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Viewing 91 to 120 of 190958
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0062
Tim Gegg, Armin Kölmel, Kai W. Beck
Optical measurement techniques were successfully appointed in four stroke combustion diagnostics because of low interaction and high efficiency. In the field of high speed small engines only less experience exists concerning optical measurement. These engines require sophisticated measurement techniques concerning available space and resolution. Numerous investigations with different measurement techniques to analyze the combustion will be presented in this paper. Engine operation, combustion phenomenons and the limits of some techniques are shown by means of concrete examples. The use of fibre optic endoscopes allows the analysis of flame propagation. Furthermore it is possible to locate glow ignition. By means of spectroscopic measurement the mixture preparation and burning temperature curves could be analyzed by adding special reactants to the fuel.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0061
Kai W. Beck, Fatih Sarikoc, Ulrich Spicher, Hans Van den Hoevel, Martin Duerrwaechter, Heribert Kammerstetter, Tim Gegg, Armin Kölmel
Unstable combustion and high cyclic variations of the in-cylinder pressure associated with low engine running smoothness and high emissions are mainly caused by cyclic variations of the fresh charge composition, the variability of the ignition and the fuel mass. These parameters affect the inflammation, the burn rate and thus the whole combustion process. In this paper, the effects of fluctuating fuel mass on the combustion behavior are shown. Small two-stroke engines require special measuring and testing equipment, especially for measuring the fuel consumption at very low fuel flow rates as well as very low fuel supply pressures. To realize a cycle-resolved measurement of the injected fuel mass, fuel consumption measurement with high resolution and high dynamic response is not enough for this application.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0054
Jeff R. Wasil, Justin Johnson, Rahul Singh
In pursuit of reducing dependencies on foreign oil coupled with U.S. renewable fuel standards and an overall focus and interest in greenhouse gas emissions, investigations continue on feasibility of replacement biologically derived fuels such as ethanol and butanol. Majority of existing recreational products such as marine outboard engines, boats, personal watercraft, all terrain vehicles and snowmobiles are carbureted or operate open-loop, meaning the engine does not have the capability to sense air-fuel ratio. Ethanol has a specific energy content that is less than gasoline. Without means to compensate for air-fuel ratio requirements of specific fuels, open-loop engines may suffer from a condition known as enleanment, in which catastrophic engine failure may result. On the contrary, butanol has specific energy content closer to that of gasoline, suggesting open-loop engines may be less prone to negative effects of increased biologically derived fuel concentrations in gasoline.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0053
Olawole Abiola Kuti, Wu Zhang, Keiya Nishida, Xiangang Wang, Zuohua Huang
The effect of injection pressure ranging from 100 to 300MPa on the ignition, flame development and soot formation characteristics of biodiesel fuel spray using a common rail injection system for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a constant volume vessel under conditions similar to the real engine condition using a single hole nozzle. Biodiesel fuels from two sources namely; palm oil (BDFp) and cooked oil (BDFc) with the commercial JIS#2diesel fuel were utilized in this research. The OH chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the ignition and the lift-off length of the combusting flame. The natural luminosity technique was applied to study the flame development and the two color pyrometry was applied for the soot formation processes. Ignition delay decreased as the injection pressure progressed from 100 to 300MPa. This was as a result of the enhanced mixing achieved at higher injection pressures.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0057
Junya Watanabe, Dai Arai, Masataka Tanaka, Takeru Abe, Atsushi Ogasawara, Masahiko Tsuchiya, Ryushi Tsubota
Large motorcycles have a strong recreational aspect. Therefore, in addition to the sportiness that comes from the direct torque feel and the comfort that comes from the ease of operations, users demand improvements to fuel economy from the perspective of the environment and riding economics. In order to satisfy these needs, we have developed the world's first dual clutch transmission (hereinafter referred to as DCT) for motorcycles. In order to make the DCT more compact, we adopted a dual shaft construction for the main shaft, two hydraulic clutches arranged in-line, the basic structure of the gear shift mechanism carried over from a manual transmission (hereinafter referred to as MT) vehicle, a hydraulic circuit consolidated into the engine side cover, and shared use of engine oil for clutch actuation. Through these innovations, it became possible to carry over the die of the crankcase used on the MT vehicle as well as being able to load it onto the same frame as the MT vehicle.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0055
