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Viewing 181 to 210 of 39469
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9049
M. Fujita, H. Tanaka, H. Muramatsu, H. Asoh, S. Ono
The anodic oxide films are formed to improve the corrosion resistance on aluminum alloy that used as the parts of engines and car bodies. Because these films are porous structure, it is necessary to seal the pores to further improve the corrosion resistance. The pores are sealed with hydrated alumina by treating the films in boiling water or solution that added sealing additives. These hydration sealing has a problem that energy consumption is large because of long sealing time and high temperature of solution. In this study, the authors have developed a new sealing treatment (Lithium sealing) using a lithium hydroxide solution to solve above problem. Lithium sealing mainly sealed the pores with lithium aluminate double salt (LiH(AlO2)2·5H2O). This salt was rapidly formed in strong alkaline solution at room temperature, so that the sealing time was reduced to about 1/10 compared with the conventional sealing.
2013-10-15
Technical Paper
2013-32-9047
Kota Nakauchi, Atsushi Ito, Takeshi Ohara, Hideaki Kato, Hisayoshi Ogura, Shosuke Suzuki
Recently, the electronic fuel injection systems have been widely applied to small motorcycles including scooters. In the high pressure fuel lines, plastic hoses have been increasingly used instead of conventional rubber hoses. As the plastic hose is less elastic than the rubber hose, the fuel pressure pulsates more in the plastic hose. To cope with this issue, we have conducted researches on how the fuel pressure pulsation in the plastic hose affects the accuracy of fuel injection. Keeping our eyes on the pulsation damping effects derived from the changes of volume due to the expansion and contraction of hose when the pressure changes, we have established the analysis method for optimization of the inner diameter and the thickness of the hose utilizing CAE analysis. The newly-developed plastic hose is applicable to motorcycles having a single cylinder 250 cm3 engine using an injector of a high static flow rate.
2013-10-15
Journal Article
2013-32-9046
Takehiro Uhara, Hirotaka Kurita
A monolithic type aluminum (Al) cylinder made of hypereutectic Aluminum-Silicon alloy has been widely used for motorcycle applications. It has a lightweight structure and a superior cooling ability owing to its material property and surface finishing. Usually the cylinder bore surface of the monolithic type Al cylinder is finished by an etching process or a honing process in order to expose silicon (Si) particles from aluminum (Al) matrix for the improvement of the tribological properties. The morphology of the cylinder bore surface including the exposure of Si particles is supposed to make an important effect on its tribological properties, especially on the anti-scuffing property. In this research, the anti-scuffing property of three kinds of cylinder bore finishing, an etched surface, a Si exposure honed surface and a conventional plateau honed surface is evaluated with using a reciprocated type wear tester. The experimental results are analyzed by using Weibull analysis.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0074
Christian Angrick, Sebastiaan van Putten, Günther Prokop
In investigation and development of road tires within passenger car development, temperature dependency of tire characteristics is often neglected. This research however explicitly focuses on investigation and identification of temperature dependency of tire characteristics and its interaction with other inner tire states. To this extent, a novel method using a thermographic camera for measurement of both tire core and surface temperature is used. On the basis of these measurements, the dependency of cornering stiffness, relaxation length and lateral coefficient of friction on either core or surface temperature is presented. Moreover, the effect of tire core temperature on inner pressure is investigated. By choice of appropriate operating conditions, the effects of temperature and inner pressure on tire characteristics is investigated separately. A mechanical-analytical analysis forms the basis for derivation of the relationship between material attributes and tire characteristics.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0646
Emmanuel Schlickmann, Carlos Mauricio Sacchelli
Injection is one of the most used methods on plastic molding. The development of the mold is a very important procedure and requires time before the product is injected. An injection mold has a main runner, a secondary runner and the injection gate. The submarine gate is widely used, for allowing the automatic parting of the injected product from the runner system at the time the mold is opened. By literature reviewing, it can be noticed that the authors do not have accordance relative to the diameter dimensions of the secondary runner and the injection gate. This research's objective is to analyze and compile the best indicated values, with the aid of CAE tool, to submarine gates, for them to be used as reference for future studies.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0374
Rafael Antonio Bruno, Guilherme Soares de Faria, Davi Antonio da Silva
Technologies focusing fuel consumption and CO2 reduction are being discussed for all car makers worldwide. For the South America it is not different and government initiatives like Inovar-Auto are being released in order to enable these solutions for the Brazilian engines. After the introduction of the flex fuel technology, Brazilian passenger car engines are starting to be exposed to other technical challenges, as the increasing of the specific power output (downsizing trend) in order to attend the legislation requirements. The consequence of that is the miniaturization of the components, followed by a more aggressive thermal-mechanical working condition, as well as the reduction of the mechanical losses. Within this environment, it is expected from the piston ring pack to cope with its functionality, to have a stable performance during its service life and extended durability.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0370
