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Viewing 1 to 30 of 43
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1434
Richard Pyszel
The electrical architecture design of a rear back glass defrost grid system encompasses many critical criteria that must be integrated into the design. For example, the defrost clip location and interface to the glass must meet all vehicle performance requirements. If the defrost clip to the glass interface is not resistant to vibration and relative movement, detachment and loss of function can occur. This paper describes a back glass defrost clip with a solder joint that is robust to manufacturing variations and customer usage conditions. A designed experiment using Design for Six Sigma methodologies was performed to understand the effects of the attachment interface to the electrical wiring pigtail, and parameters that affect performance. The working constraints, testing set up, validation, and root cause investigation of the clip detachment phenomenon is covered in this paper.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0908
Elana Chapman, Jill Cummings
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries. The impact of these inhibitors on spark ignited fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the additive concentrations to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel; and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the CIs impact the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation. Commercially available corrosion inhibitor packages for both gasoline and ethanol blended fuels, specifically E85 fuels, were studied for their chemical compositions, and their impact on valves for a port fuel injection (PFI) engine.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0788
Zongfen Zhang, Chris Chen, Gregory Zywicki, Brad Blaski, James Blenman
Spot welds have two separation modes: interfacial and button pullout. Most of existing publications [8,9,10,11,12] focused on button pullout. This is because for the same sheet metal and gage combination, button pullout leads to higher separation load than interfacial separation. With the push for lighter vehicles, high strength and ultra high strength steels are used. To further reduce mass, welding flanges are getting narrower. The welding tips are getting smaller. The weld nugget diameters are smaller as a result. The separation mode for certain load cases is no longer nugget pullout, but interfacial instead. This lowers the weld's maximum load capacity. In order for CAE simulated prediction to correlate to physical behaviors of vehicle structures, it is important to define and reconfirm separation criteria. New tests and analyses are necessary.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0767
Hesham A. Ezzat, Richard Roth, Theresa M. Lee, Randall J. Urbance, Randolph Kirchain
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0765
Timothy M. Boundy, Rudy Vican, Bhushan Dandekar
Recent changes to the U.S. CAFÉ (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements have caused increased focus on alternative vehicle component designs that offer mass savings while maintaining overall vehicle design and performance targets. The instrument panel components comprise approximately 6% of the total vehicle interior mass and are thus a key component of interest in mass optimization efforts. Typically, instrument panel structures are constructed of low carbon tubular steel cross car members with welded stamped steel component brackets. In some cases, instrument panel structures have incorporated high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels to reduce mass by reducing gage. In this study, aluminum low mass instrument panel structure concept designs are developed. This paper illustrates the differences between a HSLA steel solution and four different aluminum instrument panel structure designs.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0774
James R. Roll, Gennadiy Shumulinskiy, Carla P. Giovanardi, James C. O'Kane
The bright surface finish of exterior automotive moldings made from stainless steel can become hazed and reflections distorted as a result of forming done during the manufacturing processes. Bright moldings are frequently used to give styling differentiation accents to vehicle exteriors. Stainless steel provides cost effective differentiation with a material that is durable and relatively easy to form to shapes desired by the stylist. Because of the desirable attributes of stainless steel, an understanding of the threshold of unacceptable surface appearance is necessary to maximize showroom appeal and avoid customer complaints that result in warranty claims. This paper quantifies the effect that manufacturing strain and strain rate have on the surface finish of 436M2 stainless steel. Controlled experiments were conducted on production grade stainless steel strips subjected to a variety of strain and strain rates typical of manufacturing processes.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1059
Curt D. Horvath, Ronald Sanders
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1060
Jody Hall, Tareena Mulholland, Darryl Young, J.P. McGuire
Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) have become an essential part of the lightweighting strategy for automotive body structures. The ability to fully realize the benefits of AHSS depends upon the ability to aggressively form, trim, and pierce these steels into challenging parts. Tooling wear has been a roadblock to stamping these materials. Traditional die materials and designs have shown significant problems with accelerated wear, galling and die pickup, and premature wear and breakage of pierce punches. [1] This paper identifies and discusses the tribological factors that contribute to the successful stamping of AHSS. This includes minimizing tool wear and galling/die pick-up; identifying the most effective pierce clearance (wear vs. burr height) when piercing AHSS; and determining optimal die material and coating performance for tooling stamping AHSS.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1078
Arun M. Joshi, Hesham Ezzat, Norman Bucknor, Mark Verbrugge
