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Viewing 1 to 30 of 595
1989-09-01
Technical Paper
892149
Edward T. King, Granger K. Chul
A 22 hour engine test was developed to evaluate the effects of fuels, lubricants, and valvetrain dynamics on the wear of OHC 2.3L engine camshafts and finger followers. Procedures include a break-in to improve test repeatability and a test sequence to allow single-shift operation. A surface analyzer capable of measuring cam lobe wear profiles to micro-inch accuracy provided a quantitative wear comparison. A pure mineral oil, as expected, resulted in higher camshaft wear than using a fully formulated SF lubricant. Cam and follower wear increased significantly when ethanol replaced gasoline as fuel. The combination of ethanol, mineral oil and heavy duty valve springs was selected to increase test severity for hardware discrimination. The average wear of the intake lobes was greater than the exhausts. Kinematic analysis and visual inspection of the valve train mechanism revealed differences in the relative motion and contact stress pattern.
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890679
C. E. Newman, R. A. Stein, C. C. Warren, G. C. Davis
Abstract An experimental and analytical study was conducted to investigate the effects of load control with port throttling on stability and fuel consumption at idle. With port throttling, the pressure in the intake port increases during the valve-closed period due to flow past the throttle. If the pressure in the port recovers to ambient before the valve overlap period, back flow into the intake system from the cylinder is eliminated. This allows increased valve overlap to be used without increasing the residual mass fraction in the cylinder. Results showed that, with high valve overlap and port throttling, idle stability and fuel consumption can be maintained at values associated with low overlap in a conventionally throttled engine. However, implementation of this concept in production is regarded to require precision-fit and balanced port throttles, an external vacuum pump for vacuum systems support, and revision of the PCV system.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910200
M.-C. Lai, J.-Y. Kim, C.-Y. Cheng, P. Li, G. Chui, J. D. Pakko
The three-dimensional non-reacting flow field inside a typical dual-monolith automotive catalytic converter was simulated using finite difference analysis. The monolithic brick resistance was formulated from the pressure gradient of fully developed laminar duct-flow and corrected for the entrance effect. This correlation was found to agree with experimental pressure drop data, and was introduced as an additional source term into the non-dimensional momentum governing equation within the brick. Flow distribution within the monolith was found to depend strongly on the diffuser performance, which is a complex function of flow Reynolds number, brick resistance, and inlet pipe length and bending angles. A distribution index was formulated to quantify the degree of non-uniformity at selected test cases covering ranges of flow conditions, brick types, and inlet conditions.
1980-02-01
Technical Paper
800015
F. Bauer, P.E., A. C. Doty
SAE J551a (radio interference from ignition systems) was the first Standard revised specifically for compatibility with international requirements. Subsequent revisions (presently 551g) have made it significantly more stringent than the standard used overseas. U.S. automotive manufacturers have voluntarily designed vehicles to conform since 1962, without the necessity of Federal regulation. Liaison with Canada resulted in the use of the SAE Standard when RFI regulations were promulgated. Twenty years international negotiations have resulted in a common concept for North American and world requirements. The RFI Subcommittee will continue harmonization toward the objective of achieving a worldwide standard.
1981-11-01
Technical Paper
811270
John R. Little
The Ford Ranger will be a domestically built, small pickup truck engineered to many design objectives typical of a fullsize pickup, yet with four cylinder engine fuel efficiency. Ranger is a full-function on-and-off road pickup truck with a uniquely smooth ride and a capacity to carry up to a 725.7 kg. (1600 lb.) payload. The truck features a three passenger body-on-frame cab and a double wall pickup box with provision for 1.2m × 2.4m (4 ft. × 8 ft.) sheets of construction material. Featured in this comprehensive paper are the engineering highlights and innovations contributing to the accomplishment of these Small Truck objectives.
1985-02-25
Technical Paper
850474
S. C. Jasuja, M. P. Anderson
Finite element simulations of powertrain assemblies and components such as an engine block, transmission case, and structural oil pan, are regularly carried out at Ford Motor Company to provide directions for design improvements relevant to durability, minimum weight, noise and vibration characteristics. This paper presents hands-on experience with analyses of two powertrains in terms of computational strategies and resource requirements. The course of future analysis work in the light of current developments in computer technology, is also presented.