Yasuhiro Sugimoto, Hiroaki Kojima, Masanori Fujinuma
To enhance the convenience of small engines and their current range of application, we studied on the application of commercial liquefied butane fuel canisters containing sealed liquefied normal-butane (n-butane) and iso-butane (i-butane). In processes for extracting a fuel mixture of n-butane and i-butane in a vapor phase state, the discharge pressure dropped as the fuel within the canister was decreased, due to the phenomenon of prior discharge of the higher vapor pressure of i-butane. This pressure loss from gas discharge had to be restored by raising canister temperature which increased the butane vapor pressure. However, in the liquid phase process, since there is no pressure loss as a vapor, the canister holding temperature could be set lower than that of the vapor phase process. Moreover, when the ambient temperatures were the same or lower than the canister holding temperature, the liquid phase process was superior in terms of heat balance.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0050
Yasufumi Yoshimoto
This paper investigates the performance, exhaust emissions, and combustion characteristics of a dual fuel diesel engine fueled by CNG (compressed natural gas) as the main fuel. The experiments used a small single cylinder DI diesel engine and two kinds of fuels for the ignition: FAME (fatty acid methyl ester) fuels such as Methyl Oleate (OME) and OME-Methyl Palmitate (PME) blends, major components of biodiesel, and ordinary gas oil. The rate of the CNG supply was defined as the proportion of the heat energy of the supplied CNG to the total heat energy available in the cylinder. Compared with gas oil ignition, the FAME fuels had shorter ignition delays and significantly reduced smoke densities regardless of the PME contents. The PME contained in the FAME fuels gave rise to slight improvements in ignitability. The results also showed that the conditions where operation with CNG/FAME fuels is possible are very similar to those of the CNG/gas oil.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0048
Jih Houh Lee, Chew Liang Chong, Horizon Gitano
It is difficult to obtain accurate fuel consumption data for privately owned in-use vehicles. This study aims to directly measure fuel consumption and the various parameters which affect fuel consumption from in-use vehicles via various methods. Motorcycle power demands were determined from measured frontal area, vehicle mass, rider and payload mass, tire pressure. Both worst case and best case scenarios of load, tire pressure and frontal area were measured for aerodynamic and rolling resistance via the roll-down technique. Measured data points for typical motorcycles fall within the established best- and worst-case scenarios, and an “average case” is selected for vehicle testing. Several common motorcycles models are tested for their fuel consumption at the established “average load” case. Additionally, this typical load case is coupled with the ECER40 drive cycle pattern for estimates of field fuel consumption from chassis dynamometer testing.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0052
Chunming Hu, Shengzhi Hou
Natural gas is regarded as one of the most potential alternative fuels of engines because of its fruitful storage, good obtainable resources, and high octane value, etc. Compared with port fuel injection (PFI), Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has many advantages on volumetric efficiency improvement, lean-burning, emissions control, etc. A set of measuring and data acquisition system on CNG direct injection spark-ignited engines and the CNG multi-direct injection system are developed in this paper. Based on different injection modes of CNG single DI and compound DI (main injection and auxiliary-Injection), the investigations on combustion process of CNG DI engines has been conducted by the factors of in-cylinder mixture formation, air/fuel ratio, and injection timing, etc. Meanwhile, the three-dimension simulation on mixture formation and combustion principle of low-pressure CNG compound direct injection engines has also been researched.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0051
Hiroaki Wakizaka, Akihiro Hara, Tsugio Fukushima, Yasuhiro Noda, Tohru Nakazono
The role of biomass energy is becoming more and more important in renewable energy. As biomass energy utilization has the problems of collection and transportation. A small-scale dispersed power source is required. Biomass gasification CHP (combined heat and power) system converting biomass energy into gas for CHP at high temperature is one of the most effective solutions because of its high energy conversion efficiency. Dual fuel engine which can ignite low calorie biomass gasification gas by injected light oil is suitable for woody biomass gasification gas of changing calorie and amount. The effect of gas ratio which is defined as gas energy ratio in total inlet energy, injection timing, throttling and gas composition on the performance and exhaust emission of dual fuel engine was investigated by using 2 kinds of model gas which consists of H₂, CO, CH₄, CO₂ and N₂. As gas ratio of low calorie gas increases, NOx and thermal efficiency decrease but CO and THC increase.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0084
