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Technical Paper

Improving Robotic Accuracy through Iterative Teaching

2020-03-10
2020-01-0014
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation.
Technical Paper

Case Study on the Challenges and Responses of a Large Turnkey Assembly Line for the C919 Wing

2020-03-10
2020-01-0010
Design and production of an assembly system for a major aircraft component is a complex undertaking, which demands a large-scale system view. Electroimpact has completed a turnkey assembly line for producing the wing, flap, and aileron structures for the COMAC C919 aircraft in Xi’an, China. The project scope includes assembly process design, material handling design, equipment design, manufacture, installation, and first article production support. Inputs to the assembly line are individual component parts and small subassemblies. The assembly line output is a structurally completed set of wing box, flaps, and ailerons, for delivery to the Final Assembly Line in Shanghai. There is a trend toward defining an assembly line procurement contract by production capacity, versus a list of components, which implies that an equipment supplier must become an owner of production processes.
Technical Paper

Influence of Zn, Mo, P, S-contained Engine Oil Additives on Abnormal Combustion in a Spark Ignition Engine

2020-01-24
2019-32-0586
A Spark Ignition Engine has some kinds of problem to be solved over many years, one of them is abnormal combustion; Low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) under low-speed, high-load driving conditions for vehicle, and pre-ignition under longterm operation without cleaning a combustion chamber for gas cogeneration. As a cause for abnormal combustion, engine oil droplets diluted by liquid fuel and peeled combustion deposits delivered from engine oil are proposed. In this study, experiments were conducted focusing on engine oil additives having different chemical structure and abnormal combustion behavior. A four-stroke side-valve single cylinder engine that allowed in-cylinder visualization of the combustion flame was used in the experiments. The experimental results showed that the influence of DTC additive on abnormal combustion is small and the zinc component contained in the DTP additives had the effect of advancing the autoignition timing.
Technical Paper

Impact of Soot and Engine Oil Additive Characteristics on Metallic Wear using Electron Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy

2020-01-24
2019-32-0601
Soot particles are produced inside the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engines and will later be exhausted into the thermosphere. Part of these particles will contaminate the engine oil. When this happens, diesel engine abrasion or, in a worst-case scenario, lubricant starvation will occur. This circumstance will eventually cause engine wear. This research uses X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique to analyze the additive element in engine oil. For wear test, this research uses tribology Four ball wear tester to substitute point contact wear mechanism. Then the worn surface is analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Confocal Microscope are used to study the effect of additive on soot dispersion in engine oil, which affects the metal wear mechanism. This research use Laser Particle Size Analyzer to investigate performance of soot dispersant additive in each engine oil.
Technical Paper

The Combustion Characteristic of Fuel Additives with Diesel–Ethanol Fuel blends on Engine Performance

2020-01-24
2019-32-0611
Reducing carbon dioxide (greenhouse gas) is one of the most important drivers to promote biofuels. Fuel from biomass has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and can gradually reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. However, fuel properties can differ significantly from standard diesel fuel and this will affect exhaust emissions and environmental pollution. Diesel – ethanol fuel blends development and specification are currently driven by the engine technology, existing fossil fuel specification and availability of feedstock. Thus, the aims of this study to investigate the effects of fuel additives with diesel–ethanol fuel blend under steady-state conditions. In the present study, the additives were palm diesel, n-butanol, ethyl acetate and di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP). The ratio of conventional diesel fuel to ethanol fuel to fuel additive are 80:15:5 by volume of fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Titanium Alloy (Ti6Al4V) Obtained by Additive Manufacturing

2020-01-13
2019-36-0112
The development of additive manufacturing processes (3D printing), applied to metal alloys, is in line with the industry's current need for optimization, cost and development time reduction, allowing the construction of representative prototypes with equivalent materials / mechanical characteristics and customized end products, such as prostheses and brake system calipers, for which Ti6Al4V alloy has wide application due to biocompatibility and resistance. In addition, the need for more resilient materials is becoming ever greater at same time that failures need to be avoided. The occurrence of failures in structural components generates consumer dissatisfaction, which can result in serious accidents and the use of numerical tools during the project contributes to its prediction. For this, it is necessary to know the structural characteristics of the material resulting from the printing processes to guarantee robust designs.
Technical Paper

