This report presents information on gas energy limited starting systems which represent current state-of-the-art technology. The systems presented are those which utilize solid propellant cartridge gas, monopropellant hydrazine gas, bipropellant gas, compressed stored gas, and cryogenic stored nitrogen. These gas energy limited starting systems have been utilized in various commercial and military aircraft, onboard Naval vessels, and at remote industrial sites. The information presented herein is intended to familiarize the aerospace industry with the design, performance, capabilities, and limitations of these systems.
Methods of computing the energy available from each system are provided. The amount of energy required is a function of the drag and inertia characteristics of the engine to be started and the torque output, inertia, and efficiency of the starter which uses this energy.