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Viewing 1 to 22 of 22
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0541
Sebastian Thalmair, Jan Thiele, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Robert Ehart, Melaine Guillou
Increasing demands on engine efficiency and specific power have resulted in progressively higher loadings on internal components of combustion engines. Therefore the durability assessment of such components is increasingly in demand, triggered by both reliability and economic requirements. Within this context the TMF cylinder head simulation process established at BMW is presented in the following article. The numerical model is able to account for thermo-mechanical loading histories. These lead to a transient evolution of the material characteristics during the lifetime due to aging in aluminum alloys. Therefore a viscoplastic constitutive model is coupled with an aging model to handle the change in precipitation structure and the effect on the material properties, especially for non heat-treated secondary aluminum alloys. The local damage evolution is modeled based on the growth of micro cracks.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0315
Viorel Ionescu, Philipp Wernicke
In order to protect occupants from the risk of serious injury in event of side impact, passenger vehicles are designed to fulfil specific legislative and consumer impact test requirements. These are generally different for each of the major markets of the world. The tests use different configurations and percentile dummies (anthropomorphic test devices). Aside from the problem of finding an optimal design, the reliable evaluation of the robustness, i.e. the sensitivity of unavoidable scatter of design variables due to the structural response, is becoming increasingly important. For this purpose simulation is a well established tool in the development process in the automotive industry. The integration of FE-dummies and restraint systems in side impact simulations enables the study of the effect of dummy loading. ABAQUS/Explicit is a promising new software package for gaining more accuracy in crashworthiness and occupant protection simulations.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0105
Rudolf Stauber, Christina Cecco
Modern automotive engineering is more than ever affected by a multitude of different and sometimes contradictory requirements. Innovative materials play an increasingly important role in ensuring the fulfillment of these requirements. Conventional material development has always met these demands to a high standard. However, there will be challenges where nanotechnology will provide us with even more intelligent solutions. Consequently, automotive engineering makes more and more use of the large variety of new technological functionalities and innovative applications offered by nanotechnology. Nanotechnology involves property changes that only occur at the nanoscale. Some selected properties are suitable to be used in the design of tailored materials called nanomaterials, opening up a new dimension in automotive engineering. Nanomaterials promise valuable progress through new functionalities, in particular safety and quality rating applications or lightweight construction.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0070
Per Bakke, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Isabelle de Lima, Hans Lilholt, Ingemar Bertilsson, Fethi Abdulwahab, Pierre Labelle
A specific objective of the European Mg-Engine project is to qualify at least two die cast Mg alloys with improved high temperature properties, in addition to satisfactory corrosion resistance, castability and costs. This paper discusses the selection criteria for high temperature alloys leading to four candidate alloys, AJ52A, AJ62A, AE44 and AE35. Tensile-, creep- and fatigue testing of standard die cast test specimens at different temperatures and conditions have led to a very large amount of material property data. Numerous examples are given to underline the potential for these alloys in high temperature automotive applications. The subsequent use of the basic property data in material models for design of automotive components is illustrated.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0069
Michael Hoeschl, Wolfram Wagener, Johann Wolf
This paper presents new aspects of the casting and manufacturing of BMWs inline six-cylinder engine. This new spark-ignition engine is the realization of the BMW concept of efficient dynamics at high technological level. For the first time in the history of modern engine design, a water-cooled crankcase is manufactured by magnesium casting for mass production. This extraordinary combination of magnesium and aluminium is a milestone in engine construction and took place at the light-metal foundry at BMW's Landshut plant. This paper gives a close summary about process development, the constructive structure, and the manufacturing and testing processes.