Factorial Analysis of Otto Cycle Engine Operating Parameters on the Exhaust Gases Temperature

2020-01-13
2019-36-0205
Internal combustion engines are thermal machines that produce work by burning fuel and have a high power-to-weight ratio. A large part of the energy released in the combustion is lost with the exhaust gases and therefore is not converted to useful work. Thus, the understanding of the effects of engine operating factors such as rotation, type of fuel and type of coolant fluid on exhaust gases temperature, which is related to their specific enthalpy, allows optimizing engine performance. In this work, the operating parameters effect on the exhaust temperature were evaluated by means of a 2k factorial design of test runs performed on a Renault CLIO 1.6 Total Flex engine installed in a test bench. The factorial effects were evaluated using the ANOVA method with a significance level of 5%. The investigated factors levels were: rotation (1500 rpm and 3000 rpm), fuel (alcohol and gasoline), coolant (water without additive and water with additive).
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Standards Regulation Evolution Review - Current Outcomes and Future Perspectives

2020-01-13
2019-36-0174
Heavy duty vehicle (HDV) segment, as an important source of emissions that strongly impact air quality and human health - especially in urban centers - has been continuously challenged by the increasingly stringent emission limits. The adoption of emission standards for the heavy duty industry was initially launched by the United States, followed by the European Union and Japan, and, subsequently, by other countries, like Australia, Brazil, China and India, among others, generally with a time lag. This continuous “cleaning” effort has led to the current rigorous emission limits - materialized by the so called U.S. EPA 2010 and Euro VI and their foreign variants - which have provided huge emissions reductions (HC, CO, NOx, PM and smoke and, more recently, CO2).
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Oil Additives on Nanostructure and Oxidation Kinetics of Diesel and Synthetic Biodiesel Particulate Matters using Electron Microscopy

2019-12-19
2019-01-2351
Physicochemical characteristics of particulate matters which are influenced by engine oil additives from engine combustion of diesel and synthetic biodiesel: hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were successfully investigated using electron microscopy, electron dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The agglomerate structure of diesel PM, HVO PM and diesel blending lubricant PM are similar in micro-scales. However, nanostructure of soot is a spherical shape composed of curve line crystallites while the metal oxide ash nanostructure is composed of parallel straight line hatch patterns. The oxidation kinetics of fuel blending lubricant PMs are higher than neat fuel PMs due to catalytic effect of incombustible metal additives from engine lubricating oil.
Technical Paper

Research of the High Altitude Control Strategy of the Piston Aero-engine Using Two-stage Turbocharger Coupled with single Supercharging System

2019-12-19
2019-01-2211
Aiming at the high altitude operation problems for piston-type aero-engines and to improve the practical ceiling and high altitude dynamic performance, this thesis analyzes a controllable three-stage composite supercharging system, using a two-stage turbocharger coupled supercharger method. The GT-Power simulation model of a four-cylinder boxer engine was established, and the control strategy of variable flight height was obtained. The simulation research of engine performance from 0 to 20,000 meters above sea level has been carried out, which shows that the engine power is at the same level as the plain condition, and it could still maintain 85.28 percent of power even at the height of 20,000 meters, which meets the flight requirements of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

Investigating the impact of gasoline lubricity on the high pressure pumps operation

