Procedure for the Analysis and Evaluation of Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533 is a procedure for the analysis and evaluation of the measured composition of the exhaust gas from aircraft engines. Measurements of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, total hydrocarbon, and the oxides of nitrogen are used to deduce emission indices, fuel-air ratio, combustion efficiency, and exhaust gas thermodynamic properties. The emission indices (EI) are the parameters of critical interest to the engine developers and the atmospheric emissions regulatory agencies because they relate engine performance to environmental impact.
While this procedure is intended to guide the analysis and evaluation of the emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines, the methodology may be applied to the analysis of the exhaust products of any hydrocarbon/air combustor. Some successful applications include:
Aircraft engine combustor development rig tests (aviation jet fueled)
Stationary source combustor development rig tests (natural gas and diesel fueled)
Afterburning military engine tests (aviation jet fueled)
Each application may be characterized by very different measured emissions levels (parts per million versus percent by volume) but this common approach solves the same basic combustion chemical equation.
Major advances are occurring in gas analysis technology, and will continue to occur in the near future. New instruments may be accepted by the regulatory agencies such that it may no longer be appropriate to specify the measurement method for each chemical species.
The matrix method of solving the combustion chemical equation is recommended because of all the potential variations in exhaust gas measurement requirements. Changes in the fuel type, addition of diluents, addition of measured species, and options for wet or dry basis measurements are most easily handled by revising individual matrix row equations. Matrix solution software is widely available on personal computers. However, derivation of the algebraic solution of the chemical equation is retained for traceability to previous versions of this document. This document also contains a section pertaining to data quality checks, measurement uncertainty, and water content calculations.
SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice ARP1533C updates the semi-dry equations (n°26-37 and 55) to use the mathematically exact expression of hsd, and equations 43 and 51 to be correct when x (number of moles of carbon in the hydrocarbon exhaust) is different than 1. Equation 56 (carbon balance indicator) was also corrected.
In section 4, the list of options regarding the composition of the unburned hydrocarbons of the exhaust gas has been rephrased for clarity, and to highlight the consequences of that choice. Note that there is no difference in method with the previous versions of the document.
The previous update to ARP1533B resolved two discrepancies and corrected several typographical errors. The first discrepancy concerned the third column in Table 1 that listed the molecular mass for a variety of fuels. In both ARP1533A and ICAO Annex 16, the molecular mass of fuel used in the calculation of the emission indices and air to fuel ratio is defined as m(MC + α MH). The third column in Table 1 has been eliminated to avoid confusion with other listings of fuel mass.
The second discrepancy concerned the units of the interference coefficients and the form of the interference correction equations. The original AIR1533 described the interference effects as either a “zero shift” or a “concentration factor” effect. ICAO Annex 16 and ARP1256 specify the maximum limits of each interference coefficient with units for each parameter:
The interference effects on the CO measurement were described as “zero shift” effects with the form:
The “zero shift” descriptor is consistent with the units of L and M in the table above. Some number of ppm CO is added to the measured CO concentration for each mole percent CO2 or H2O that was present. The interference effects on the NOx measurement were described as a “concentration factor” effect with the form:
The “concentration factor” descriptor is consistent with the units of L’ and M’ in the table above. The measured NOx concentration is multiplied by a factor representing the percent reduction in the NO reading for each mole percent CO2 or H2O that was present. The “concentration factor” descriptor is also consistent with the units of J in the table above. The measured CO2 concentration is multiplied by a factor representing the percent reduction in the CO2 reading for each mole percent O2 that was present.
Therefore, the units for the interference coefficients and the forms of the interference correction equations must be compatible. ARP1533A incorrectly specified all of the interferences to be zero shifts. Equations 15, 16, 17, 19, 20, 21, and 25 in ARP1533A were modified by leaving out the [NOx]ms, [NO]ms, [CO2]ms terms to make them compatible with the “P” terms (moles). However, Equations 35, 36, 37, 40, and 41 (the equations used in the matrix A) retained the [NOx]ms, [NO]ms, [CO2]ms terms which is consistent with the ARP1256 units on the interference coefficients. Both of the sample calculations in the ARP1533A used the correct units for the interference coefficients and the correct forms of the equations.
Note that if, in the future, the form of interference coefficients are changed, then so too must the form of the correction equations. Every attempt should be made for consistency between ARP1533, ICAO Annex 16 Volume II and ARP1256.