2014-06-30
Technical Paper
2014-01-2092
Giorgio Veronesi, Christopher Albert, Eugène Nijman, Jan Rejlek, Arnaud Bocquillet
Abstract In many application fields, such as automotive and aerospace, the full FE Biot model has been widely applied to vibro-acoustics problems involving poro-elastic materials in order to predict their structural and acoustic performance. The main drawback of this approach is however the large computational burden and the uncertainty of the input data (Biot parameters) that may lead to less accurate prediction. In order to overcome these disadvantages industry is asking for more efficient techniques. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of structures coupled with poroelastic trims and fluid cavities can be predicted by means of the Patch Transfer Function (PTF) approach. The PTF is a sub-structuring procedure that allows for coupling different sub-systems via impedance relations determined at their common interfaces. The coupling surfaces are discretised into elementary areas called patches.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0663
Juergen Lescheticky, Graham Barnes, Marc Schrank
Despite increasingly stringent crash requirements, the body structures of future mainstream production cars need to get lighter. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites with a density 1/5th of steel and very high specific energy absorption represent a material technology where substantial mass can be saved when compared to traditional steel applications. BMW have addressed the demanding challenges of producing several hundred composite Body-in-White (BIW) assemblies a day and are committed to significant adoption of composites in future vehicle platforms, as demonstrated in the upcoming i3 and i8 models. A next step to further integrate composites into passenger cars is for primary structural members, which also perform critical roles in passive safety by absorbing large amounts of energy during a crash event.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0985
R. T. van Tol, M. Pfestorf
The average weight of a car has increased significantly in recent years due to higher crash requirements and demands in standard equipment. Therefore, BMW has decided to use aluminium for the body front end of the new BMW 5-series. During the paint process, the 6XXX-alloys currently adopted for the body front end exhibit a considerable increase in yield strength in the E-coat dryer. The increase of strength, the so-called paint bake response of 6XXX-alloys, needs to be fully exploited to meet the increasing demand of future passive safety concepts.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0975
Dietrich Brockmann, Rainer Spitzner, Andreas Lutz
The application of crash durable structural adhesives in modern cars design, to improve the driving durability, the overall vehicle stiffness, the crash resistance and to make real light weight constructions feasible is significantly gaining in importance. 1-component systems are already introduced in the market and used in automotive industries. Usually the use of these bonds in automotive industries is limited by a relatively low wash off resistance in the pre-treatment tanks of the paint shop. If no additional actions are taken, there is a severe risk of wash off of the adhesives up to the partial loss in functionality. Respectively contamination of the pre-treatment tanks and aftereffects damage the surface of the coated cars. To avoid wash off a thermal process (oven) to pre-gel the adhesive in the flanges of the Body-In-White (BIW)- bodies before entering the pre-treatment utility is necessary. This is a save but cost intensive solution.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0751
Marco Kohls
Automotive clear coats have a broad field of requirements to fulfill, e.g. weathering stability, stone chipping, chemical resistance, scratch resistance, and have to show a brilliant surface appearance. Beside this, the paint and repair process for high volume car manufacturing must be fulfilled with respect to costs and the environment. From the development point of view of a car manufacture interactions between these properties and the critical way of understanding and describing the value for the customer is shown. The conclusion of this scenario and a detailed benchmark study of different new clear coats guide to the development of the ‘Next generation’ of powder clear coats.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1488
M. Bollig, J. Liebl, R. Zimmer, M. Kraum, O. Seel, S. Siemund, R. Brück, J. Diringer, W. Maus
Future catalyst systems need to be highly efficient in a limited packaging space. This normally leads to a design where the flow distribution, in front of the catalyst, is not perfectly uniform. Measurements on the flow test bench show that the implementation of perforated foils for the corrugated and flat foils has the capability to distribute the flow within the channels in the radial direction so that the maximum of the given catalyst surface is of use, even under very poor uniformity indices. Therefore a remarkable reduction in back pressure is measured. Emission results demonstrate cold start improvement due to reduced heat capacity. The use of LS - structured ( Longitudinal structured ) corrugated foils creates a high turbulence level within the single channels. The substrate lights-up earlier and the maximum conversion efficiency is reached more quickly.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0729
Pierre Labelle, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Éric Baril
In addition to the creep properties, the fatigue properties are essential for the design of a power-train component in Mg which is operated at elevated temperatures. In case of the new BMW I6 composite Mg/Al crankcase using the AJ alloy system, material testing focused on both subjects. The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high-pressure die cast components. Tensile, high cycle fatigue properties, low cycle fatigue and crack propagation properties were established and analyzed within the technical context for power-train applications reflected in the temperature and load levels. The aspects of mean stress influence, notch sensitivity and crack propagation are evaluated to estimate the performances of the AJ62A alloy system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0659
Éric Baril, Pierre Labelle, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk
AJ alloy is used with a new Aluminum-Magnesium Composite Design, which is an innovative approach to lightweight crankcase technology. The component is manufactured using high pressure die cast process. A wide range of chemical compositions was used to develop a good understanding of the behavior of this alloy system (castability, thermophysical, mechanical, microstructure). The basic mechanical properties were determined from separately die cast samples and also from samples machined out from high pressure die cast components. Tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and high cycle fatigue properties were established and analyzed using multivariate analysis and statistical approach. This methodology was used to select the optimal chemical composition to match the requirements. The sensitivity of the alloy to heat exposure was investigated for both mechanical properties and microstructure.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1127
Eberhard Michael Kreppold, Doris Ruckdeschel, Ferdinand Dirschmid