Peter Britanyak, Alex Fuhrman, Dylan Dixon, Karen R. Den Braven, Nicholas Harker
The University of Idaho's (UI's) entry into the 2009 SAE Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) was a semi-direct-injection (SDI) two-stroke powered REV-XP snowmobile modified to use flex-fuel. The flex-fuel engine produces stock engine power on any blend of ethanol and gasoline from E10 to E85. The emissions output was reduced using an oxidation catalyst located after the exhaust silencer. Noise from the engine compartment was reduced by custom-carbon fiber hood and side panels, which allowed placement of extra sound absorbing materials. The UICSC design produces 80.5 kW, is lightweight at 238 kg wet, and achieves a fuel economy of 5.65 km/L on E85 fuel. The UI snowmobile achieved Third Place in the competition, while producing the best fuel economy and winning several other awards, including Best Acceleration, Best Value, Best Ride (fueled class) and Best Subjective Handling.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0085
Shinya Akizuki
This paper reports the results of engine development for our Formula SAE competition vehicle. To utilize growth rate effect of power train weight on overall vehicle weight, single cylinder engine, Honda CRF450, was chosen as the base unit. However, as this base engine is naturally aspirated and its piston displacement of 0.45 1 is much less than the regulation upper limit, we installed a turbocharger unit for a three cylinder engine having 0.6 1 piston displacement installed on Suzuki mini-cars because of its size and price. In the first step, we estimated the engine performances using gas exchanging process simulation using AVL Boost because the software has convenient function of modeling turbocharger. Because of the lack of both our experience and data base, we discarded the idea of driving the turbocharger dynamically following the engine operating conditions precisely.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0086
Yoichi Ishibashi, Hideaki Morikawa
By using a four-stroke gasoline engine equipped with a fully variable valve operation system, combustion performance was investigated from the aspect of a gas exchanging difference at various internal exhaust gas recirculation conditions due to the negative valve overlap variations. The in-cylinder gas temperature throughout the cycle process was analyzed thermodynamically. The experimental data revealed that in-cylinder gas temperature at the end of compression stroke (TAI) dominates the onset of autoignition and ΔT, which is an index that represents the heat capacity of the working gas, dominates the heat release of auto-ignition. This paper intends to evolve the experimental knowledge to an engineering tool, which could predict possibilities and limits of auto-ignition. As a result, a controlling mechanism of auto-ignition is proposed. According to this mechanism, a possible maximum load of auto-ignition operation is estimated and also demonstrated in the engine experiments.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0087
Hideaki Morikawa, Yoichi Ishibashi
As an index to control the heat release of auto-ignition combustion, our previous paper introduced a concept of ΔT. It was the difference between the adiabatic flame temperature and the initial in-cylinder gas temperature before the heat release, i.e., ΔT physically represents the heat capacity of the in-cylinder gases relative to the calorific value supplied in a cycle. Firing tests of a four-stroke auto-ignition gasoline engine revealed that the heat release process could be successfully controlled when ΔT was maintained at a proper level. This paper evolved the ΔT theory into the every possible gas exchanging state in the four-stroke engines and found out a chain of the low-temperature combustion cycle (LTC), which continuously varied from the spark-ignition (SI) to auto-ignition (AI). By using a hydraulic-electromagnetic fully-free valve actuator system, the LTC was examined in our 650 cm₃ single-cylinder experimental-engine.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0079
Yuya Ozawa
The cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was made from woods by the direct liquefaction process. The compression ignition did not occur when neat CLF was supplied for diesel engines, because CLF mainly consisted of aromatic compounds. CLF could not be completely mixed with diesel fuel, however, CLF and diesel fuel could be blended when FAME was mixed as a solvent. Coconuts-oil methyl ester (CME) was used and 5 wt% that was allowed mixing ratio to diesel fuel in JIS was mixed. To clarify a desirable CLF fraction for diesel engines, CLF was divided into two fractions by the fractional distillation: 473 to 523 K (CLF1), 523 to 573 K (CLF2). The purpose of this study is to analyze ignition characteristics and performance of diesel fuel-CME-CLF blends and the tested weight mixing ratio of CLF were 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt%. It was confirmed engine could be stably operated for both CLF1 and CLF2 mixed fuels.
