Taxonomy of “Safety Principle” types (or classes), with representative examples highlighted (where they may already exist) or definition of a new unified set Safety Principles for ADS developers (where there may be multiple existing, or none existing at all).
Examples of Safety Principles studied in the V&V Safety Principles TF that would be categorized into classes include:
• J3018 Development Assumptions
• CAMP AVR
• University of Waterloo’s WISE model
• Intel’s RSS model
• J3131’s Behavioral Checker
• SAE ITC AVSC’s forthcoming Best Practices
• RAND’s Measuring Automated Vehicle Safety: Forging a Framework
Possible types (or classes) of “Safety Principles” identified by the TF included (but were not limited to): Operational, Behavioral, Developmental.
Rationale: There are as many interpretations of what constitutes a “Safety Principle” as the number of example principles themselves. The Validation and Verification (V&V) Task Force completed an informal survey of “Safety Principles” and discovered a rich set of valuable but distinctly different kinds of “Safety Principles.” Some focused on operational principles important when deploying an ADS-equipped vehicle, while others focused on behavioral characteristics of an ADS-equipped vehicle in operation. Many have also noted the need for “Safety Principles” when developing an ADS, and the SAE recently announced an ITC that will deliver recommendations for Best Practices, many of which are anticipated to be considered “Safety Principles” of significant value to Validation and Verification activities. In addition NHTSA has also called upon Industry to define and develop a set of “Safety Principles” for Industry use.
In short, the need for clarification on categories and definitions of “Safety Principles” is urgent; not only to ensure the industry has a common “taxonomy” when discussing “Safety Principles” but also to ensure that ADS developers are considering the right kinds of “Safety Principles” that may be relevant for their activities.