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Viewing 1 to 30 of 85
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2908
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Margaret Yatsko, Matthew Yard, Matthew Organiscak, Eric Gallo, Andrew Huster, Jason Ward, Giorgio Rizzoni, Shawn W. Midlam-Mohler
Abstract The EcoCAR 2 team at the Ohio State University has designed an extended-range electric vehicle capable of 44 miles all-electric range, which features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and a 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report documents the team's refinement work on the vehicle during Year 3 of the competition, including vehicle improvements, control strategy calibration and dynamic vehicle testing, culminating in a 99% buy off vehicle that meets the goals set forth by the team. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S. Department of Energy, General Motors, The Ohio State University, and numerous competition and local sponsors.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1920
Amanda Hyde, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper describes the development and experimental validation of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) dynamic simulator that enables development, testing, and calibration of a traction control strategy. EcoCAR 2 is a three-year competition between fifteen North American universities, sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors that challenges students to redesign a Chevrolet Malibu to have increased fuel economy and decreased emissions while maintaining safety, performance, and consumer acceptability. The dynamic model is developed specifically for the Ohio State University EcoCAR 2 Team vehicle with a series-parallel PHEV architecture. This architecture features, in the front of the vehicle, an ICE separated from an automated manual transmission with a clutch as well as an electric machine coupled via a belt directly to the input of the transmission. The rear powertrain features another electric machine coupled to a fixed ratio gearbox connected to the wheels.
2013-10-14
Technical Paper
2013-01-2491
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Matthew Yard, Eric Gallo, Andrew Garcia, Matthew Organiscak, Andrew Huster, Margaret Yatsko, Jason Ward, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 51 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the fabrication and control implementation process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 2 of the competition. The fabrication process includes finalizing designs based on identified requirements, building and assembling components, and performing extensive validation testing on the mechanical, electrical and control systems.
2013-09-08
Journal Article
2013-24-0074
Federica Lacandia, Laura Tribioli, Simona Onori, Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper presents a sensitivity analysis-based study aimed at robustly calibrating the parameters of an adaptive energy management strategy designed for a Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV). The supervisory control is developed from the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle (PMP) approach and applied to a model of a GM Chevrolet Volt vehicle. The proposed controller aims at minimizing the fuel consumption of the vehicle over a given driving mission, by achieving a blended discharge strategy over the entire cycle. The calibration study is conducted over a wide set of driving conditions and it generates a look-up table and two constant values for the three controller parameters to be used in the in-vehicle implementation. Finally, the calibrated adaptive control strategy is validated against real driving cycles showing the effectiveness of the calibration approach.
2012-09-10
Journal Article
2012-01-1762
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni, Matthew Yard, Travis Trippel, Matthew Organiscak, Andrew Garcia, Eric Gallo, Mark Hornak, Andrew Palmer, Josh Hendricks
The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at the Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 50 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features a 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 75 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This report details the rigorous design process followed by the Ohio State team during Year 1 of the competition. The design process includes identifying the team customer's needs and wants, selecting an overall vehicle architecture and completing detailed design work on the mechanical, electrical and control systems. This effort was made possible through support from the U.S.