2010-09-28
Journal Article
2010-32-0080
Koji Yoshida
A new bio-fuel i.e. the cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was developed for diesel engines. The cellulosic liquefaction fuel (CLF) was made from woods by the direct liquefaction process. CLF could not be completely mixed with diesel fuel, however CLF could be mixed with Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) and a diesel engine could be operated by CLF and FAME blends. In this study, CLF was divided into three fractions: 473 to 523 K (CLF1), 523 to 573 K (CLF2) and 573 K or more (CLF3) by fractional distillation in order to find CLF fraction which was suitable for diesel engine, and coconuts oil methyl ester (CME) was used as FAME. In the fuel droplet combustion tests, the combustion durations of CLFs were longer than those of diesel fuel and CME, and the combustion duration increased as the distillation temperature range rose, because CLF contained a lot of flame-resisting components like aromatic compounds.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0081
Heiko Pflaum, Peter Hofmann, Bernhard Geringer, Werner Weissel
Future legislations claim further reduction of all restricted emissions as well as the limitation of soot emissions in diesel engines. Special alternative diesel fuels that do not contain aromatic compounds, therefore, promise great potential for further reduction of HC, CO and particulate emissions. During a research project carried out at the Institute for Powertrains and Automotive Technology at the Vienna University of Technology, the potential of alternative diesel fuels was investigated using a state-of-the-art diesel engine with common rail direct injection. The testing took part using an engine test rig as well as on the chassis dynamometer test bench to demonstrate the emission levels in real life conditions. As real biofuel, pure HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) was investigated and additionally in different blends with fossil diesel fuel.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0083
Gregory W. Davis
Clean snowmobile technology has been developed and applied to an existing commercially available snowmobile. The goals of this effort included reducing exhaust emissions to levels which are below the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2012 standard. Additionally, noise levels were to be reduced to below the noise mandates of 78 dB(A). Further, this snowmobile can operate using any blend of gasoline and ethanol from E20 to E30. All of these goals were achieved while keeping the cost affordable. Snowmobiling is, after all, a recreational sport; thus the snowmobile must remain fun to drive and cost effective to produce. The details of this design effort including performance data are discussed in this paper. Specifically, the effort to modify a commercially available snowmobile using a three cylinder, four-stroke engine is described. This snowmobile was modified to run on a range of ethanol blended fuels using a closed-loop engine control system.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0073
Ryo Yamauchi, Satoshi Ishizuka, Nobuaki Suzuki
The exhaust gas is getting to higher temperature in order to adapt higher power and lower fuel consumption of the engines, and the exhaust manifolds tends to use in more severe conditions. The exhaust manifolds of 660cc engines of the turbo specification had been made of the high-Si spheroidal graphite cast iron containing a small amount of Mo so far, but now it cannot help using Ni-resist for higher heat resistance. However, Ni-resist is extremely expensive because it contains much 35wt% nickel of the rare metal. Therefore, the development of the new cast iron having the performance and the cost between the conventional cast iron and Ni-resist is demanded. With such a background, the new spheroidal graphite cast-iron “Vanadium cast iron” for the low-cost exhaust manifolds that greatly improved the heat resistance than the conventional cast iron was developed.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0075
Naohisa Takahashi, Isao Murakoshi, Shitomi Sasada
The exhaust pipes of the motorcycle were always exposed to high temperature exhaust gas. There was a problem of the tarnish or the rust during use, and it might be sometimes complained from a user. Therefore we developed new surface treatment and could prevent these problems. New surface treatment is “Nano-film Coating” by the DC reactivity magnetron sputtering method (PVD method). We developed SiOxNy ceramic Nano-film of the thickness of 20-150 nm on the metal substrates. This Nano-film was evaluated heat resistance, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and optical characteristics. It is able to get these performance satisfied enough. And the metal coloration is possible by controlling a refractive index and a film thickness of the Nano-film. The film was deposited in a three-dimensional shape by controlling the reactive gas composition, the gas ratio and sputtering power. The exhaust parts are colored by three patterns that is “transparent and colorless”, “gold” and “blue”.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0077
