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2018-05-01 ...
  • May 1-2, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - El Segundo, California
  • October 11-12, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Greenville, South Carolina
  • November 8-9, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - London, United Kingdom
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The avionics hardware industry world-wide is now commonly required to follow DO-254 Design Assurance Guidance for Airborne Electronic Hardware for literally all phases of development: Safety, Requirements, Design, Logic Implementation, V&V, Quality Assurance, etc. The DO-254 standard is a companion to the software DO-178B standard; however, there are many differences between hardware and software which must be understood. This basic course introduces the intent of the DO-254 standard for commercial avionics hardware development.
2018-04-25 ...
  • April 25-27, 2018 (2 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
In recent years, total annual United States patent grants have increased to over 300,000, while patent infringement lawsuit filings have exceeded 6,000 per year. Only a small fraction of granted patents ever end up in litigation. Of the many causes for the disparity is the growing awareness and sensitivity of companies to patent infringement risk management practices. This course addresses a number of those practices (and tools for implementing the practices), placing them into context, and providing a practical overview for how to implement them to help reduce the prospect of patent infringement litigation.
2018-04-25 ...
  • April 25-27, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Cleveland, Ohio
  • July 11-13, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Warrendale, Pennsylvania
  • November 14-16, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - El Segundo, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Certifying an aircraft, part or appliance can be challenging while navigating the maze of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) procedures, rules, policies and guidelines. This course will help you to the understand the FAA organizational structure, it’s policies, guidelines and requirements leading to Type and Supplemental Type airworthiness approvals, and provide you with a competitive edge and potential reduction in time in obtaining an FAA approval.
2018-03-19 ...
  • March 19-21, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Herndon, Virginia
  • October 17-19, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - El Segundo, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
Safety continues to be one of the most important factors in motor vehicle design, manufacture and marketing. This seminar provides a comprehensive overview of these critical automotive safety considerations: injury and anatomy; human tolerance and biomechanics; occupant protection; testing; and federal legislation. The knowledge shared at this seminar will enable attendees to be more aware of safety considerations and to better understand and interact with safety experts. This course has been approved by the Accreditation Commission for Traffic Accident Reconstruction (ACTAR) for 18 Continuing Education Units (CEUs).
2018-03-06 ...
  • March 6-9, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - Herndon, Virginia
  • August 13-16, 2018 (8:30 a.m. - 4:30 p.m.) - El Segundo, California
Training / Education Classroom Seminars
The skills and knowledge gained in this workshop will enable students to carry out regulatory responsibilities related to the administration of the Aircraft Certification and Continued Operational Safety. This course content provides the Civil Aviation Safety Engineers (Systems – Electrical) with the knowledge and skills to conduct oversight of aviation safety, aircraft certification and Continued Operational Safety.
2018-03-05 ...
  • March 5-16, 2018 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
  • November 5-16, 2018 (6 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Automotive projects continue to grow in complexity. Studies provide a glimpse into the attributes of product development projects that have a high likelihood of failure. Knowing these attributes, the approach to the project can be structured to reduce the risks. For example, the scope of the project may already place the project at risk. Understanding the risks associated with the scope enables you to either reconsider the scope or work out strategies that will eliminate or at least mitigate the risks. In addition, your approach or strategy selected to meet the project demands will have significant impact on the results.
2018-02-26 ...
  • February 26-March 2, 2018 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
SAE J3061 sets out a recommended cybersecurity engineering process framework for organizations developing cyber physical systems. One of the recommendations of this framework is to carry out a threat analysis and risk assessment early in the product development. A threat analysis identifies and models the relevant threats against assets, and a risk assessment classifies the impact and likelihood associated with each threat. The approach enables the prioritization of risks and appropriate risk treatment measures to be determined in subsequent development phases.
2018-02-12 ...
