumers to take their vehicles to the dealers, and the dealers do not need to spend time on vehicles on an individual basis. Thus, remote software updates can save consumers' valuable time, as well as cost savings for the vehicle manufacturers. Since wireless links have limited bandwidth, uploading software in thousands of vehicles in a cost-effective and timely manner is a challenge. Another major issue related to the remote software update is the security of the update process.
This paper presents wireless multimedia communications with the intelligent transport system (ITS). First, the new concept of "environment communication" is introduced which combines one's environmental data and information with personal communication technology; the understanding is one's environment continually changing. This concept can secure his safe movement and/or control his level of comfort. The wireless agent is also proposed as one element of environment communication. This technology combines the conventional mobile agent function with information specific to the mobile terminal environment. Also, the combination of the wireless agent and ITS is discussed from the viewpoints of effective data communication. Furthermore, the concept of personal navigation based on personal handy-phone system (PHS) technology is introduced. Last, a couple of technologies to improve wireless transmission performance are discussed.
At last—here’s a comprehensive book that puts full details on all short-range wireless-positioning methods at your command for instant access and use. This one-stop resource surveys each technique’s theory of operation, advantages and disadvantages, applicability in different domains, implementation procedures, and accuracy to help you select the right technology for any application and ensure the best results possible. Real-life examples together with 161 diagrams help bring all options into sharp focus. After introducing wireless positioning fundamentals along with various personal, commercial, and industrial applications, the book guides you step by step through radio signal time of flight methods, the signal strength method, the angle of arrival system, and the geometric use of distance measurement to determine location. It discusses location awareness applications and implementations using cellular networks.
Wireless power transfer (WPT) of plug-in and battery electric vehicles (PEV�s) rely on loosely coupled transformer operating in magnetic resonance to tune out reactive effects. Depending on the degree of coupling, such systems experience a single peak response that trends to bifurcate as the coefficient of coupling increases. This places additional burden on the WPT grid side power controller to not only manage the power transfer process but to manage the transmit coil to receiver coil reactive power in response to vehicle ground clearance and misalignment tolerance. In addition, the WPT rectified output voltage must dynamically match the vehicle on-board regenerative energy storage system (RESS). This paper examines the essentials of WPT operation and challenges facing the commercialization of wireless charging. Experimental results obtained from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory WPT apparatus are presented as validation of the theory. Presenter John Miller, ORNL
As Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (EVs and HEVs) become more prevalent, there is a need to change the power source from gasoline on the vehicle to electricity from the grid in order to mitigate requirements for onboard energy storage (battery weight) as well as to reduce dependency on oil by increasing dependency on the grid (our coal, gas, and renewable energy instead of their oil). Traditional systems for trains and buses rely on physical contact to transfer electrical energy to vehicles in motion. Until recently, conventional magnetically coupled systems required a gap of less than a centimeter. This is not practical for vehicles of the future.
SAE TIR J2954 establishes an industry-wide specification guideline that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, minimum performance, safety and testing for wireless charging of light duty electric and plug-in electric vehicles. The current version addresses unidirectional charging, from grid to vehicle, but bidirectional energy transfer may be evaluated for a future standard. The specification defines various charging levels that are based on the levels defined for SAE J1772 conductive AC charge levels 1, 2 and 3, with some variations. A standard for wireless power transfer (WPT) based on these charge levels will enable selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging, and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging.