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Viewing 1 to 30 of 47
2011-05-17
Technical Paper
2011-01-1533
Nicholas Earnhart, Kenneth Marek, Kenneth Cunefare
Hydraulic systems pose a particular problem for noise control. Due to the high speed of sound in hydraulic fluids, components typically designed to reduce fluid-borne noise can easily exceed practical size constraints. This paper presents novel solutions to creating compact and effective noise control devices for fluid power systems. A hydraulic silencer is presented that utilizes a voided polymer lining in lieu of a pressurized bladder. Theoretical modeling is developed which predicts device performance and can assist in future design work. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the device. Both voided and non-voided liners are tested to show the effect of the voiding on the performance. In addition, theoretical modeling and experimental results are presented for a prototype Helmholtz resonator that is two orders of magnitude smaller than previously developed devices.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-2046
Jean-Guillaume Nerva, Teruo Yamaguchi, Hiroki Iguma, Hiroki Nishigai, Katsufumi Kondo, Satoshi Takano, Tetsuya Aizawa, Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0876
Jerome Meisel
General Motors has recently developed a front-wheel drive version of its two planetary two-mode transmission (2-MT) for a hybrid-electric vehicle powertrain [1]. This newer transmission includes two planetary gears with two transfer clutches and two braking clutches. With activation of designated pairs of these four clutches, four fixed-gear ratios between the transmission's input shaft and output shaft are obtained. In addition, activation of specific individual clutches gives two modes of operation whereby the IC engine speed is decoupled from the vehicle velocity thus providing an electrical continuously variable transmission (ECVT). This present paper extends the power-split analysis in [2] by deriving a safe-operating region (SOR) in the plane of IC engine speed vs. vehicle velocity for the four fixed-gear and two ECVT modes. This SOR is bounded by the speed limitations of the 2-MT components. Similar results are presented for the Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) transmission.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0659
Caroline L. Genzale, Lyle M. Pickett, Alexandra A. Hoops, Jeffrey M. Headrick
Laser plasma ignition has been pursued by engine researchers as an alternative to electric spark-ignition systems, potentially offering benefits by avoiding quenching surfaces and extending breakdown limits at higher boost pressure and lower equivalence ratio. For this study, we demonstrate another potential benefit: the ability to control the timing of ignition with short, nanosecond pulses, thereby optimizing the type of mixture that burns in rapidly changing, stratified fuel-air mixtures. We study laser ignition at various timings during single and double injections at simulated gasoline engine conditions within a controlled, high-temperature, high-pressure vessel. Laser ignition is accomplished with a single low-energy (10 mJ), short duration (8 ns) Nd:YAG laser beam that is tightly focused (0.015 mm average measured 1/e₂ diameter) at a typical GDI spark plug location.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0948
John Arata, Michael J. Leamy, Jerome Meisel, Kenneth Cunefare, David Taylor
This paper presents a comparative analysis of two different power-split hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) powertrains using backward-looking simulations. Compared are the front-wheel drive (FWD) Toyota Hybrid System II (THS-II) and the FWD General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS-II). The Toyota system employs a one-mode electrically variable transmission (EVT), while the GM system employs a two-mode EVT. Both powertrains are modeled with the same assumed mid-size sedan chassis parameters. Each design employs their native internal combustion (IC) engine because the transmission's characteristic ratios are designed for the respective brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps. Due to the similarities (e.g., power, torque, displacement, and thermal efficiency) between the two IC engines, their fuel consumption and performance differences are neglected in this comparison.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0941
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
Abstract Spray processes, such as primary breakup, play an important role for subsequent combustion processes and emissions formation. Accurate modeling of these spray physics is therefore key to ensure faithful representation of both the global and local characteristics of the spray. However, the governing physical mechanisms underlying primary breakup in fuel sprays are still not known. Several theories have been proposed and incorporated into different engineering models for the primary breakup of fuel sprays, with the most widely employed models following an approach based on aerodynamically-induced breakup, or more recently, based on liquid turbulence-induced breakup. However, a complete validation of these breakup models and theories is lacking since no existing measurements have yielded the joint liquid mass and drop size distribution needed to fully define the spray, especially in the near-nozzle region.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1219
Jerome Meisel, Wassif Shabbir, Simos A Evangelou