1985-02-01
Technical Paper
850281
Jack Williams
With the increasing emphasis on and importance of aerodynamics on vehicle fuel economy and handling, conservative approaches to sizing front-end cooling openings based on projected radiator area need to be replaced by a performance-based method. The method would not only allow more flexibility in front-end styling, but would enable the design of the grille, cooling hardware and vehicle heat rejection requirements to be based on the cooling performance of the total vehicle. The reductions in cooling drag and front lift from smaller, but more functional, grille openings would improve vehicle fuel economy and handling. A performance-based front-end design approach is described in the paper along with some selected experimental results. The method is based on an experimental technique for simultaneously measuring the total radiator airflow and vehicle aerodynamic performance in an aerodynamic wind tunnel.
1984-11-01
Technical Paper
841695
W. W. Shope, L. A. Ardisana, S. A. Mazzola
The unitized construction Aerostar compact van and wagon models have been engineered to meet a variety of consumer transportation needs. The broad range of functional and image objectives have been attained by traditional design and development programs augmented by new developmental methods and isolation components. State-of-the-art development methodologies applied early in the Aerostar program enabled prediction of the effects of design revisions intended to improve subsystem response characteristics and isolation. Developmental methods used included finite element analysis, modal analysis and synthesis, transmissibility measurements, torsional powertrain measurements, continuous wave laser holography, acoustical mode determination, acoustical intensity mapping and sensitivity studies used to project production ranges of quality.
1984-11-01
Technical Paper
841697
S. B. Carl, C. M. Foster
This paper summarizes the design features of the Aerostar aluminum driveshaft and the analytical techniques used in its development. The Aerostar aluminum driveshaft was designed for lightweight and smooth operation. The aluminum driveshaft uses magnetic impulse metal forming to attach the tube yokes to the tube. This process does not produce a significant amount of heat preserving tube's mechanical properties. Computer aided design techniques were used to optimize the design of driveshaft components and driveline geometry. Finite element analysis was used to refine the tube yoke design for minimum weight within the torque requirement. Finite element analysis was also used to determine resonant frequencies of the powertrain.
1982-02-01
Technical Paper
820085
J. T. Kovach, E. A. Tsakiris, L. T. Wong
Recent fuel cost increases have changed engine cost/benefit design guidelines and, therefore, renewed interest in engine friction reduction. At a typical part throttle engine operating condition, the mechanical friction (including oil pump & water pump) of a conventional four-cylinder engine consumes approximately 22% of the indicated power. A1 psi (6.9 kPa) MEP reduction in mechanical friction can result in an EPA, M-H fuel economy improvement of l%-2%, depending on the engine/vehicle configuration. This paper reviews various friction measurement methods and presents motoring friction data for several small engines (four and six cylinder). The friction of various components, including the valve train, pistons, rings and rods, seals and engine auxiliaries (alternator, water pump and oil pump) are also shown. Component design modifications for reducing friction are discussed, and projections and measurements of fuel economy gains for improved components are presented.
1980-11-01
Technical Paper
801425
David G. Loosle, Peter F. Leon, C. Robert Danielson
Recent accomplishments, made possible by advances in manufacturing and material technology, have led to the development of a one-piece stamped I-Beam axle with ball joints as a replacemet to the forged axle with king pin design. The new stamped I-Beam axle brings with it a number of improvements to Ford's Twin I-Beam suspension system. This paper describes the objectives, improvements, evolution of the design, testing, and the manufacturing process for this latest suspension system improvement on Ford light trucks.
1984-02-01
Technical Paper
840251
H. H. Dertian, T. M. Hutchison
Successful application of turbocharger technology to the Ford 2.3L OHC engine requires management of thermal loading. The 1979/1980 2.3L draw-thru carbureted engine was octane and spark advance limited, requiring calibration to worse case 91 RON conditions. Since no adaptive calibration control was possible relatively late ignition timing compromised engine performance. To improve performance, driveability, fuel economy and emission control, work was initiated in mid 1980 on a blow-thru electronic fuel injected engine scheduled for 1983½ production. Program assumptions were issued specifying a tuned EFI blow-thru inlet system, exhaust manifold mounted AiResearch T03 turbocharger with integral wastegate and 8.0:1 compression ratio with a dished piston. Also included were base engine revisions to accommodate increased thermal and mechanical loads.
