Cybersecurity Guidebook for Cyber-Physical Vehicle Systems
This recommended practice provides guidance on vehicle Cybersecurity and was created based off of, and expanded on from, existing practices which are being implemented or reported in industry, government and conference papers. The best practices are intended to be flexible, pragmatic, and adaptable in their further application to the vehicle industry as well as to other cyber-physical vehicle systems (e.g., commercial and military vehicles, trucks, busses). Other proprietary Cybersecurity development processes and standards may have been established to support a specific manufacturer’s development processes, and may not be comprehensively represented in this document, however, information contained in this document may help refine existing in-house processes, methods, etc. This recommended practice establishes a set of high-level guiding principles for Cybersecurity as it relates to cyber-physical vehicle systems. This includes: • Defining a complete lifecycle process framework that can be tailored and utilized within each organization’s development processes to incorporate Cybersecurity into cyber-physical vehicle systems from concept phase through production, operation, service, and decommissioning. • Providing information on some common existing tools and methods used when designing, verifying and validating cyber-physical vehicle systems. • Providing basic guiding principles on Cybersecurity for vehicle systems. • Providing the foundation for further standards development activities in vehicle Cybersecurity. The appendices provide additional information to be aware of and may be used in helping improve Cybersecurity of feature designs. Much of the information identified in the appendices is available but some experts may not be aware of all of the available information. Therefore, the appendices provide an overview of some of this information to provide further guidance on building Cybersecurity into cyber-physical vehicle systems. The objective of the overviews is to encourage research to help improve designs and identify methods and tools for applying a company’s internal Cybersecurity process. Appendices A-C - Describe some techniques for Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment, Threat Modeling and Vulnerability Analysis (e.g., Attack Trees) and when to use them. Appendices D-I - Provide awareness of information that is available to the Vehicle Industry. Appendix D - Provides an overview of sample Cybersecurity and privacy controls derived from NIST SP 800-53 that may be considered in design phases. Appendix E - Provides references to some available vulnerability databases and vulnerability classification schemes. Appendix F - Describes vehicle-level considerations, including some good design practices for electrical architecture. Appendix G -Lists current Cybersecurity standards and guidelines of potential interest to the vehicle industry. Appendix H - Provides an overview of vehicle Cybersecurity-related research projects starting from 2004. Appendix I - Describes some existing security test tools of potential interest to the vehicle industry. Refer to the definitions section to understand the terminology used throughout the document.
Rationale: SAE J3061 Recommended Practice both provides and describes a cybersecurity process framework from which an organization can develop an internal cybersecurity process to design and build cybersecurity in to vehicle systems. The process framework and description covers the entire product life-cycle, including post production aspects with respect to service, incident monitoring, incident response, etc. J3061 was developed to contain the essential building block elements with the intent that it would be further developed and refined into a standard with additional international participation. This revision will add the intended additional requirements, test methods, etc. need to move J3061 to a full Standards. This standard is intended to be applied to the development of vehicle systems that could be adversely impacted by cybersecurity attacks. It includes requirements for post-production, including service, decommissioning, incident monitoring and incident response. Finally, it includes classification of a cybersecurity “integrity level” to facilitate communication among developers (e.g., manufacturers, suppliers, organizations outside the vehicle boundary) by providing a common language for classifying and understanding cybersecurity risk. The classification also provides a common understanding of the level of rigor needed to ameliorate cybersecurity risk. The process described by the standard will be designed to facilitate coordination with an organization’s safety process, but will not require coordination with an existing safety process and can be a stand-alone process.
The standard is goal-based rather than prescriptive, to allow each organization to tailor the implementation of the standard to their existing product development processes, activities, and solutions, e.g., countermeasures.