Abstract Using measurable physical input variables, an implementable control algorithm for parallel architecture plug-in and non-plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV and HEV) powertrains is presented. The control of the electric drive is based on an algebraic mapping of the accelerator pedal position, the battery state-of-charge (SOC), and the vehicle velocity into a motor controller input torque command. This mapping is developed using a sequential linearization control (SLC) methodology. The internal combustion engine (ICE) control uses a modified accelerator pedal to throttle plate angle using an adjustable gain parameter that, in turn, determines the sustained battery SOC. Searches over an admissible control space or the use of pre-defined look-up tables are thus avoided. Actual on-road results for a Ford Explorer with a through-the-road (TTR) hybrid powertrain using this control methodology are presented.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0797
Benjamin W Knox, Caroline L Genzale, Lyle M Pickett, Jose M Garcia-Oliver, Walter Vera-Tudela
Abstract This work contributes to the understanding of physical mechanisms that control flashback, or more appropriately combustion recession, in diesel sprays. A large dataset, comprising many fuels, injection pressures, ambient temperatures, ambient oxygen concentrations, ambient densities, and nozzle diameters is used to explore experimental trends for the behavior of combustion recession. Then, a reduced-order model, capable of modeling non-reacting and reacting conditions, is used to help interpret the experimental trends. Finally, the reduced-order model is used to predict how a controlled ramp-down rate-of-injection can enhance the likelihood of combustion recession for conditions that would not normally exhibit combustion recession. In general, fuel, ambient conditions, and the end-of-injection transient determine the success or failure of combustion recession.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-0815
Dekun Pei, Michael Leamy
This paper presents a forward-looking simulation (FLS) approach for the front wheel drive (FWD) General Motors Allison Hybrid System II (GM AHS-II). The supervisory control approach is based on a dynamic programming-informed Equivalent Cost Minimization Strategy (ECMS). The controller development uses backward-looking simulations (BLS), which execute quickly by neglecting component transients while assuming exact adherence to a specified drive cycle. Since ECMS sometimes prescribes control strategies with rapid component transients, its efficacy remains unknown until these transients are modeled. This is addressed by porting the ECMS controller to a forward-looking simulation where component transients are modeled in high fidelity. Techniques of implementing the ECMS controller and commanding the various power plants in the GM AHS-II for FLS are discussed.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1102
Gina M. Magnotti, Caroline L. Genzale
It is common practice to validate diesel spray models against experimental diesel-spray images based on elastic light scattering, but the metric used to define the liquid boundary in a modeled spray can be physically inconsistent with the liquid boundary detected by light scattering measurements. In particular, spray models typically define liquid penetration based on a liquid mass threshold, while light scattering signal intensities are based on droplet size and volume fraction. These metrics have different response characteristics to changes in ambient conditions and fuel properties. Thus, when spray models are “tuned” or calibrated to match these types of measurements, the predictive capabilities of these models can be compromised. In this work, we compare two different liquid length metrics of an evaporating, non-reacting n-dodecane spray under diesel-like conditions using KIVA-3V.
2012-10-22
Journal Article
2012-01-2180
Angela Lowe, Dimitri N. Mavris
Turboelectric propulsion is a technology that can potentially reduce aircraft noise, increase fuel efficiency, and decrease harmful emissions. In a turbo-electric system, the propulsor (fans) is no longer connected to the turbine through a mechanical connection. Instead, a superconducting generator connected to a gas turbine produces electrical power which is delivered to distributed fans. This configuration can potentially decrease fuel burn by 10% [1]. One of the primary challenges in implementing turboelectric electric propulsion is designing the power distribution system to transmit power from the generator to the fans. The power distribution system is required to transmit 40 MW of power from the generator to the electrical loads on the aircraft. A conventional aircraft distribution cannot efficiently or reliably transmit this large amount of power; therefore, new power distribution technologies must be considered.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-0629
John Arata, Michael Leamy, Kenneth Cunefare
Power-split hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) employ two power paths between the internal combustion (IC) engine and the driven wheels routed through gearing and electric machines (EMs) composing an electrically variable transmission (EVT). The EVT allows IC engine control such that rotational speed can be independent of vehicle speed at all times. By breaking the rigid mechanical connection between the IC engine and the driven wheels, the EVT allows the IC engine to operate in the most efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. If the most efficient IC engine operating point produces more power than is requested by the driver, the excess IC engine power can be stored in the energy storage system (ESS) and used later. Conversely, if the most efficient IC engine operating point does not meet the power request of the driver, the ESS delivers the difference to the wheels through the EMs.
1993-04-01
Technical Paper
931122
Pamela M. Norris, William Wepfer, Kevin L. Hoag, Dorinda Courtine-White
Previous work on the cooling jackets of the Cummins L10 engine revealed flow separation, and low coolant velocities in several critical regions of the cylinder head. The current study involved the use of detailed cooling jacket temperature measurements, and finite element heat transfer analysis to attempt the identification of regions of pure convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. Although difficult to detect with certainty, both the measurements and analysis pointed strongly to the presence of nucleate boiling in several regions. Little or no evidence of film boiling was seen, even under very high operating loads. It was thus concluded that the regions of seemingly inadequate coolant flow remained quite effective in controlling cylinder head temperatures. The Cummins L10 upon which this study has focused is an in-line six cylinder, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine, with a displacement of 10 liters.
1996-10-01
Technical Paper
965612
Jimmy C. Tai, Dimitri N. Mavris, Daniel P. Schrage
The desire of achieving faster cruise speed for rotorcraft vehicles has been around since the inception of the helicopter. Many unconventional concepts have been considered and researched such as the advanced tilt rotor with canards, the tilt-wing, the folding tiltrotor, the coaxial propfan/folding tiltrotor, the variable diameter tiltrotor, and the stopped rotor/wing concept, in order to fulfill this goal. The most notable program which addressed the technology challenges of accomplishing a high speed civil transport mission is the High Speed Rotorcraft Concept (HSRC) program. Among the long list of potential configurations to fulfill the HSRC intended mission, the stopped rotor/wing is the least investigated due to the fact that the existing rotorcraft synthesis codes cannot handle this type of vehicle. In order to develop such a tool, a designer must understand the physics behind this unique concept.
1998-09-28
Technical Paper
985510
Dimitri N. Mavris, Noel I. Macsotai, Bryce Roth
The objective of this paper is to examine ways in which to implement probabilistic design methods in the aircraft engine preliminary design process. Specifically, the focus is on analytically determining the impact of uncertainty in engine component performance on the overall performance of a notional large commercial transport, particularly the impact on design range, fuel burn, and engine weight. The emphasis is twofold: first is to find ways to reduce the impact of this uncertainty through appropriate engine cycle selections, and second is on finding ways to leverage existing design margin to squeeze more performance out of current technology. One of the fundamental results shown herein is that uncertainty in component performance has a significant impact on the overall aircraft performance (it is on the same order of magnitude as the impact of the cycle itself).
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1124
Satish Rajagopalan, Thomas G. Habetler, Christian Kral, Franz Pirker
This paper presents monitoring and diagnostic techniques for drivetrain components in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The particular focus of this work is the gear box of the drivetrain and mechanical faults of the electric motor. Permanent magnet motor magnet failures and rotor eccentricities are investigated and diagnosed. For induction motors, the presented mechanical fault cases are electrical rotor asymmetries (defective bars and end rings) and rotor eccentricities, as well. Apart from stationary operation, the presented techniques can also be applied to transient operating conditions. Measurement results are presented and discussed.
2005-10-24
Technical Paper
2005-01-3782
Thomas H. Bradley, Brian R. Huff, Andrew A. Frank
Test methods and data acquisition system specifications are described for measurements of the energy consumption of the control system of a servo-pump continuously variable transmission (CVT). Dynamic measurements of the power consumption of the servo-pump CVT control system show that the control system draws approximately 18.9 W-hrs of electrical energy over the HWFET cycle and 13.6 W-hrs over the 505 cycle. Sample results are presented of the dynamic power consumption of the servo-pump system under drive cycle conditions. Steady state measurements of the control power draw of the servo-pump CVT show a peak power consumption of 271 W, including lubrication power. The drive-cycle averaged and steady state energy consumption of the servo-pump CVT are compared to conventional CVT pump technologies.