2011-09-11
Technical Paper
2011-24-0162
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
Energy management plays a key role in achieving higher fuel economy for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) technology; the state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining the fuel consumed. The energy management algorithm should be designed to meet all driving scenarios while achieving the best possible fuel economy. The knowledge of the power requirement during a driving trip is necessary to achieve the best fuel economy results; performance of the energy management algorithm is closely related to the amount of information available in the form of road grade, velocity profiles, trip distance, weather characteristics and other exogenous factors. Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) allow vehicles to communicate with one another and the infrastructure to collect data about surrounding, and forecast the expected events, e.g., traffic condition, turns, road grade, and weather forecast.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0880
Qiuming Gong, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
For simulation and analysis of vehicles there is a need to have a means of generating drive cycles which have properties similar to real world driving. A method is presented which uses measured vehicle speed from a number of vehicles to generate a Markov chain model. This Markov chain model is capable of generating drive cycles which match the statistics of the original data set. This Markov model is then used in an iterative fashion to generate drive cycles which match constraints imposed by the user. These constraints could include factors such number of stops, total distance, average speed, or maximum speed. In this paper, systematic analysis was done for a PHEV fleet which consists of 9 PHEVs that were instrumented using data loggers for a period of approximately two years. Statistical analysis using principal component analysis and a clustering approach was carried out for the real world velocity profiles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0875
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ryan McGee, Hai Yu
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1297
Robert Cooley, Davide Vezza, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-1220
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yue-Yun Wang
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance, reducing the turbo-lag phenomenon and improving the matching. However, the definition of the control system is particularly complex, as the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization. This work documents a characterization study of two-stage turbocharger systems. The study relies on a mean-value model of a Diesel engine equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, validated on experimental data. The turbocharger is characterized by a VGT actuator and a bypass valve (BPV), both located on the high-pressure turbine. This model structure is representative of a “virtual engine”, which can be effectively utilized for applications related to analysis and control. Using this tool, a complete characterization was conducted considering key operating conditions representative of FTP driving cycle operations.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0062
Stephanie Stockar, Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni
The objective draw by this project is to develop tools for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) design, energy analysis and energy management, with the aim of analyzing the effect of design, driving cycles, charging frequency and energy management on performance, fuel economy, range and battery life. A Chevrolet Equinox fueled by bio diesel B20 has been hybridized at the Center for Automotive Research (CAR), at The Ohio State University. The vehicle model has been developed in Matlab/Simulink environment, and validated based on laboratory and test. The PHEV battery pack has been modeled starting from Li-Ion batteries experimental data and then implemented into the simulator. In order to simulate “real world” scenarios, custom driving cycles/typical days were identified starting from average driving statistics and well-known cycles.
2009-09-13
Technical Paper
2009-24-0071
Vincenzo Marano, Pinak Tulpule, Stephanie Stockar, Simona Onori, Giorgio Rizzoni
Plug-In Hybrid Vehicles (PHEVs) represent the middle point between Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and Electric Vehicles (EVs), thus combining benefits of the two architectures. PHEVs can achieve very high fuel economy while preserving full functionality of hybrids - long driving range, easy refueling, lower emissions etc. These advantages come at an expense of added complexity in terms of available fuel. The PHEV battery is recharged both though regenerative braking and directly by the grid thus adding extra dimension to the control problem. Along with the minimization of the fuel consumption, the amount of electricity taken from the power grid should be also considered, therefore the electricity generation mix and price become additional parameters that should be included in the cost function.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0122
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yue-Yun Wang
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0143
Kerem Koprubasi, Andrea Pezzini, Beth Bezaire, Robert Cooley, Pinak Tulpule, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yann Guezennec, Shawn Midlam-Mohler
Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
2008-10-07
Technical Paper
2008-01-2655
Feilong Liu, Nicholas Dembski, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman, Brian Thompson, Bowie Vaughn
This paper discusses an improved design of a vehicle-based mobile off-road terrain profile measurement system. The proposed system includes an apparatus of sensors and on-board data acquisition hardware, equipped on a platform vehicle used to measure and record the relevant data while the vehicle travels through the off-road or terrain surface to be surveyed. A unique post-processing algorithm is then used to derive the elevation profile based on the collected data. The derived elevation profile data could be used to characterize the roughness of an off-road testing course or perform a general geographical survey or mapping. The major technical issue addressed in this system is to eliminate the effect of platform vehicle vibration on sensor measurement which if left unaddressed will result in large measurement error due to high amplitude pitch and roll movements of the platform vehicle.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0599