Andrew Suman, Dmitry A. Shamis
Abradable Powder Coatings improve the efficiency of blowers, compressors, engines, pumps, etc., by reducing operating clearances and friction. Characteristics of lubricious, abradable clearance control coatings are discussed and related to performance and durability improvements in pumps, engines, and other devices. The coatings can be applied very thick and sometimes provide an interference fit when a device is assembled. During initial operation, the coating breaks in to form a perfect fit between mating parts. Controlled abrasion even accounts for thermal and stress related distortions in components as the coating wears in. Once the optimum fit is achieved, stresses on the coating are reduced and the break-in process stops. The coatings support and maintain hydrodynamic oil film regime. Provided data indicate that durability, low friction, anti-scuff properties of the coating maintain tighter operating clearances and higher efficiency for the life of the device.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0078
Taib Iskandar Mohamad, Ali Yusoff, Shahrir Abdullah, Mark Jermy, Matthew Harrison, How Heoy Geok
Compressed natural gas (CNG) has been widely used as alternatives to gasoline and diesel in automotive engines. It is a very promising alternative fuel due to many reasons including adaptability to those engines, low in cost, and low emission levels. Unfortunately, when converting to CNG, engines usually suffer from reduced power and limited engine speed. These are due to volumetric loss and slower flame speed. Direct injection (DI) can mitigate these problems by injecting CNG after the intake valve closes, thus increasing volumetric efficiency. In addition, the high pressure gas jet can enhance the turbulence in the cylinder which is beneficial to the mixing and burning. However, conversion to direct fuel injection (DFI) requires a costly modification to the cylinder head to accommodate the direct injector and also can involve piston crown adjustment. This paper discusses a new alternative to converting to DFI using a device called Spark Plug Fuel Injector (SPFI).
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0069
Gustavo Fontana, Fabio Bozza, Enzo Galloni, Daniela Siano
In this paper, an experimental and numerical analysis of combustion process and knock occurrence in a small displacement spark-ignition engine is presented. A wide experimental campaign is preliminarily carried out in order to fully characterize the engine behavior in different operating conditions. In particular, the acquisition of a large number of consecutive pressure cycle is realized to analyze the Cyclic Variability (CV) effects in terms of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (IMEP) Coefficient of Variation (CoV). The spark advance is also changed up to incipient knocking conditions, basing on a proper definition of a knock index. The latter is estimated through the decomposition and the FFT analysis of the instantaneous pressure cycles. Contemporary, a quasi-dimensional combustion and knock model, included within a whole engine one-dimensional (1D) modeling framework, are developed. Combustion and knock models are extended to include the CV effects, too.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0070
Saharash Khare
The objective of this study is to investigate weight and cost reduction opportunities for a forged steel crankshaft. To optimize the design we need to understand the behavior of the crankshaft when engine is running at high- speed. In past, considerable amount of research effort has gone into the investigation of dynamic characteristics of a spinning shaft with attached discs but there has been less research on the bending behavior of high-speed engine crankshaft. Literature shows that stress and stiffness estimation under static condition is sufficient for engines operating at low-speed but dynamics of crankshaft at high- speed changes stress and stiffness values considerably. Actual engine dynamics simulation and experimental measurement demands huge effort and time. The novelty of this work is to develop simplified testing and simulation methodologies for studying crankshaft behavior in both static and dynamic conditions.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0072
Andreas Gebeshuber, Thomas Mueller, Robert Noebauer, Volker Strobl
The demands of the engine, transmission and power train industries concerning wear and corrosion resistance have increased in recent years. Conventional processes like carburizing and gas nitriding are facing their limits to some extent. Pulsed plasma nitriding is arousing more and more interest in these industries. The lifetime of components can be increased dramatically by the use of this surface treatment process due to the special layer composition it imparts. Pulsed plasma nitriding may also present economic benefits, as in many cases the final, very cost-intensive hard machining can be omitted. Furthermore, pulsed plasma nitriding has considerable environmental advantages compared to other heat treatment processes. It can be easily integrated into mechanical manufacturing, as there is no open flame and nearly no waste gas.