2006-11-07
Technical Paper
2006-01-3092
Thomas H. Bradley, Blake A. Moffitt, Reid W. Thomas, Dimitri N. Mavris, David E. Parekh
A fuel cell powered airplane has been designed and constructed at the Georgia Insitute of Technology to develop an understanding of the design and implementation challenges of fuel cell-powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). A custom 448W net output proton exchange membrane fuel cell powerplant has been constructed and tested. A demonstrator aircraft was designed and built to accommodate this powerplant and the fuel cell powered aircraft has performed seven test flights to date. Test data show that the aircraft performance validates the models used for design and optimization and that the fuel cell aircraft is capable of longer endurance, higher performance test flights.
2006-11-07
Technical Paper
2006-01-3097
Danielle S. Soban, Eric Upton
The environmental impact of aircraft, specifically in the areas of noise and NOx emissions, has been a growing community concern. Coupled with the increasing cost and diminishing supply of traditional fossil fuels, these concerns have fueled substantial interest in the research and development of alternative power sources for aircraft. In 2003, NASA and the Department of Defense awarded a five year research cooperative agreement to a team of researchers from three different universities to address the design and analysis of revolutionary aeropropulsion technologies.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-01-4030
Kalyana Chakravarthy, Joanna McFarlane, Stuart Daw, Youngchul Ra, Rolf D. Reitz, Jelani Griffin
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
2007-09-17
Technical Paper
2007-01-3789
Hongjun Ran, Reid Thomas, Dimitri N. Mavris
A mean value based sizing and simulation model has been developed for use in the conceptual design and sizing of hydrogen fueled spark-ignition internal combustion engines (HICE) in the aerospace industry, here ‘mean value’ includes mean effective pressure (MEP), mean piston speed, mean specific power, etc. This model is developed since there is currently no such model readily available for this purpose. When sizing the HICE, statistical data and common practice for gasoline internal combustion engines (GICE) are used to obtain preliminary sizes of the HICE, such as total cylinder volume, bore and stroke; to capture the effect of low volumetric efficiency, the preliminary results are adjusted by a volumetric correction factor until the cycle parameters of HICE are reasonable. A non-dimensional combustion model with hydrogen as fuel is incorporated with existing GICE methods. With this combustion model, the high combustion temperature and high combustion pressure are captured.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0666
Jerome Meisel
Hybrid-electric powertrains for passenger vehicles and light trucks are generally being designed with two different configurations described as follows: The Toyota Hybrid System, THS-II, implemented in the 2004 Prius, the Lexus 400-H, and the Ford Hybrid Escape, is a power-split approach involving two electric machines and an internal combustion engine (ICE) mechanically coupled by a three-shaft planetary gear train. The second leading approach is a parallel hybrid-electric powertrain that generally includes a single electric machine and an ICE with a mating multi-ratio transmission. These parallel configurations are further divided as weak parallel and strong parallel. Honda uses a weak parallel powertrain in their Insight and Hybrid Civic. At Georgia Tech a strong (full), split-parallel hybrid powertrain has been implemented in a Ford Explorer. The vehicle is referred to as the Model GT.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2887
Michael Balchanos, Kyungjin Moon, Neil R. Weston, Dimitri N. Mavris
Heterogeneous physical systems can often be considered as highly complex, consisting of a large number of subsystems and components, along with the associated interactions and hierarchies amongst them. The simulation of a large-scale, complex system can be computationally expensive and the dynamic interactions may be highly nonlinear. One approach to address these challenges is to increase the computing power or resort to a distributed computing environment. An alternative to improve the simulation computational performance and efficiency is to reduce CPU required time through the application of surrogate models. Surrogate modeling techniques for dynamic simulation models can be developed based on Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN).This study will present a method to improve the overall speed of a multi-physics time-domain simulation of a complex naval system using a surrogate modeling technique.