  • February 12-16, 2018 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
  • June 18-22, 2018 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
  • December 3-7, 2018 (3 Sessions) - Live Online
Training / Education Online Web Seminars
Connected vehicles are increasingly seen as a target for cybersecurity attacks. A key differentiator for the automotive industry is the use of cyber-physical systems, where a successful cybersecurity attack can affect physical entities. Often involving embedded electronics and real time control, these systems require different solutions in addition to established IT security principles and reactive responses to threats. Cybersecurity needs to be designed and built into cyber-physical systems throughout the development lifecycle to provide defense in depth.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0272
David C. Viano, Chantal Parenteau, Roger Burnett
Objective: This study analyzed available rear impact sled tests with Starcraft-type seats that use a diagonal belt behind the seatback. The study focused on neck responses for out-of-position (OOP) and in-position seated dummies. Methods: Thirteen rear sled tests were identified with out-of-position and in-position 5 th , 50 th and 95 th Hybrid III dummies in up to 47.6 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. The tests were conducted at Ford, Exponent and CSE. Seven KARCO rear sled tests were found with in-position 5 th and 50 th Hybrid III dummies in 21.1-29.5 mph rear delta Vs involving Starcraft-type seats. In all of the in-position and one of the out-of-position series, comparable tests were run with production seats. Biomechanical responses of the dummies and test videos were analyzed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0276
Si-Woo Kim, So-Jung shim, Myung-Won Suh
A large study of rear-end collisions was conducted for the neck injury indicators and test procedures. Neck injury in low-speed rear-end collisions is a big issue because there are a lot of patients despite low-speed rear-end collisions. Europe, Korea and Japan introduced the specific part in the New Car Assessment Program to reduce whiplash injury in low-speed rear-end collisions. From the legal point of view, to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries caused by rearward displacement of the head in rear-end collision, USA, EC, Korea, Japan and others internationally cooperated to make the global technical regulation (GTR) in UNECE/WP29. In 2008, after much meandering, GTR No. 7 head restraints were established. However the GTR No.7 is not a unique regulation because many countries had their own opinions and domestic regulations, and many questions related to injury criteria and biomechanical issues of dummy remain unresolved.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0273
Jeffrey Braganza, Massoud S. Tavakoli, Janet Brelin-Fornari
The rear seat occupant has been the subject of an increasing number of research efforts in recent years. However, the majority of the research has focused on frontal impact, while there are also a number of studies concerned with low to moderate delta-V rear impact. Very limited work exists regarding the fate of the rear seat occupant involved in high-severity rear impact, especially when utilizing the BioRID anthropomorphic test device (ATD). Furthermore, it is evident that the out of position rear occupant, as defined by leaning forward prior to rear impact, is also of relevance to this line of research. The objective of this study is to explore and compare the response of BioRID and 50 th percentile Hybrid III in conjunction with the effects of head restraint geometry and the occupant seating configuration (normal seating versus forward leaning) in high-severity rear impact tests.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0451
Florian Schmidt
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in modern cars contain actively reacting functionality, like autonomous steering or braking assistants. The demand for functional Hardware-in-the-Loop (HiL) testing of these systems contains the need to create realistic models of the car's surrounding. Generating high-resolution photorealistic 3D-graphics in real-time proved to be critical, but with modern graphics technology, “Visual Loop” test-systems can be built. Integrated into test processes and with automated test case generation, these testing tools can improve the performance and quality of functional verification and validation significantly.