1984-02-01
Technical Paper
840046
C. C. Bhise, D. H. Matle, V. D. Hoffmeister
This paper presents the results of three studies conducted by using the Ford Comprehensive Headlamp Environment Systems Simulation (CHESS) model. This model provides a much broader, more comprehensive and more economical computerized method for measuring head lighting performance than the traditional seeing distance field tests. The model was developed from an extensive program including nighttime field tests, traffic surveys and analysis and applications of earlier research work. The first study was conducted to determine the effect of horizontal and vertical aim on the visual performance of low beams. The second study was conducted to evaluate the effect of headlamp mounting height on low beam performance. The third study was conducted to correlate the performances of various existing and experimental low beam systems with their beam patterns.
1983-06-06
Technical Paper
831009
H. Lenox, A. J. Scussel
A completely new in-line four cylinder engine has been designed at Ford Motor Company for use in the 1984 Tempo/Topaz front-wheel-drive vehicle line. This paper will describe several factors which influenced the engine design, specifically in the areas of improved combustion, reduced friction, electronic controls, packaging and manufacturing. Individual component and overall system designs will also be described.
1989-11-01
Technical Paper
892538
John Richardson, Wes Dick
A transfer case was designed to utilize electronic control. It has a planetary interaxle differential for proportional torque split. An electromagnetic clutch is applied across the differential to enhance mobility when road coefficients allow single wheel or single axle traction loss. The need for clutch actuation is monitored by an electronic module and sensor system, that detects abnormal amounts of differentiation in the interaxle unit. Clutch actuation is signaled and controlled by the module, which is also electrically connected to the rear axle ABS brake system to eliminate any possible simultaneous function compatibility issues. System emphasis is on foul weather mobility when negotiating highway and secondary roads. The family vehicle market was targeted and performance parameters were adjusted toward mobility and driver confidence to complete a given trip.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1404
Tao Xu, Sheng-Jaw Hwang, Chung-Yao Tang, Mikhail Ejakov, Michael King
A successful piston design requires eliminate the following failure modes: structure failure, skirt scuffing and piston unusual noise. It also needs to deliver least friction to improve engine fuel economy and performance. Traditional approach of using hardware tests to validate piston design is technically difficult, costly and time consuming. This paper presents an up-front CAE tool and an analytical process that can systematically address these issues in a timely and cost-effectively way. This paper first describes this newly developed CAE process, the 3D virtual modeling and simulation tools used in Ford Motor Company, as well as the piston design factors and boundary conditions. Furthermore, following the definition of the piston design assessment criteria, several piston design studies and applications are discussed, which were used to eliminate skirt scuffing, reduce piston structure dynamic stresses, minimize skirt friction and piston slapping noise.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1936
Zheng Xu, Jianwen Yi, Eric W. Curtis, Steven Wooldridge
This paper describes a CFD modeling based approach to address design challenges in GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine combustion system development. A Ford in-house developed CFD code MESIM (Multi-dimensional Engine Simulation) was applied to the study. Gasoline fuel is multi-component in nature and behaves very differently from the single component fuel representation under various operating conditions. A multi-component fuel model has been developed and is incorporated in MESIM code. To apply the model in engine simulations, a multi-component fuel recipe that represents the vaporization characteristics of gasoline is also developed using a numerical model that simulates the ASTM D86 fuel distillation experimental procedure. The effect of the multi-component model on the fuel air mixture preparations under different engine conditions is investigated. The modeling approach is applied to guide the GDI engine piston designs.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1939
Mehdi Abarham, John Hoard, Dennis N. Assanis, Dan Styles, Eric W. Curtis, Nitia Ramesh, C. Scott Sluder, John M. E. Storey
EGR coolers are effective to reduce NOx emissions from diesel engines due to lower intake charge temperature. EGR cooler fouling reduces heat transfer capacity of the cooler significantly and increases pressure drop across the cooler. Engine coolant provided at 40–90 C is used to cool EGR coolers. The presence of a cold surface in the cooler causes particulate soot deposition and hydrocarbon condensation. The experimental data also indicates that the fouling is mainly caused by soot and hydrocarbons. In this study, a 1-D model is extended to simulate particulate soot and hydrocarbon deposition on a concentric tube EGR cooler with a constant wall temperature. The soot deposition caused by thermophoresis phenomena is taken into account the model. Condensation of a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules are also modeled but the results show condensation of only heavy molecules at coolant temperature.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1916