In designing vehicles with significant electric driving range, optimizing vehicle energy efficiency is a key requirement to maximize the limited energy capacity of the onboard electrochemical energy storage system. A critical factor in vehicle energy efficiency is the vehicle mass. Optimizing mass allows for the possibility of either increasing electric driving range with a constant level of electrochemical energy storage or holding the range constant while reducing the level of energy storage, thus reducing storage cost. In this paper, a methodology is outlined to study the tradeoff between the battery cost savings achieved by vehicle mass reduction for a constant electric driving range and the cost associated with lightweighting a vehicle. This methodology enables informed business decisions about the available engineering options for lightweighting early in the vehicle development process. The methodology was applied to a compact extended-range electric vehicle (EREV) concept.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1076
Randy Gu, Leonid C. Lev, Lianxiang Yang
In this paper, a finite element methodology is given in which finite element models of a three-weld Al-Cu plate is created with support and loading conditions emulating those seen in an optical lab. Harmonic response is sought for the models under the presumption that various defective welds are present. The numerical results are carefully examined to determine the guideline frequency range so the actual optical experiment can be carried out more efficiently.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0652
Nancy Zeng, Cheryl L. O'Brien, Carole M. Wolfe, Craig O'Brien
To investigate the effect of aeration on fluid-elastomer compatibility, 4 types of elastomers were aged in three gear lubes. The four types of elastomers include a production fluorinated rubber (FKM) and production hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR) mixed by the part fabricator, a standard low temperature flexible fluorinated rubber (FKM, ES-4) and a standard ethylene-acrylic copolymer (AEM, ES-7) mixed by SAE J2643 approved rubber mixer. The three gear lubes are Fluid a, Fluid b and Fluid c, where Fluid b is a modified Fluid with additional friction modifier, and Fluid c is friction modified chemistry from a different additive supplier. The aeration effect tests were performed at 125°C for 504 hours. The aerated fluid aging test was performed by introducing air into fluid aging tubes as described in General Motors Company Materials Specification GMW16445, Appendix B, side-by-side with a standard ASTM D471 test.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0610
Jason Coryell, Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Sushil Mishra
Temperature effects on the deformation and fracture of a commercially produced transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) steel subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment are investigated. Strain field evolution at room temperature is quantified in this 980 MPa grade Q&P steel with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) technique from quasi-static tensile tests of specimens with 0°, 45°, and 90° orientations. Baseline tensile properties along with the variation of the instantaneous hardening index with strain were computed. Variations of the bake-hardening index were explored under simulated paint bake conditions. Tensile properties were measured at selected temperatures between -100°C and 200°C and the TRIP effect was found to be temperature-dependent due to stress-induced martensitic transformation at lower temperatures versus strain-induced transformation at higher temperatures.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1528
Robert Foley, Rajesh Nagappala, Galen Ressler, Peter Andres, Brian Martel
Insulation coordination requirements for electrical equipment applications are defined in various standards. The standards are defined for application to stationary mains connected equipment, like IT, power supply or industrial equipment. Protection from an electric shock is considered the primary hazard in these standards. These standards have also been used in the design of various automotive components. IEC 60664-1 is an example of the standard. Automobiles are used across the world, in various environments and in varied usage by the customers. Automobiles need to consider possible additional hazards including electric shock. This paper will provide an overview of how to adapt these standards for automotive application in the design of High Voltage (HV) automotive components, including High Voltage batteries and other HV components connected to the battery. The basic definitions from the standards and the principles are applied for usage in automotive applications.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0893
Elana Chapman, Jill Cummings, Douglas Conran
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution hardware used for transportation of fuel from refineries and to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of these inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a second market place survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and, to show how the variation in the concentrations of the components of the CIs impacts the operation and performance of vehicles, specifically, the effects on intake valve deposit formation.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1208
Hong Tae Kang, Abolhassan Khosrovaneh, Hu Hu, Urban De Souza
Generally linear finite element analysis (FEA) is used to predict fatigue life of spot welded joints in a vehicle body structure. Therefore, the effect of plastic deformation at the vicinity of the spot welded joints is not included on fatigue prediction. This study introduces a simple technique to include the plastic deformation effect without performing elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The S-N curve obtained from fatigue test results is modified to consider this effect. Tensile strength test results of spot welded joint specimens were utilized to find the load range for FEA equivalent to the applied load range for fatigue tests. To demonstrate the proposed approach, fatigue test results of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for lap-shear and coach peel specimens were used. Both the specimen types were tested at various constant amplitudes with the load ratios of R=0.1 and 0.3.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0193