2010-04-12
Journal Article
2010-01-0516
Michelle F. Heller, William N. Newberry, Janine E. Smedley, Senthil K. Eswaran, Jeffrey J. Croteau, Michael R. Carhart
Rollover events involving multiple revolutions are dynamic, high-energy, chaotic events that may result in occupant injury. As such, there is ongoing discussion regarding methods that may reduce injury potential during rollovers. It has been suggested that increasing a vehicle's roof strength will mitigate injury potential. However, numerous experimental studies and published field accident data analyses have failed to show a causal relationship between roof deformation and occupant injury. The current study examines occupant kinematics and injury mechanisms during dolly rollover testing of a vehicle with a high roof strength-to-weight ratio (SWR = 4.8). String potentiometers and high-speed video cameras were used to capture and quantify the dynamic roof motion throughout the rollover. Instrumented Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) in the front occupant positions allowed for the assessment of occupant kinematics, loading, and injury mechanics during the rollover event.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0014
Yuji Fujiyama, Daisuke Sonoyama, Kazuhiro Obayashi, Qiang Yu PhD
Evaluations of dummy injury readings obtained in regulatory crash tests and new car assessment program tests provide indices for the development of crash safety performance in the process of developing new vehicles. Based on these indices, vehicle body structures and occupant restraint systems are designed to meet the required occupant injury criteria. There are many types of regulatory tests and new car assessment program tests that are conducted to evaluate vehicle safety performance in side impacts. Factoring all of the multiple test configurations into the development of new vehicles requires advanced design capabilities based on a good understanding of the mechanisms producing dummy injury readings. In recent years, advances in computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools and computer processing power have made it possible to run simulations of occupant restraint systems such as side airbags and seatbelts.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0018
Xuru Ding, Yi-Pen Cheng, Wenyu Lian, Fuchun Zhu, Zaifei Zhou
Accurate prediction of the responses from the anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in vehicle crash tests is critical to achieving better vehicle occupant performances. In recent years, automakers have used finite element (FE) models of the ATDs in computer simulations to obtain early assessments of occupant safety, and to aid in the development of occupant restraint systems. However, vehicle crash test results have variation, sometimes significant. This presents a challenge to assessing the accuracy of the ATD FE models, let alone improving them. To resolve this issue, it is important to understand the test variation and carefully select the target data for model improvement. This paper presents the work carried out by General Motors and Humanetics Innovative Solutions (formerly FTSS) in a joint project, aimed at improving the FE model of the Hybrid III-50 ATD (HIII-50) v5.1.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0111
John D. Bullough
Photometric performance specifications for vehicle headlamp specifications in North America are given in terms of luminous intensity values at various angular locations with the objective of providing sufficient illumination for forward visibility while controlling for glare toward oncoming and preceding vehicle drivers. Abundant evidence suggests that luminous intensity is an appropriate metric for characterizing the degree to which a headlamp can produce disability glare through veiling luminances under a wide range of viewing conditions. Notwithstanding that discomfort glare exhibits a differential spectral sensitivity from the photopic luminous efficiency function used to characterize light, luminous intensity does not always predict discomfort glare. For example, the luminance of the luminous element(s) can be more predictive of discomfort when headlamps are viewed from relative close distances.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0110
John D. Bullough
Recent technological developments have begun to add a number of new configurations for vehicle forward lighting to the realm of possibility, including high-intensity discharge and light-emitting diode headlamps, and adaptive forward-lighting systems. These systems can offer substantial differences in performance and appearance from conventional filament-based headlamps that have been ubiquitous for many decades. These differences have not gone unnoticed by the U.S. driving public. A review of newspaper articles published during the past several years was conducted in order to assess public perceptions of vehicle headlamps in terms of their ability to support visibility and their impacts on headlamp glare.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0070
Stuart J. Brown
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0541
Mahmoud Yousef Ghannam, Todd Clark, Yeruva Reddy, Jinkoo Lee