Claudia O. Iyer, Jianwen Yi
A systematic methodology has been employed to develop the Duratec 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system, with focus on the optimization of the combustion system including injector spray pattern, intake port design, piston geometry, cylinder head geometry. The development methodology was led by CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modeling together with a testing program that uses optical, single-cylinder, and multi-cylinder engines. The current study shows the effect of several spray patterns on air-fuel mixing, in-cylinder flow development, surface wetting, and turbulence intensity. A few sets of injector spray patterns are studied; some that have a wide total cone angle, some that have a narrow cone angle and a couple of optimized injector spray patterns. The effect of the spray pattern at part load, full load and cold start operation was investigated and the methodology for choosing an optimized injector is presented.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2061
Scott Yu, Rob Higley
Imbalances of an automatic transmission have a direct impact on NVH. To measure those imbalances, one needs to overcome two hurdles: (1) Phase uncertainty of individual component imbalance due to clutch indexing; (2) Imbalance separation of transmission from other systems, such as driveshaft and engine crank, connected to the transmission. To attack those issues, an algorithm has been developed which can deal with the phase issue caused by clutch engagement, and separate transmission imbalance at the system level without individually measuring other system imbalances. The method has been verified with several vehicle programs in both vehicle and dynamometer tests.
2009-05-19
Journal Article
2009-01-2053
Charlie Teng, Steve Homco
With swelling gasoline prices, automotive OEMs have taken different approaches to improve vehicle fuel economy. One trend is to down-size the engine and to add turbo charging. One of the challenges in utilizing the turbocharger in passenger cars is to control the added NVH issues associated with this hardware, especially for the North American market where turbocharger use is scarce in gasoline engines. In this paper, the authors review an investigation on turbocharger related “whoosh” noise on a V6 engine. The whoosh noise, also called surge noise, is caused by the compressor working at or near surge conditions. Whoosh noise is a broad frequency band flow noise typically found during throttle tip-in conditions, but sometimes found even at steady state driving conditions. The root cause of whoosh noise and the detection methods are discussed in this paper. The countermeasures to reduce whoosh noises are also discussed.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0881
Yan Meng, Mark Jennings, Poyu Tsou, David Brigham, Douglas Bell, Ciro Soto
A hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) system model, which directly simulates vehicle drive cycles with interactions among driver, environment, vehicle hardware and vehicle controls, is a critical CAE tool used through out the product development process to project HEV fuel economy (FE) capabilities. The accuracy of the model is essential and directly influences the HEV hardware designs and technology decisions. This ultimately impacts HEV product content and cost. Therefore, improving HEV system model accuracy and establishing high-level model-test correlation are imperative. This paper presents a Parameter Diagram (P-Diagram) based model-test correlation framework which covers all areas contributing to potential model simulation vs. vehicle test differences. The paper describes each area in detail and the methods of characterizing the influences as well as the correlation metrics.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0858
Alexander T. Zaremba, Mark Jennings
This paper presents a purge system model developed for hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) applications. Assessment of purge capability is critical to HEV vehicles due to frequent engine off operation which limits carbon canister purging. The purge model is comprised of subsystems representing purge control strategy, carbon canister and engine plant. The paper is focused on modeling of the engine purge control feature. The purge model validation and purge capability predictions for an example HEV vehicle are presented and discussed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0860
Qing Wang, Wei Liang, Ming Kuang, Ryan McGee
Ford Motor Company has investigated a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) configuration to move further toward powertrain electrification. This paper first provides a brief overview of the Vehicle System Controls (VSC) architecture and its development process. The paper then presents the energy management strategies that select operating modes and desired powertrain operating points to improve fuel efficiency. The focus will be on the controls design and optimization in a Model-in-the-Loop environment and in the vehicle. Various methods to improve powertrain operation efficiency will also be presented, followed by simulation results and vehicle test data. Finally, opportunities for further improvements are summarized.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1236
Jungdon Cho, Nikolaos Katopodes, Nimrod Kapas, Yuji Fujii