Qigui Wang, Peggy Jones
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0077
Gerald S. Cole, Siyuan Long, Richard J. Osborne
Automotive structural components are exposed to high loads, impact situations and corrosion. In addition, there may be temperature excursions that introduce creep as well as reduced modulus (stiffness). These issues have limited the use of light metals in automotive structural applications primarily to aluminum alloys, and primarily to cast wheels and knuckles (only a few of which are forged), cast brake calipers, and cast control arms. This paper reports on research performed at Chongqing University, Chongqing China, under the auspices of General Motors engineering and directed by the first author, to develop a protocol that uses wrought magnesium in control arms. The goal was to produce a chassis part that could provide the same engineering function as current cast aluminum applications; and since magnesium is 33% less dense than aluminum, would be lighter.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0074
Alan Luo, Theresa Lee, Jon Carter
Magnesium and aluminum alloys offer lightweighting opportunities in automotive applications. Joining of dissimilar materials, however, generally requires methods that do not involve fusion. This paper explores the use of self-pierce riveting (SPR) to join magnesium to aluminum alloys for structural and closure applications. The preliminary results indicate that SPR is a viable option for joining aluminum extrusions to magnesium die castings, as well as stamped sheet aluminum to quick-plastic-formed (QPF) sheet magnesium.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0075
Jon T. Carter, Andres R. Melo, Vesna Savic, Louis Gerard Hector, Paul E. Krajewski
Experimental decklids for the Cadillac STS sedan were made with Al AA5083 sheet outer panels and Mg AZ31B sheet inner panels using regular-production forming processes and hardware. Joining and coating processes were developed to accommodate the unique properties of Mg. Assembled decklids were evaluated for dimensional accuracy, slam durability, and impact response. The assemblies performed very well in these tests. Explicit and implicit finite element simulations of decklids were conducted, and showed that the Al/Mg decklids have good stiffness and strength characteristics. These results suggest the feasibility of using Mg sheet closure panels from a structural perspective.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0002
Kangping Wang, Yih-Charng Deng, Varun Rao, Xin Yang
An engineering approach was developed to extract the failure plastic strain, thinning failure strain, and major in plane failure strain for finite element simulation applications. This approach takes into account the failure strain dependency on the element size when element deletion scheme is invoked in the simulation of material fracture. Both localized necking fracture and tensile shear fracture can be predicted when appropriate elements and material models are used in LS-DYNA simulations. This leads to a more accurate prediction of fracture and tearing in the finite element simulation of vehicle structure and crash loading conditions.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0017
Nancy Zeng, Randy L. Dickerman
The first set of SAE J2643 Standard Reference Elastomers (SRE) was developed in 2004. It was composed of a group of 10 compounds covering multiple elastomer families. Since then, more advanced materials from many elastomer families have been introduced to the automotive industry. The purpose of this study is to add a few more reference compounds to SAE J2643, to enhance the portfolio on FKM, AEM and ACM to reflect advancements in elastomer technology, and make it suitable for a variety of fluids, such as transmission fluid and engine oil. Fourteen standard elastomer compounds were involved in this study, covering various materials currently used in automotive powertrain static and dynamic sealing applications. Participants include OEMs, major rubber manufacturers, a fluid additive company and an independent lab. Manufacturers of each test compound provided formulations, designated ingredients from defined sources, and detailed mixing and molding procedures.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0015
Brian P. Hake
Delivering the appropriate material data for CAE analysis of plastic components is not as straight forward as it would seem to be. While a few of the properties typically used by resin manufacturers and material engineers to describe a plastic are useful to the analysis community (density, CLTE), most are not (flexural modulus, notched izod). In addition some properties such as yield stress are defined differently by the analysis community than by the materials community. Lastly, secondary operations such as painting or chrome plating significantly change the behavior of components with plastic substrates. The materials engineering community and the CAE analysis community must work together closely to develop the material data necessary to increase the capability of the analysis. This paper will examine case studies where these issues have required modifications to the material property data to increase the fidelity of the CAE analysis.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0226
Matthew Carroll, Joseph Randazzo
Decoratively plated plastic parts continue to be in high demand. One of the essential and challenging features of these finished goods is the adhesion between the metal plating and the plastic. As is the case with any bond between metals and plastics, combating the force from dissimilar thermal growth is an ongoing concern. When a plated plastic part is frozen and the plastic contracts, the failure mode for the plating manifests as a blister or “worm track”. On the other hand, when high heat causes plating failures from growth of the plastic, the problem is one of cracking in the plating. In this study, two methods are discussed that provide insight into the strength of the bond between the metal plating and the ABS and ABS+PC plastics. Peel testing is one means to evaluate the strength of the plating to plastic bond. Peel testing methodology and results are reported for both ABS and ABS+PC samples. A second means to evaluate the bond strength is through thermal cycle testing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0250