This work presents a study of crash energy and severity in frontal offset Vehicle-To-Vehicle (VTV) crash tests. The crash energy is analyzed based on analytical formulations and empirical data. Also, the crash severity of different VTV tests is analyzed and compared with the corresponding full frontal rigid barrier test data. In this investigation, the Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) concept is used to calculate the initial impact velocity of frontal offset VTV test modes such that the offset VTV tests are equivalent to full frontal impact tests in terms of crash severity. Linear spring-mass model and collinear impact assumptions are used to develop the mathematical formulation. A scale factor is introduced to account for these assumptions and the calculated initial velocity is adjusted by this scale factor. It is demonstrated that the energies due to lateral and rotational velocity components are very small in the analyzed frontal VTV tests.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1249
Guy S. Nusholtz, Zine Aoun, Laura Di Domenico, Timothy Hsu, Manuel A. Gracián, Jesús A. Prado
Reliable testing of a mechanical system requires the procedures used for the evaluation to be repeatable and reproducible. However, it is never possible to exactly repeat or reproduce the tests that are used for evaluation. To overcome this limitation, a statistical evaluation procedure can generally be used. However, most of the statistical procedures use scalar values as input without the ability to handle vectors or time-histories. To overcome these limitations, two numerical/statistical methods for determining if the impact time-history response of a mechanical system is repeatable or reproducible are evaluated and elaborated upon. Such a system could be a vehicle, a biological human surrogate, an Anthropometric Test Device (ATD or dummy), etc. The responses could be sets of time-histories of accelerations, forces, moments, etc., of a component or of the system. The example system evaluated is the BioRID II rear impact dummy.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1027
Kei Oshida, Haruhiko Nishiguchi
This paper explains the effectiveness of camera images in reducing accidents when changing lanes. A Side View Camera shows images rearward and to the side that include the blind spots of side-view mirrors on an onboard display. The effectiveness of a rear-view camera for parking at low speed is well-known, but little has been verified on the effectiveness of the camera for changing lanes at high speed on a freeway. We used a driving simulator to verify the effectiveness of camera images to assist the driver to confirm safety. The simulator reproduces various dangerous scenes a driver may encounter when changing lanes in a freeway environment. The accident rate when drivers change lanes using common methods, such as the driver looking over his or her shoulder and checking the side-view mirror, were compared with the addition of images from the Side View Camera that offered the same view as the side-view mirror plus the blind spot displayed on an in-vehicle monitor.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1029
Rajiv Mehta, John Martuscelli
In recent years, there has been a growing interest in driver visibility. This is, in part, due to increasing emphasis placed on design factors influencing visibility such as: aerodynamics, styling, structural stiffness and vehicle packaging. During the development process of a vehicle, it is important to be able to quantify all of these factors. Visibility, however, owing to its sensory nature, has been harder to quantify. As a result, General Motors (GM) has undertaken a study to gain deeper insight into customer perceptions surrounding visibility. Clinics were conducted to help determine the relative importance of different metrics. The paper also explores several new metrics that can help predict customer satisfaction based on vehicle configuration.
2013-11-11
Technical Paper
2013-22-0010
Erik G. Takhounts, Matthew J. Craig, Kevin Moorhouse, Joe McFadden, Vikas Hasija
Rotational motion of the head as a mechanism for brain injury was proposed back in the 1940s. Since then a multitude of research studies by various institutions were conducted to confirm/reject this hypothesis. Most of the studies were conducted on animals and concluded that rotational kinematics experienced by the animal's head may cause axonal deformations large enough to induce their functional deficit. Other studies utilized physical and mathematical models of human and animal heads to derive brain injury criteria based on deformation/pressure histories computed from their models.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0460
Sean Haight, Randa Radwan Samaha, David Biss
The objective of this study was to analyze the position of the shoulder belt and adjustable upper anchorage (AUA) relative to the occupant in recent (2011-2012) NHTSA NCAP frontal crash tests. Since 2011, certain changes have been made in the NCAP test procedure. These changes include different Hybrid III occupant sizes as well as variations in the methods for calculating injury risk. One of the most significant changes has to do with thoracic injury risk calculation which was previously associated with chest acceleration and is now based on chest deflection as the measurable parameter. Using the NHTSA NCAP database, as well as other crash test data sources, a comparison was made between the designated upper anchorage position prior to a crash test and the actual position of the belt webbing with respect to the chest deflection measurement potentiometer sub-assembly of the Hybrid III.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0459