Michael Arnett, Giorgio Rizzoni, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, M. Kamel Salaani
This paper presents the implementation and performance of an electric all-wheel drive system on a series-parallel, through-the-road hybrid electric vehicle. Conventional methods of all-wheel drive do not provide a suitable solution for this type of vehicle as the powertrain lacks a mechanical link between the front and rear axles. Moreover, this unique architecture allows the vehicle to be propelled solely by the front, or the rear, wheels during typical operation. Thus, the algorithm presented here manages wheel slip by either the front, or rear wheels when engaging to provide all-wheel drive capability. necessary testing validates the robustness of this Extensive system.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0868
Mike Arnett, Kerem Bayar, Courtney Coburn, Yann Guezennec, Kerem Koprubasi, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Kris Sevel, Mohammad Shakiba-Herfeh, Giorgio Rizzoni
Traditionally in the United States, Diesel engines have negative connotations, primarily due to their association with heavy duty trucks, which are wrongly characterized as “dirty.” Diesel engines are more energy efficient and produce less carbon dioxide than gasoline engines, but their particulate and NOx emissions are more difficult to reduce than spark ignition engines. To tackle this problem, a number of after-treatment technologies are available, such as Diesel Lean NOx Traps (LNTs)), which reduces oxides of nitrogen, and the Diesel particulate filter (DPF), which reduces particulate matter. Sophisticated control techniques are at the heart of these technologies, thus making Diesel engines run cleaner. Another potentially unattractive aspect of Diesel engines is noise.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0085
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Joel Cowgill, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Yann Guezennec, Giorgio Rizzoni
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is considered a very promising concept to achieve low NOx and Particulate Matter emissions in traditional spark ignition and Diesel engines. However, controlling the complex mechanisms which govern the combustion process and finding a proper method for the fuel introduction for Diesel HCCI engines have proven to still be a challenge. In addition, the well known IMEP limitations of HCCI combustion restrict the benefits on emissions to low engine load conditions. The current work attempts to extend the benefits of HCCI combustion to a broader range of engine operating conditions by blending the conventional Direct Injection (DI) with the external fuel atomization. A dual combustion system could potentially overcome the limits of low-load operations and allow for a gradual transition between the conventional DI mode at high load and the HCCI external mixture formation at idle and low load.
2007-09-16
Technical Paper
2007-24-0079
T. Gabriel Choi, Vincenzo Marano, Yann Guezennec, Giorgio Rizzoni, Carlo Panzeri, Woongchul Choi
Strong dependency on crude oil in most areas of modern transportation needs lead into a significant consumption of petroleum resources over many decades. In order to maximize the effective use of remaining resources, various types of powertrain topologies, such as hybrid configurations among fuel cell, electric battery as well as conventional IC engine, have been proposed and tested out for number of vehicle classes including a personal commuting vehicle. In this paper the vehicle parameters are based on a typical commercial sub-compact vehicle (FIAT Panda) and energy needs are estimated on the sized powertrain. The main control approach is divided in two categories: off-line global optimization with dynamic programming (DP, not implementable in real time), and on-line Proportional and Feed-Forward with PI controllers. The proposed control approaches are developed both for charge-sustaining and charge-depleting mode and sample results are shown and compared.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0775
Wenguang Yan, Annalisa Scacchioli, Giorgio Rizzoni
An appropriate fault diagnosis and Isolation (FDI) strategy is very useful to prevent system failure. In this paper, a model-based fault diagnosis strategy is developed for an internal combustion engine (ICE) under speed control. Engine throttle fault and the manifold pressure sensor fault are detected and isolated. A nonlinear observer based residual generation approach is proposed. Manifold pressure and throttle are observed. Fault codes are designed with redundancy to prevent bit error. Performance of fault diagnosis strategy has been evaluated with simulations.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3498
Grant A. Malmedahl, Nicholas Dembski, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman, Lorenzo Disarò
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3260
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Gabriel Ursescu, Lorenzo Serrao, Giorgio Rizzoni, James Bechtel, Thomas Udvare, Michael Letherwood
This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
2006-09-14
Technical Paper
2006-01-3001
Yann G. Guezennec, Ta-young Gabriel Choi, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jeffery Marusiak, Benjamin Yurkovich, Woongchul Choi
There is increasing interest in the use of alternative fuels for transportation, due to the increasing cost of petroleum based fuels. One possible alternative to the use of petroleum for transportation is to use electric grid power. This paper explores a possible design solution based on a plug-in fuel cell hybrid. A scaled down version of FC-HEV that is applicable to this concept, has been implemented as a proof of concept with fast prototyping toolkits, including a 32 bit micro processor, Matlab/Simulink software and an embedded system development kit. The resulting prototype vehicle demonstrated a high gasoline equivalent MPG as well as a successful functionality of micro grid power generation.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0563