Richard A. Novaco, Brian Bartnick, William R. Rodgers, Mitchell Everett Hart, Benjamin Christian, Thomas R. Paveglio
Polyacetals have high strength, modulus, and chemical resistance with good dimensional stability. Because of these properties, they are used in a number of automotive applications. The injection molding process used for the molding of these components is complex and requires the adjustment of multiple process parameters to produce parts. Typically, physical tests are used to confirm that tensile strength is achieved in processing. A study was undertaken with an impact modified carbon powder filled, acetal copolymer to determine the effect of variation in process parameters on other material properties in addition to tensile strength. These material properties were measured dry as-molded and after exposure to heat and to a test fluid. It was determined that in the case of this specific polymer, the barrel temperature, and to a lesser extent the cooling time during processing, affected the strain at break.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0195
Joseph G. D'Ambrosio, Rami Debouk
ASIL decomposition is a method described in the ISO 26262 standard for the assignment of ASILs to redundant requirements. Although ASIL decomposition appears to have similar intent to the hardware fault tolerance concept of IEC 61508-2, ASIL decomposition is not intended to reduce ASIL assignments to hardware elements for random hardware failures, but instead focuses on functions and requirements in the context of systematic failures. Based on our participation in the development of the standard, the method has been applied in different ways in practice, not all of which are fully consistent with the intent of the standard. Two potential reasons that may result in the use of “modified” ASIL algebra include the need of OEMs to partition a system and specify subsystem requirements to suppliers and the need for designers to construct systems bottom up.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0537
Hwawon Lee, Parvath Police, Charles Cory
Evaluating spot weld separation is one of the most challenging tasks in a quasi-static simulation. There are several factors that exist in modeling welds analytically that can influence correlation to physical test. This paper presents 4 specific factors: spot weld representation, weld thickness, weld strength, and metal forming effects around spot welds. There are many ways in which a spot weld can be modeled within an FEA model from mesh independent beams to mesh dependent hex clusters. While each modeling technique comes with its unique sets of advantages and disadvantages, a method is chosen to best balance correlation, model setup timing and computation time. Dependent on the way the thickness of the spot weld is represented, artificial moments can be induced which misrepresents structural behavior. The assigned yield strength of the spot weld influences the behavior of the joint.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0040
Gongyao Gu, Shaoting Lin, Yong Xia, Qing Zhou, Chin-Hsu Lin
In quasi-static tension and compression tests of thermoplastics, full-field strain distribution on the gage section of the specimen can be captured using the two-dimensional digital image correlation method. By loading the test specimens made of a talc-filled and impact-modified polypropylene up to tensile failure and large compressive strains, this study has revealed that inhomogeneous deformation within the gage section occurs quite early for both test types. This leads to the challenge of characterizing the mechanical properties - some mechanical properties such as stress-strain relationship and fracture strain could depend on the measured section length and location. To study this problem, the true stress versus true strain curves determined locally in different regions within the gage length are compared.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0184
Vesna Savic, Louis Hector, Keith Snavely
Accurate material property data in both the elastic and plastic ranges of deformation is essential for accurate material representation in finite element simulations of vehicle systems. Variation of post formed material properties across a part are often of interest in different types of analyses, such as metal forming or fatigue life, for example. Depending on a part's shape it is not always possible to cut standard size tensile test specimens from all areas of interest across the part. Smaller size specimens with curved or tapered gage section may have to be used to promote strain localization and fracture at or near the gage center. This paper presents comparison of quasi-static tensile properties determined using two specimen gage section geometries, straight and tapered. Specifically, the following questions are addressed. How do the engineering strains computed from two-dimensional strain fields obtained by DIC compare to strains measured during standard tensile tests?
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0492
Yuan Zhang
Rubber isolators and bushings are very important components for vehicle performance. However, one often finds it is difficult to get the dynamic properties to be readily used in CAE analysis, either from suppliers or from OEM's own test labs. In this paper, the author provides an analytical method to obtain the dynamic stiffness of an exhaust isolator, using ABAQUS and iSight, with tested or targeted isolator static stiffness information. The analysis contains two steps. The first step is to select the (rubber/EPDM) material properties for the FE isolator model by matching the static stiffness with either the targeted spring rate (linear or nonlinear) or the (tested) load / deflection curve. The second step is to perform dynamic analysis on the statically “validated” FE isolator model to obtain its dynamic properties.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0464
Renee Hotton
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
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