Raissa Monteiro Pereira, Vinicius André Rodrigues Henriques, José Luis de Oliveira, Edevaldo Faria Diniz
Titanium alloys parts are ideally suited for advanced aerospace systems because of their unique combination of high specific strength and superior resistance to many corrosive environments, in addition to excellent composite compatibility. Despite these features, use of titanium alloys in engines and airframes is limited by cost. Therefore, the improvement of processing techniques for titanium alloys production became a trend of the modern metallurgic technology. This work presents results of the microstructural development of Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo alloy produced by arc melting and powder metallurgy processes. This alloy has important applications in aerospace area, in sections exposed to high temperatures. Samples of this alloy were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy), XRD (X-ray diffraction), Vickers microhardness measurements and density.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0585
Luciana C. M. F. Diogenes
Tribological properties in two sliding surfaces can be improved by creation of micro cavities, or dimples, in one of the two surfaces. Laser can generate dimples with higher repeatability rate than machining process. However, higher precision and efficiency are not reached in the same time by any laser. Nanosecond laser allows high ablation rates but is noted the formation of the burr around the dimple and creating of bigger heat-affected zone (HAZ). Picoseconds and femtoseconds lasers also called of ultrashort lasers pulse create dimples almost without burrs and with smaller HAZ. Although ultrashort lasers pulses are better than short lasers pulses, the time to create thousands of dimples is longer. In the industry, quality and time are fundamentals parameters. Then, it is necessary to evaluate the better laser for your application.
2013-10-07
Technical Paper
2013-36-0603
Lírian Said de Lima, César Tadeu Nasser Medeiros Branco, Rodrigo Maurício Costa dos Santos, Frank Valdo Monteiro de Lima, Deibson Silva da Costa, Wassim Raja El Banna, Roberto Tetsuo Fujiyama
The use of composite materials reinforced with natural fibers has been widely studied in recent research seen the availability of feedstock and mainly because the productions facility, low cost and because they are biodegradable. In order to expand the applications of composite materials, this paper proposed to develop hybrid laminar composites associating natural fibers as jute, sisal and curaua in an array of type resin polyester and compare them with commercial bumpers available on the market. The sisal and curaua fibers were manually cut into lengths of 50 mm and then were arranged and incorporated separately with the polyester resin and the jute fiber cut, as a blanket in length 400 × 400 mm2 adopting for that a simple and manual manufacture process. Finally, it was executed a tensile test in hybrid laminated, and then a comparative study of tensile properties of different laminated hybrid composites, jute-sisal, jute-curaua and between the results of the commercial bumpers.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0902
Virgiliu-Adrian Savu, Yung-Li Lee, Anthony Han, Azadeh Narimissa, Amir Kazemi
Abstract Dang Van (Dang Van et al., 1982 and Dang Van, 1993) states that for an infinite lifetime (near fatigue limit), crack nucleation in slip bands may occur at the most unfavorable oriented grains, which are subject to plastic deformation even if the macroscopic stress is elastic. Since the residual stresses in these plastically deformed grains are induced by the restraining effect of the adjacent grains, it is assumed that the residual stresses are stabilized at a mesoscopic level. These stresses are currently approximated by the macroscopic hydrostatic stress defined by the normal stresses to the faces of an octahedral element oriented with the faces symmetric to the principal axis; mathematically they are equal to each other and they are the average of the principal stresses.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0901
Ali Fatemi, Steve Mellot, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Charles Buehler
Abstract An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate tensile and fatigue behaviors of two thermoplastics, a neat impact polypropylene and a mineral and elastomer reinforced polyolefin. Tensile tests were performed at various strain rates at room, −40°C, and 85°C temperatures with specimens cut parallel and perpendicular to the mold flow direction. Tensile properties were determined from these tests and mathematical relations were developed to represent tensile properties as a function of strain rate and temperature. For fatigue behavior, the effects considered include mold flow direction, mean stress, and temperature. Tension-compression as well as tension-tension load-controlled fatigue tests were performed at room temperature, −40°C and 85°C. The effect of mean stress was modeled using the Walker mean stress model and a simple model with a mean stress sensitivity factor.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0889
Shuming Chen, Yawei Huang, Dengfeng Wang, Dengzhi Peng, Xuewei Song
This paper proposes a new method of predicting the sound absorption performance of polymer wool using artificial neural networks (ANN) model. Some important parameters of the proposed model have been adjusted to best fit the non-linear relationship between the input data and output data. What's more, the commonly used multiple non-linear regression model is built to compare with ANN model in this study. Measurements of the sound absorption coefficient of polymer wool based on transfer function method are also performed to determine the sound absorption performance according to GB/T18696. 2-2002 and ISO10534- 2: 1998 (E) standards. It is founded that predictions of the new model are in good agreement with the experiment results.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0825