Steven Guba, Youngwook Ko, Giorgio Rizzoni, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Ted Wittman
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3560
Nicholas Dembski, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman
A methodology has been developed to generate military vehicle driving cycles for use in vehicle simulation models. This methodology is based upon the mission profile for a vehicle, which is typically given within a vehicle's specifications and lists the types of terrains that the vehicle is likely to encounter. A simplistic vehicle powertrain and road load model and the Bekker vehicle-soil interaction model are used to estimate the vehicle performance over each type of terrain. Two types of driving cycles are generated within a Graphical User Interface developed within MATLAB using the results of the vehicle models: Linear modes driving cycles, and Real-world driving cycles.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0071
Byungho Lee, Yann Guezennec, Giorgio Rizzoni
In this paper, the detection and isolation of actuator faults (both measured and commanded) occurring in the engine breathing and the fueling systems of a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine are described. The breathing system in an SIDI engine usually consists of a fresh air induction path via an electronically controlled throttle (ECT) and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) path via an EGR valve. They are dynamically coupled through the intake manifold to form a gas mixture, which eventually enters the engine cylinders for a subsequent combustion process. Meanwhile, the fueling system is equipped with a high-pressure common-rail injection for a precise control of the fuel quantity directly injected into the engine cylinders. Since the coupled system is highly nonlinear in nature, the fault diagnosis will be performed by generating residuals based on multiple nonlinear observers.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1043
Grant Malmedahl, Steve Guba, Don Butler, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jim Shively, Ahmed Soliman
This paper reviews existing approaches to the estimation of the state of wear of an automotive damper, with the aim of developing a methodology for a quick and effective diagnostic procedure that could be carried out in any repair facility. It has always been desirable to leave the shock absorber in place at the time of such testing, and there are three general procedures that claim to be effective at determining damper wear. This research investigates a method of controlling a short drop of each corner of the vehicle while measuring the acceleration. The acceleration data is then analyzed with the aim of estimating the decay rate of the resulting oscillation, which is known to be related to the damping ratio of the suspension system. The rate of decay is then used to infer the condition of the vehicles damper. The paper reviews the state of the art, describes the methodology and presents experimental validation of a new concept.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0938
Mohit Verma, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther, James L. Russell
This paper presents the results of a design space exploration based on the simulations of the MTV (Medium Tactical Vehicle) 5.0 Ton Cargo Truck using MSC-ADAMS (Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical System). Design space study is conducted using ADAMS/Car and ADAMS/Insight to consider parametric design changes in suspension and the tires of the cargo truck. The methodology uses an industry acknowledged multibody dynamics simulation software (ADAMS) for the modeling of the cargo truck and a flexible optimization architecture to explore the design space. This research is a part of the work done for the U.S. Army TACOM (Tank Automotive and Armaments Command) at the Center for Automotive Research, The Ohio State University.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1169
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Gabriel Ursescu, Jingchuan Li, Chris Hubert, Giorgio Rizzoni, Osvaldo Barbarisi, Chris Wilson
New vehicle technologies open up a vast number of new options for the designer, removing traditional constraints. Though hybrid powertrains have thus far been implemented chiefly to improve the fuel economy of already economical passenger cars, hybrid technology may have even more to offer in a performance vehicle. In the year when the C6 Corvette and two large GM hybrid projects have been unveiled, a new case study looks to combine these ideas and explore the performance limits for the next generation high performance sports car. Through an innovative transmission concept and thoughtful packaging, the next generation Corvette could enhance a 600 HP spark-ignited V-8 (supercharged LS2) with 1200 HP from electric machines, and still meet current emission standards. Such immense tractive power, however, would be useless without an intelligent means of delivering this power to the wheels.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1165
Nicholas Dembski, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman, Jim Fravert, Kenneth Kelly
Research has been conducted to develop a methodology for the generation of driving and duty cycles for refuse vehicles in conjunction with a larger effort in the design of a hybrid-electric refuse vehicle. This methodology includes the definition of real-world data that was collected, as well as a data analysis procedure based on sequencing of the collected data into micro-trips and hydraulic cycles. The methodology then applies multi-variate statistical analysis techniques to the sequences for classification. Finally, driving and duty cycles are generated based on matching the statistical metrics and distributions of the generated cycles to the collected database. Simulated vehicle fuel economy for these cycles is also compared to measured values.
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