Tatsuya Fukushima, Masafumi Shitamichi, Toshikazu Torigaki, Hidetoshi Sokusai, Masato Nishi, Takahiko Miyachi
FMVSS 226 will become effective on September 1, 2013 with the purpose of mitigating occupant ejections through the vehicle side windows. In order to use deployable counter measures to mitigate ejection, vehicle rollover tests are needed to design deployment algorithms for rollover condtions. Vehicle manufacturers have to define their own test procedures, because FMVSS 226 does not define any rollover test methods. The soil trip rollover test is a vehicle rollover test method in which a vehicle is propelled into a soil pool to measure its rollover characteristics. Some of difficulties in soil trip rollover tests include proper maintenance of soil, for example, under fluctuating humidity and homogeneity of soil in the pool, so as to ensure stable repeatability of test results. Protection of onboard measurement equipment in a test vehicle from soil incursion when the vehicle rolls over can also be a challenge.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0466
Yibing Shi, Guy Nusholtz
Regression models are used to understand the relative fatality risk for drivers in front-front and front-left crashes. The field accident data used for the regressions were extracted by NHTSA from the FARS database for model years 2000-2007 vehicles in calendar years 2002-2008. Multiple logistic regressions are structured and carried out to model a log-linear relationship between risk ratio and the independent vehicle and driver parameters. For front-front crashes, the regression identifies mass ratio, belt use, and driver age as statistically significant parameters (p-values less than 1%) associated with the risk ratio. The vehicle type and presence of the ESC are found to be related with less statistical significance (p-values between 1% and 5%). For front-left crashes the driver risk ratio is also found to have a log-log linear relationship with vehicle mass ratio.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0188
Christoph Knotz, Bernd Mlekusch
Many safety regulations in the automotive engineering use impactor testing (e.g. FMVSS201 in the US; Pedestrian Protection, ECE-R21, proposal for EEVC WG13 in Europe) in the certification process. Through the increasing demand for very short development times virtual engineering has become an inevitable tool. We show a complete virtual development process for the Free-Motion-Headform (FMH) regulation (FMVSS201u), where we use a combination of self-developed and standard software. The process starts with the definition of the target-points, the possible and allowed positioning of the FMH, the detection of worst case angles, the automated generation of section cuts, the Finite-Elements (FE) analysis and the web based documentation of the results. Our self-developed tools play an important role in the FMH-positioning/worst case detection area as well as in the result analysis and documentation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0183
Y. Wang, P. K. Mallick
This paper describes the results of dynamic denting experiments conducted on AA5754 and AA6061 alloys. Dynamic denting tests were performed using a drop weight impact machine. The drop height was varied from 38 mm to 914 mm to generate impact velocities ranging from 53.4 m/min to 254 m/min. The dent depth created at different drop heights was related to the input impact energy and peak load observed in the tests. The effects of sheet thickness and yield strength were explored.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0336
Naoki Kaneko, Masayuki Wakamatsu, Masanobu Fukushima, Shigeru Ogawa
Development of anti-whiplash technology is one of the hottest issues in the automotive safety field because of the frequent occurrence of rear impact accidents. We analyzed the whiplash mechanism and conducted a study to seek the optimized seat characteristics with BioRID II and MADYMO simulations. A parameter study was made to construct a conceptual theory to decrease NIC, Neck Injury Criteria, with the MADYMO model. As a result of the study, head restraint position and seatback stiffness were found to affect dummy movement and injury values. Applying the NIC mechanism and the influential parameters to the MADYMO model, the optimized seat characteristics for whiplash prevention were obtained.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0342
David C. Viano, Chantal S. Parenteau
This paper provides an overview of rollover crash safety, including field crash statistics, pre- and rollover dynamics, test procedures and dummy responses as well as a bibliography of pertinent literature. Based on the 2001 Traffic Safety Facts published by NHTSA, rollovers account for 10.5% of the first harmful events in fatal crashes; but, 19.5% of vehicles in fatal crashes had a rollover in the impact sequence. Based on an analysis of the 1993-2001 NASS for non-ejected occupants, 10.5% of occupants are exposed to rollovers, but these occupants experience a high proportion of AIS 3-6 injury (16.1% for belted and 23.9% for unbelted occupants). The head and thorax are the most seriously injured body regions in rollovers. This paper also describes a research program aimed at defining rollover sensing requirements to activate belt pretensioners, roof-rail airbags and convertible pop-up rollbars.
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