2019-12-19
2019-01-2213
Ever stringent emissions regulations have led the car manufacturers to optimize the combustion occurring inside Internal Combustion Engines as well as post-treating the emissions coming from the exhaust pipe. In particular, this led in the late 90's to the introduction of high pressure injection systems inside Diesel engines. This created a tricky situation in which at the same time, the state-of-the-art Diesel engines were requiring more lubricity from the fuel (to make the high pressure pump operate in proper conditions) while the lubricity of the fuels were decreasing due to the removal of sulphur & polar compounds. To cope with this, a method for measuring the lubricity of fuels has been developed (i.e. the HFRR test) and the use of lubricity additives became usual. Lately, as it is the case for Diesel engines, the Gasoline Direct Injection engines are using higher and higher injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Development of Refinery Additive Response Models to Optimise Fuel Production for New Internal Combustion Engine Technology

2019-12-19
2019-01-2191
There is increasing pressure to reduce well-to-wheel CO2 emissions in the internal combustion engine (ICE). This will require improvements in engine technology. An important aspect will include identification of the right fuel to match the new ICE’s requirements. It will likely require fuel production to move away from current production types. This is an additional optimisation that refineries will have to consider along with the other factors they balance to remain profitable. The use of additives is a key enabler to ensure that the fuels produced are fit-for-purpose whilst increasing refinery flexibility and hence profitability. However, for fuels, such as diesel, it has proved difficult to understand the variability of additive response with changes in fuel composition. This is particularly true for the cold flow response where subtle differences in fuels can impact additive appetite.
Technical Paper

The performance and mechanisms of organic polymeric friction modifiers in low viscosity engine oils

2019-12-19
2019-01-2204
The requirement of OEMs to reduce CO2 emissions is leading to a reduction in viscosity of engine oils with 0W20 approved oils now common. 0W 16 approvals are growing in popularity and will be further supported in the US by the introduction of ILSAC GF-6B. Japanese OEMs are driving the development of 0W- 12 and 0W08 grades which will be supported by JASO GLV-1. These low viscosity engine oils can contain MoDTC with very high levels of 1000+ppm molybdenum to achieve the fuel economy improvement required to pass engine tests such as Sequence VIE. Molybdenum usage at this level contributes to sulphated ash increase. It can also have a negative impact on deposits. This paper examines the performance and mechanism of two ashless polymeric friction modifiers in a 0W20 formulation. These polymeric friction modifiers have been shown to give fuel economy benefits in Sequence VIE engine tests.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Viscosity 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil using a Synergistic Optimization of an Innovative Base Oil and Performant Additives while Maintaining Engine Durability in a ILSAC GF6-B Environment

2019-12-19
2019-01-2240
Lowering fuel consumption whilst maintaining engine life continues to be a challenge for the lubricant industry. Forthcoming ILSAC GF-6 specification and new emission regulations make this challenge even harder to overcome. Knowledge concerning innovative polyalkylene glycol (PAG) chemistry combined with expertise in engine oil formulation (additives and mineral base oils) and a deep understanding of the friction within the engine were used to develop a 0W- 16 engine oil with better fuel economy performance than other 0W-16 oils present in the market. Indeed, to accurately measure the friction on several part of the engine, a 1.2 L supercharged gasoline engine was first dismantled to measure the lubricant friction and wear capabilities of different lubricant formulations (containing group III base oil, additives and OSP HVI) on different engine parts.
Technical Paper

New Approach to JASO Standardization of New Fired Fuel Economy Engine Dyno Test for the New JASO Gasoline Engine Oil Standard for Low Viscosity Grades (JASO GLV-1)

2019-12-19
2019-01-2297
A fired fuel economy engine test procedure developed by Toyota was proposed to be a new JASO test procedure. Under the JASO Task Force, the fired fuel economy engine test working group was formed. Four test laboratories from oil and additive industries in Japan participated in the JASO Round Robin matrix to evaluate the repeatability and the reproducibility with four candidate reference oils. These candidate reference oils include two viscosity grades and two additive technologies that represent fuel economy engine oil technologies in the Japanese market. The project was successfully completed and the procedure was proposed to be a part of the new JASO GLV-1 engine oil standard.
Technical Paper

Real-time Long Horizon Model Predictive Control of a Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle Power-Split Utilizing Trip Preview