Yi-Hsin Chen, Xu Chen, Nan Xu, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract The residual stresses found in components are mainly due to thermal, mechanical and metallurgical changes of material. The manufacturing processes such as fabrication, assembly, welding, rolling, heat treatment, shot peening etc. generate residual stresses in material. The influence of residual stress can be beneficial or detrimental depending on nature and distribution of the residual stress in material. In general, the compressive residual stress can increase the fatigue life of material because it provides greater resistance for crack initiation and propagation. A significant number of improvements for residual stress measurement techniques have occurred in last few decades. The most popular technique of residual stress measurement is based on the principle of strain gage rosette and hole drilling (ASTM E837-01, destructive).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0835
Abhinav Karanam, Vishank Kumar, Lukas Bichler
Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) doped with Yttria exhibits superplastic behaviour, corrosion resistance and excellent ion conducting properties [1] at moderate temperatures and thus it can be used as an electroceramic to measure the pH of high temperature water used in fuel cells. Several fabrication processes are available for preparation of zirconia ceramics. This research focused on the study of using Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) process to prepare Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) ceramic. 8 mol% YSZ was subjected to varying SPS sintering conditions. Samples were sintered by changing the heating cycle, dwell time, sintering pressure and cooling cycle. Subsequently, these parameters were related to the densification characteristics of the as-sintered YSZ. The results of specific gravity measurements and microstructure evaluation suggest that stepped heating followed by a slow cooling results in YSZ with highest relative density (99.9%).
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0836
Vishank Kumar, Dimitry Sediako, Lukas Bichler
The demand for light weight vehicles continues to stimulate extensive research into the development of light weight casting alloys and optimization of their manufacturing processes. Of primary relevance are Aluminum (Al) and Magnesium (Mg) based alloys, which have successfully replaced selected iron based castings in automobiles. However, optimization of as-cast microstructure, processing and performance remains a challenge for some Al-based alloys. In this context, placement of chills in castings has been frequently used to locally manipulate the solidification conditions and microstructure of a casting. In this work, the effect of using an active copper chill on the residual strain profile of a sand-cast B319 aluminum alloy was investigated. Wedge-shaped castings were produced with three different cooling conditions: copper plate chill, copper pipe with cooling water and no chill (baseline).
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0829
Guobiao Yang, Jingyu Wang, Qirong Zhu, Ruhua Fang, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract With the rapid development of computing technology, high-speed photography system and image processing recently, in order to meet growing dynamic mechanical engineering problems demand, a brief description of advances in recent research which solved some key problems of dynamic photo-elastic method will be given, including:(1) New digital dynamic photo-elastic instrument was developed. Multi-spark discharge light source was replaced by laser light source which was a high intensity light source continuous and real-time. Multiple cameras shooting system was replaced by high-speed photography system. The whole system device was controlled by software. The image optimization collection was realized and a strong guarantee was provided for digital image processing. (2)The static and dynamic photo-elastic materials were explored. The new formula and process of the dynamic photo-elastic model materials will be introduced. The silicon rubber mold was used without the release agent.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0827
Songgang Li, Guobiao Yand, Weiming Zeng
Abstract The port structure consisting of spur pile, vertical pile and beam is subjected to impact loads, so its internal stress state of each point will rapidly change over time. Dynamic photoelastic method is used to study the dynamic stress and stress wave propagation. With epoxy resin and other materials, a photoelastic model of beam to column connection structure is processed and product. The dynamic response of the model under the impact load by the free fall is researched by the dynamic photoelastic method, and recorded by the new digital dynamic photoelastic system with a laser source and high-speed photography system. The internal dynamic stress propagation and distribution, the maximum shear stress and the dynamic stress concentration problems can be obtained by analyzing the dynamic response.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0828
Guobiao Yang, Yingbin Chi, Qirong Zhu, Lianxiang Yang
