Power Quality Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Chargers
The intent of this document is to develop a recommended practice for PEV chargers, whether on-board or off-board the vehicle, that will enable equipment manufacturers, vehicle manufacturers, electric utilities and others to make reasonable design decisions regarding power quality. The three main purposes are as follows:
To identify those parameters of PEV battery charger that must be controlled in order to preserve the quality of the AC service.
To identify those characteristics of the AC service that may significantly impact the performance of the charger.
To identify values for power quality, susceptibility and power control parameters which are based on current U.S. and international standards. These values should be technically feasible and cost effective to implement into PEV battery chargers.
SAE J2894/2 Power Quality Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicle Chargers – Test Methods will describe the test methods for the parameters / requirements in this document.
The proliferation of nonlinear loads such as switching power supplies, variable frequency drives and battery chargers have led to a higher level of concern over the impacts of power quality. More precisely there are three major reasons for these concerns:
Sensitive microprocessor based devices are more susceptible to power variances.
The increased number of non-linear devices has resulted in the rise of harmonics onto the power system leading to reduced system reliability.
The vast networkability of devices has led to larger consequences from failure.
Ultimately, the success of widespread plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging depends in major part to the reliability of both the electric grid and the charger. To meet the needs of PEV operators, PEV chargers must be sufficiently robust, reliable and cost effective. In order to achieve this goal, vehicle and equipment manufacturers along with electric utility companies must understand the characteristics of the AC service to which the charger will be connected, as well as the impact chargers can have on service quality. The charger is the “conduit” through which energy moves from the AC line to the vehicle’s battery. For practical purposes, it is the charger that controls power quality.
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