2010-09-28
Technical Paper
2010-32-0071
Thomas Eder
The cold metal transfer process (CMT) was introduced into industry more than 4 years ago. This process was developed to reduce heat transfer to the substrate during the welding of metals. The CMT process has distinct advantages over the conventional gas metal arc welding process (GMAW), in which the heat input is much greater. CMT was developed specifically for the dip transfer method, which until now has been notoriously difficult to work with. An example of a process which has been made easier through the use of CMT is the butt welding of thin sheet aluminium (0.3mm) using 1.2mm filler material. Unlike conventional processes, this can be achieved without the use of backing protection or heat sinks. Another example is the welding of mild steel using CO₂ as a shielding gas. With CMT, this can be done with a significant reduction in spatter.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2320
Markus Jochim, Thomas M. Forest
FlexRay is a time triggered automotive communication protocol that connects ECUs (Electronic Control Units) on which distributed automotive applications are executed. If exact agreement (e.g. on physical values measured by redundant sensors on different ECUs) must be reached in the presence of asymmetric communication faults, a byzantine agreement protocol like Signed Messages (SM) can be utilized. This paper gives examples of how byzantine faults can emerge in a FlexRay-based system and proposes optimizations for a FlexRay-specific implementation of the SM protocol. The protocol modifications allow for a reduction in the number of protocol messages under a slightly relaxed fault model, as well as for a reduction in the number of messages to be temporarily stored by the ECUs.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2319
Mukund Ghangurde
With Ford SYNC, Microsoft Corporation and Ford Motor Company have democratized in-vehicle infotainment systems - delighting consumers and bringing a new kind of agility to the automobile industry. Built on Microsoft Auto (now Windows Embedded Automotive), Ford SYNC is a factory-installed, voice-controlled communications and entertainment system that allows drivers to converge their digital lifestyle with their life on the road. Windows Embedded Automotive is an industry leading technology platform that provides integrated infotainment features and a rich user interface. Car manufacturers and suppliers worldwide can use this software to create differentiated, infotainment in-vehicle systems that are immediately attractive to consumers.
2010-10-19
Journal Article
2010-01-2318
Chris Domin
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) networks within the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) lead to safety and mobility improvements in vehicle road traffic. This paper presents case studies that support the realization of the ITS architecture as an evolutionary process, beginning with driver information systems for enhancing feedback to the users, semi-autonomous control systems for improved vehicle system management, and fully autonomous control for improving vehicle cooperation and management. The paper will also demonstrate how the automotive, telecom, and data and service providers are working together to develop new ITS technologies.
2010-10-19
Technical Paper
2010-01-2324
Prasanta Sarkar, Debarsish Hazarika
This paper describes the development of Tata Nano Engine Management System and the related electrical and electronics architecture. The design criteria for the electrical and electronics architecture are discussed in detail in the body of the paper. When the Nano project was first conceived, the existing low cost car in India was not affordable by common people. The Nano project was targeted for a family of 4 which was using a two wheeled vehicle for commuting, irrespective of the season. For engineers, it was difficult to conceive the idea of the Nano vehicle and powertrain. How do you design a benchmark which meets both Indian and export needs and should also be extremely low in cost? There was no low cost car available either for the Nano to benchmark against. It was also clear that the strict pollution regulations existing in India could not be met without an Engine Management System and thus the focus centered on a low cost Engine Management System (EMS).
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