Abstract In this paper, Digital Image Correlation Method (DICM) is employed to measure the shear mechanical property of the new style automotive structural adhesive specimens and traditional spot welded specimens under quasi static uniaxial shear tensile test. This experiment adopts a non-contact measuring method to measure the strain of specimens. A CCD and a computer image processing system are used to capture and record the real-time surface images of the specimens before and after deformation. Digital correlation software is used to process the imagines before and after deformation to obtain the specimen's strain of the moment. And then both the force-displacement curve and the stress-strain curve during the tensile process could be obtained. The test and analysis results show that the new style structural adhesive specimens have a great advantage with the spot welded specimens. It provides experimental evidence for further improvement of this structural adhesive.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0837
Anthony Lombardi, Dimitry Sediako, C. (Ravi) Ravindran, Robert Mackay
The development of an optimized heat treatment schedule, with the aim of maximizing strength and relieving tensile residual stress, is important to prevent in-service cylinder distortion in Al alloy engine blocks containing cast-in gray iron liners. However, to effectively optimize the engine block heat treatment schedule, the current solutionizing parameters must be analyzed and compared to the as-cast condition to establish a baseline for residual stress relief. In this study, neutron diffraction was carried out to measure the residual stress along the aluminum cylinder bridge following solution heat treatment. The stresses were measured in the hoop, radial and axial orientations and compared to a previous measured as-cast (TSR) engine block. The results suggest that solution heat treatment using the current production parameters partially relieved tensile residual stress in the Al cylinder bridge, with stress relief being more effective near the bottom of the cylinder.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0851
Yousof Azizi, Vaidyanadan Sundaram, Patricia Davies, Anil Bajaj
Flexible polyurethane foam is the main cushioning element used in car seats. Optimization of an occupied seat's static and dynamic behavior requires models of foam that are accurate over a wide range of excitation and pre-compression conditions. In this research, a method is described to estimate the parameters of a global model of the foam behavior from data gathered in a series of impulse tests at different settling points. The estimated model is capable of describing the responses gathered from all the impulse tests using a unique set of parameters. The global model structure includes a nonlinear elastic term and a hereditary viscoelastic term. The model can be used to predict the settling point for each mass used and, by expanding the model about that settling point, local linear models of the response to impulsive excitation can be derived. From this analysis the relationship between the local linear model parameters and the global model parameters is defined.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0766
Darshan Bennur, Anand A, Jeevan TP
Abstract Pressure vessels are being widely employed worldwide as a means to carry, store or receive fluids. The pressure differential is dangerous and many fatal accidents have occurred in the history of their development and operation. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the behavioral effect of cylindrical pressure vessel with torispherical endclosure subjected to an internal pressure. In this paper, two dimensional static stress analyses are performed using the finite element method for different vessel thicknesses in order to understand the stresses and deflections in the vessel walls due to internal pressure. From the analysis, it is observed that the stress variation over the section of the geometry and thickness of the vessel play an important role in withstanding the applied internal pressure.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0784
Catherine Amodeo, Jwo Pan
The failure modes of gas metal arc welds in notched lap-shear specimens of high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel are investigated. Notched lap-shear specimens of gas metal arc welds were first made. Quasi-static test results of the notched lap-shear specimens showed two failure locations for the welds. The specimens cut from coupons with shorter weld lengths failed near the weld root whereas the specimens cut from coupons with longer weld lengths failed near the weld toe. Micro-hardness tests were conducted in order to provide an assessment of the mechanical properties of the base metal, the heat affected zone, and the weld metal. In order to understand the failure modes of these welds, finite element models were developed with the geometric characteristics of the weld metals and heat affected zones designed to match those of the micrographs of the cross sections for the long and short welds.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0785
Laurence Claus, Stephan Weitzel
Abstract As automotive technology rapidly provides advances in lighter weight designs and materials, the technology to fasten and join them must keep pace. This paper will explore two uniquely different fastening technologies that are being used to address some of today's demanding application challenges in plastics and thin steel and aluminum sheet. These are two areas of application that have historically provided few good options for designers, especially as they attempt to push the envelope with progressive, light weight designs. The first technology is self- tapping screws for plastics that, although not new, are now evolving to enable smaller bosses and shorter thread engagements, and incorporate light weight design options. Although dependent on the demands of the application, these screws can be produced in both steel and, now, lighter weight materials such as aluminum and plastic.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0786
Seiji Furusako, Kodama Shinji, Yasunobu Miyazaki, Tetsuro Nose, Yoshiaki Akiniwa
