Considerations on Ice Formation in Aircraft Fuel Systems
In the past, incidents and accidents occurred in the operation of military and civil aircraft which were attributed to the formation of ice in the engine fuel supply system resulting in intermittent or complete starvation of fuel flow. Considerable effort was devoted by many airframe companies, engine and accessory manufacturers and government agencies to study the problem of ice formation and to evolve corrective measures. By its very nature, the problem of ice formation was difficult to identify and analyze. However, corrective measures were developed which virtually eliminated serious icing problems in aircraft fuel systems. For many years incidents and accidents have not occurred on aircraft equipped with fuel heaters and/or operated with fuel containing anti-icing additive.