2019-12-19
2019-01-2341
Given a forecast of speed and load demands during a trip, a hybrid powertrain power-split Trajectory Optimization Problem (TOP) can be solved to optimize fuel consumption. This can be done on desktop to set performance benchmarks; however, it has been believed that the TOP could not be solved in real-time and is not a realizable controller. As such, several approximations of the TOP have been made in the interest of obtaining a real-time near-optimal controller, for example, Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategies (ECMS) and their adaptive counterparts. These strategies decide on the power-split by, at each sampled time instant, minimizing a Horizon-0 (without predicting forward in time) composite function of fuel consumption and equivalent battery energy. The fuel economy that results from these strategies is highly sensitive to the calibration of the associated equivalence factor, and furthermore, must be chosen differently for different drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Studies on Characteristics of Nanoparticles Generated in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine

2019-12-19
2019-01-2328
Particles generated from lubricant in a gasoline direct injection (*GDI) engine were investigated in detail with the aim to understand the influence of components in lubricant on the amount of particles generated as well as their size. Analytical approach employed in this study was real-time engine tests combined with X-ray spectroscopic and electron-microscopic analyses. Real-time engine tests where particle number (PN) and particle size distribution were consecutively measured with oil consumption for lubricants with different formulas enabled us to extract information regarding lubricant-derived particles. This can be achieved only when sulfur species in lubricant are used as a “tracer” and thus, sulfur-free fuel possessing low PM Index (i.e., isooctane) needs to be used for the measurements.
Technical Paper

Impact of Viscosity Index Improvers (VII) on the formation of piston deposits in fuel economy engine oils

2019-12-19
2019-01-2202
In the recent years, the achievement of fuel economy through lower viscosity engine oil has been a topic of wide discussions among experts in the industry. Along this journey of engine oil evolution, new classes of Viscosity Index Improver (VIIs) have been developed in order to meet the challenges arising from either hardware re-engineering, environmental protection or both. In relation to this, the continuous tightening of the CO2 emission level from the authorities has made the situation even tougher for many OEMs and formulators worldwide. While the fuel economy performance in an engine has been intensively investigated, little has been published on the durability aspects of these VIIs nor other aspects such as cleanliness and piston deposits. In this paper, we will present no-harm test results for deposit formation comparing novel comb polymers and conventional hydrocarbon VIIs such as OCPs.
Technical Paper

An Efficient, High-Precision Vehicle Testing Procedure to Evaluate the Efficacy of Fuel-Borne Friction Modifier Additives

2019-12-19
2019-01-2353
Improved fuel economy is increasingly a key measure of performance in the automotive industry driven by market demands and tighter emissions regulations. Within this environment, one way to improve fuel economy is via fuel additives that deliver friction- reducing components to the piston-cylinder wall interface. Whilst the use of friction modifiers (FMs) in fuel or lubricant additives to achieve fuel economy improvements is not new, demonstrating the efficacy of these FMs in vehicles is challenging and requires statistical design together with carefully controlled test conditions. This paper describes a bespoke, efficient, high-precision vehicle testing procedure designed to evaluate the fuel economy credentials of fuel-borne FMs. By their nature, FMs persist on engine surfaces and so their effects are not immediately reversible upon changing to a non FM-containing fuel (“carryover” effect), therefore requiring careful design of the test programme.
Technical Paper

Understanding Base Oils and Lubricants for Electric Drivetrain Applications

2019-12-19
2019-01-2337
The penetration of hybridization and electrification (HEV and EV) technology into automotive powertrain designs is an evolving trend resulting from global regulations intended to reduce transportation-related emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants and to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. In many HEV and EV hardware designs, drivetrain fluids have contact with the integrated electric motor (e-motor), which requires electrical and thermal properties to be considered in addition to traditional fluid properties. This paper discusses new insights gained around electrical and thermal properties of drivetrain fluids, with a specific emphasis on understanding the critical impacts of base oils (BOs). Electrical and thermal properties data as a function of temperature for a range of BOs as well as automatic transmission fluids are shared.
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