An oil-lubricated wet clutch has a direct impact on the drivability and fuel economy of a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission system. However, a reliable analysis of clutch behavior still remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to advance the state-of the-art in CFD methodology for modeling transient clutch behavior. First, a new iterative scheme is developed, in combination with commercial CFD software, which is capable of simulating the squeeze film process in a wet clutch. The numerical results are then validated using analytical solutions of the Reynolds equation for simplified clutch geometry and various boundary conditions. It is found that the choice of boundary conditions has a strong influence on squeeze film simulation. The iterative scheme is further validated by comparison to clutch engagement experiments.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1224
Mark S. Peckham, Alex Finch, Bruce Campbell, Phil Price, Marcus Timothy Davies
A study has been conducted to measure the particle number emissions from a current-generation 1.6-liter, Euro IV-compliant turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. A fast-response particle size spectrometer was used along with a PMP-compliant particulate measurement system to measure the effect of various engine parameters on the particulate emissions during the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). Overall particle number is shown along with further analysis of the transient particle emissions. The cold start clearly affects particle formation with approximately 50% of the cumulative particle number being emitted within 200 seconds of the start. Even beyond 200 seconds, the particle number emissions fall as the test progresses and are generally consistent with increases in engine coolant temperature indicating that cold engine fuel preparation issues are contributing to the particle number count.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2459
Yang Dai, David J. Schipper, Das M. Ramnath
Recent advances in Automatic Transmission Engineering Organization (ATEO) at Ford Motor Company have integrated CAE gear whine analysis into the transmission design process. Detailed models can be developed to predict radiated noise under many types of loading conditions, including dynamic mesh force excitation. Often correlating the analytical FRFs with the results obtained from testing a prototype validates the analytical model and its assumptions. The evaluation and determination of correct and appropriate CAE properties can be extremely difficult for even the experienced design engineer. This paper discusses the application of structural optimization techniques to the assumed material properties and model parameters to minimize the difference between the analytical results and test data over a large frequency range.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2462
Scott Yu, Stephen Kaatz
Asymmetric sidebands of gear noise are frequently observed with a planetary gear set, and are different from typical sidebands that are symmetrical around the gear mesh order (or mesh frequency). The asymmetric sidebands are found to be caused by phase differences between the different mesh points. The sidebands' locations can be calculated with knowledge of the gear set parameters. In this paper, a numerical simulation is used to predict the sidebands in a 4-speed automatic transmission. An experimental test verifies the theoretical prediction. Finally an application is described to show how to use the theory for gear noise reduction on the planetary gear set.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2482
Mike Blommer, Alan Eden, Scott Amman
Many engine tick and knock issues are clearly audible, yet cannot be characterized by common sound quality metrics such as time-varying loudness, sharpness, fluctuation strength, or roughness. This paper summarizes the recent development and application of an objective metric that agrees with subjective impressions of impulsive engine noise. The metric is based on a general impulsive noise model [1], consisting of a psychoacoustic processing stage followed by a transient detection stage. The psychoacoustic stage is extracted from portions of a time-varying loudness model. The primary output of the impulsive engine noise model is a time series that indicates the location and “intensity” of impulsive engine noise events. The information in this time series is reduced either to a single number metric, or to a frequency-based vector of numbers that indicates the amount of impulsiveness in the recorded sound.
2005-05-16
Technical Paper
2005-01-2480
Brian Brassow, Mark Clapper
The Ford GT is the modern re-creation of the 60's era supercar. The powertrain sound quality of the vehicle must enhance its powerful nature, meet regulatory requirements, and maintain a targeted level of refinement. The Ford GT acoustic engineering team used time domain sound decomposition and sound synthesis techniques to determine the sub-system source sounds from surrogate vehicles. The donor source sounds (e.g. exhaust system) are recombined to produce the customer perceived vehicle listening experience from these sub-systems. Target sounds are developed by modifying sub-systems by level, frequency dominance, and order balance. Proposed target sounds are verified by a jury and the results are used for early target agreement and cascading to component targets. This exercise allows development of a customer focused powertrain target sound based on realistic hardware assumptions before any prototypes are available.
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