The trend in the previous years showed that an ideal product is not obtained as a sum of development results of several separated disciplines but rather as a result of a holistic multidisciplinary CAE approach. In the course of the whole component development process it is necessary to consider all functions of an individual component equivalent to their importance in the system as a whole, in order to achieve both a technical and a financial optimum. The predictability and the accuracy of an individual computational method have to be regarded against the background of the entire simulation process. A continuative CAE-standard and a harmonious interaction between the different computational disciplines promise more success than focusing specifically on individual topics and thereby neglecting the “bigger picture”. This awareness provided the basis for a decision to change the entire crash simulation software to ABAQUS.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0375
Martin Kunst, Andreas Fischersworring-Bunk, Mark A. Gibson, Gordon Dunlop
AM-SC1™ is a high temperature Mg alloy that was originally developed as a sand casting alloy for automotive powertrain applications. The alloy has been selected as the engine block material for both the AVL Genios LE and the USCAR lightweight magnesium engine projects. The present work assesses the potential of this alloy for permanent-mould die cast applications. Thermo-physical and mechanical properties of AM-SC1 were determined for material derived from a permanent-mould die casting process. The mechanical properties determined included: tensile, creep, bolt load retention/relaxation and both low and high cycle fatigue. To better assess the creep performance, a comparative analysis of the normalized creep properties was carried out using the Mukherjee-Dorn parameter, which confirmed the high viscoplastic performance of AM-SC1 compared with common creep resistant high pressure die cast (HPDC) Mg-alloys.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1475
Eberhard Michael Kreppold
The importance of the automotive interior as a characteristic feature in the competition for the goodwill of the customer has increased significantly in recent years. Whilst there are established, more or less efficient CAE processes for the solution of problems in the areas of occupant safety and service strength, until now the implementation of CAE in themes such as dimensional stability, warpage and corrugation1 of plastic parts has been little investigated. The developmental support in this field is predominantly carried out by means of hardware tests. Real plastic components alter their form as a result of internal forces often during the first weeks following production. The process, known as “creep”, can continue over an extended period of time and is exacerbated by high ambient temperatures and additional external loads stemming from installation and post assembly position.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1219
Eberhard Michael Kreppold
Comfort and well-being have always been connected with a flawless interior acoustic, free of any background noise or BSR, (buzz, squeak and rattle). BSR noises dominate the interior acoustic and represent one of the main sources for discomfort often causing considerable warranty costs. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing, which by its nature intensifies toward the end of the car development process. In the following paper the integration of a virtual BSR validation technique in a modern development process by the use of appropriate CAE methods is presented. The goal is to shift, in compliance with the front loading concept, the development activities into the early phase. The approach is illustrated through the example of an instrument panel, from the early concept draft for single components to an assessment of the complete assembly.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1228
Florian Bechmann, Peter Fallböhmer, Rudolf Stauber, Christian Rauber, Andreas Lohmüller, Mark Hartmann, Robert F. Singer
Efficiency and dynamic behavior of a vehicle are strongly affected by its weight. Taking into consideration comfort, safety and emissions in modern automobiles, lightweight design is more of a challenge than ever in automotive engineering. Materials development plays an important role against this background, since significant weight decrease is made possible through the substitution of high density materials and more precise adjustment of material parameters to the functional requirements of components. Reinforced light metals, therefore, offer a promising approach due to their high strength to weight ratio. The paper gives an overview on matrix and reinforcement structures suited for the high volume output of the automotive industry. Further analytical and numerical approaches to describe the strengthening effects and the good mechanical characteristics of these composite materials are presented.
2000-03-06
Technical Paper
2000-01-1279
Mehnert Stefan
The Magnetic Forming Process is more than ever a very promising technology for light weight vehicle production. To support the development of further applications BMW Group has proven the ability of a standard FEM program to predict the process and the functional parameters of magnetically formed joints satisfactorily.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-1131
H. Dell, H. Gese, L. Keßler, H. Werner, H. Hooputra
The validity of numerical simulations is still limited by the unknown failure of materials when nonlinear load paths in successive stamping and crash processes occur. Localized necking is the main mechanism for fractures in ductile sheet metal. The classical forming limit curve (FLC) is limited to linear strain paths. To include the effects of nonlinear strain paths a theoretical model for instability (algorithm CRACH) has been used. The algorithm has been developed on the basis of the Marciniak model [8]. The calibration and validation of this approach is done by a set of multistage experiments under static and dynamic strain rates for a mild steel.
2000-06-12
Technical Paper
2000-05-0049
Rudolf Stauber, Markus Baur
Advanced material technologies play a key role in automotive engineering. The main objective of the development of advanced material technologies for automotive applications is to promote the desired properties of a vehicle. It is characteristic of most materials in modern cars that they have been developed especially for automotive requirements. Requirements are not only set by the customer who expects the maximum in performance, comfort, reliability, and safety from a modern car. Existing legal regulations also have to be met, e.g., in the areas of environmental compatibility, resource preservation, and minimization of emissions. To achieve goals like weight reduction or increased engine performance permanent material developments are essential. In this paper, numerous examples chosen from body, suspension, and powertrain components show clearly how low weight technologies, better comfort, and high level of recyclability can be achieved by advanced material solutions.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0131
Thomas Wolff, Anja Maier, Norbert Pylipp
Especially in horizontal applications of thermoplastic body-panels occurs a conflict between the required thermal stability (generally achieved with short glass fibers) and the high level surface finish as the reinforcements worsen the surface texture. The sandwich-molding procedure for bigger body-panels, developed further at BMW, offers an innovative solution to this problem. Two materials, one with good surface finish properties (material A) and another with glass fiber reinforcement (material B), are coinjected in a single process step. The result is a part with class-A surface (only material A visible at the surface), advanced mechanical and thermal properties. Additionally to an outstanding surface finish the body-panel exhibits small thermal expansion relevant for reduction of gaps to bordering parts.
Viewing 1 to 22 of 22

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