To achieve improvement of crashworthiness and weight reduction of car bodies, the application of high strength steel sheets to car bodies is expanding [1, 2]. However cross tension strength of spot welded joints decreases as material strength increases in the range of material strength exceeding 780MPa grade. Therefore arc spot welding was attempted to enhance the joint strength in a high strength steel sheet of 980MPa in tensile strength. Consequently, the following experimental results were obtained: 1) cross tension strength (CTS) of the arc spot welded joints doubled compared with CTS of spot welded joints when appropriate welding conditions such as heat input and hole diameter of the sheet were selected and 2) height of excess weld decay in addition to the diameter of weld metal for the arc spot welded joints played an important role in improving CTS.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0788
Debabrata Ghosh, Lokesh Pancholi, Asmita Sathaye
Abstract Use of adhesives in automotive require in-depth material, design, manufacturing & engineering knowledge. It is also necessary to understand functional requirements. For perfect and flawless adhesive joinery, the exact quantity of adhesive, its material composition, thickness of adhesive layer, substrate preparation methods for adhesive bonding, handling and curing time of the adhesive have to be studied & optimized. This paper attempts to describe different aspects of adhesive bonding in automotive industry to include: Selection of adhesives based on application and design of the components, surface preparation of adherend, designing of adhesive joint, curing conditions of adhesives, testing and validation of adhesive joints. Emphasis was given to study & verify the performance of different adhesive joints to meet end product requirements. Samples were prepared with a variety of adhesive and adherend combinations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0790
Jianghui Mao, Sayed Nassar
Abstract In this paper, experimental study and FEA simulation are performed to investigate the effect of three different methods for joining dissimilar metal coupons in terms of their strength and load transferring capacity. The joining techniques considered include adhesive bonding, bolting and hybrid bolting-and-bonding. Elastic-plastic material model with damage consideration is used for each of the joint components. Traction-separation rule and failure criterion is defined for adhesive. Load transfer capacity and the failure mode are assessed for each type of joining. Joint strength is examined in terms of the effects of adhesive property, bolt preload level, and friction coefficient. Results show that load transferred and failure mechanism vary significantly between samples with different joint methods; preload evolution in bolt changes with friction coefficient; hybrid joint generally has advantage over the other two methods, namely, bolting-only and bonding-only.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0791
Yuri Hovanski, John Carsley, Blair Carlson, Susan Hartfield-Wunsch, Siva Pilli
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0793
Joy H Forsmark
Abstract High ductility cast aluminum alloys are seeing more use in vehicles as a greater effort is made to replace components made from heavier steel and iron alloys with lighter weight alloys such as aluminum. High ductility cast aluminum has significant advantages by allowing for complex shape and considerable consolidation of parts in body structures. However, joining can be a challenge because one popular method for aluminum joining, self-piercing riveting (SPR), requires a ductility of greater than 10%, forcing the common high ductility Al alloys to undergo a T6 heat treatment which adds cost and potential distortion issues to Al component. In this study, friction stir spot welding was investigated as a potential joining technique for this material in the as-cast condition. Samples of as-cast Aural-2™ alloy were joined to Aural-2™, 5754, and 6061 alloys, to determine the manufacturing feasibility, weld strength, and fatigue strength using this joining technique.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0797
Binghua Pan, Chee Keng Yeo
Power electronics products such as inverters and converters involve the use of Thermal Interface Materials (TIMs) between high power packages and a heat exchanger for thermal management. Conventional TIMs such as thermal greases, gels, solders and phase change materials (PCMs) face challenges to meet the need of these products to operate reliably at much higher temperatures. This has driven the development of new TIMs such as Transient Liquid Phase Sintering (TLPS) Conductive Adhesives. TLPS adhesives have been developed for many potential applications due to various advantages like lead free, flux-less and particularly their low temperature processability, which enables the use of heat sensitive components in the design. With all these motivations, a project was launched and completed to assess TLPS adhesives as a unique TIM for high temperature automotive applications due to its high bulk thermal conductivity and metallic joint formation at interfaces.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0801
Xiaoqing Xu, Jingjing Chen, Jun Xu, Yibing Li, Xuefeng Yao
Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) laminated glass has been widely used in automotive industry as windshield material. Cracks on the PVB laminated glass contain large amount of impact information, which can contribute to accident reconstruction investigation. In this study, the impact-induced in-plane dynamic cracking of the PVB laminated glass is investigated. Firstly, a drop-weight combined with high-speed photography experiment device is set up to investigate the radial cracks propagation on the PVB laminated glass sheet. Both the morphology and the velocity time history curve of the radial cracks are recorded and analyzed to investigate the basic mechanism of the crack propagation process. Afterwards, a three-dimensional laminated plate finite element (FE) model is set up and dynamic cracking process is simulated based on the extended finite element method (XFEM).
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