2008-11-11
Journal Article
2008-01-2862
Taeyun P. Choi, Dimitri N. Mavris, Philippe J. Masson
Societal demands of recent years have increasingly pressured the development of greener technologies in all sectors of the nation's transportation infrastructure, including that of civilian aviation. This study explores the concept of electric-drive aeropropulsion, aided by high-temperature superconducting technology, as an enabler for enhancing the environmental characteristics at the air-vehicle level. Potential improvements in the areas of aircraft noise, emissions, and energy efficiency are discussed in the context of supporting the latest strategic goals of leading governmental organizations.
2008-11-11
Technical Paper
2008-01-2914
Davis Balaba, Danielle Soban, Dimitri N. Mavris
As gas prices and climate change become the preeminent issues of today, more research effort is being directed towards the development of cheaper and cleaner alternative energy sources. These efforts have been further complemented with research into the applicability of these sources to air, land and sea borne vehicles. In this report a notional C-172R general aviation aircraft is retrofitted with a PEM power plant as a case-study. Lower bounds for useful load and range are set in such a way that the results can be useful in determining how much improvement in the technology would be required to power a useful general aviation vehicle. It is seen that even at the predicted 2015 fuel cell technology level (per US Department of Energy projections), PEM systems would still be infeasible for this vehicle due to low specific power. Further investigation revealed that a PEM-battery hybrid system had better chances of feasibility.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1321
Jerome Meisel
General Motors has introduced a Two-Mode Transmission (2-MT) that provides significant improvements over the Toyota THS-II transmission. These improvements are achieved by employing additional planetaries with clutches and brakes to switch from a Mode-1 to Mode-2 as vehicle speed increases. In addition the 2-MT has four fixed-gear ratios that provide for a purely mechanical energy path from the IC engine to the driven wheels with the electric machines also able to provide additional driving torque. The purpose of this present paper is to extend the methodology in a previous paper [1] to include the 2-MT, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. The main contribution in this analysis is in the definition of dimensionless separation factors, defined in each mode that govern the power split between the parallel mechanical and electrical energy paths from the IC engine to the driven wheels.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0565
Roxanne A. Conigliaro, Aleksandr A. Kerzhner, Christiaan J. J. Paredis
Modeling and simulation are commonly used in all stages of the design process. This is particularly vital to the success of systems engineering projects where the system under consideration is complex and involves interactions between many interdisciplinary subsystems. In the refining stages of the design process (after concept selection), models and simulations can be used to refine and optimize a system with respect to the decision maker’s objectives. In this paper, a dynamic model of a hydraulic backhoe serves as a test-bed for a large-scale sensitivity analysis and subsequent optimization of the most significant design parameters. The model is optimized under uncertainty with respect to a multi-attribute utility function that includes fuel consumption, cost of the key components, and machine performance.
2016-04-05
Journal Article
2016-01-0745
Benjamin Knox, Caroline Genzale
Abstract End-of-injection transients have recently been shown to be important for combustion and emissions outcomes in diesel engines. The objective of this work is to develop an understanding of the coupling between end-of-injection transients and the propensity for second-stage ignition in mixtures upstream of the lifted diesel flame, or combustion recession. An injection system capable of varying the end-of-injection transient was developed to study single fuel sprays in a newly commissioned optically-accessible spray chamber under a range of ambient conditions. Simultaneous high-speed optical diagnostics, namely schlieren, OH* chemiluminescence, and broadband luminosity, were used to characterize the spatial and temporal development of combustion recession after the end of injection.
1974-02-01
Technical Paper
740198
J. L. Pentecost, J. K. Cochran
The characteristics of cordierite type compositions and the relationship between thermal expansion and raw materials, processing, and gross composition are examined. Other possible support materials are reviewed briefly. These include mullite, zircon, beryl, spodumene, aluminum titanate, silicon nitride, and other low expansion compositions. Raw material cost, processing, and reactivity with the catalysis are discussed for these materials.
1963-01-01
Technical Paper
630468
Robert L. Allen, H. R. Scibbe
The present use of the carburetor to supply fuel to the Otto cycle engine has placed it in a difficult competitive position with the diesel engine, which has successfully operated with a fuel injection system. The purpose of this study was to consider the feasibility of utilizing a low pressure injection system for the Otto cycle engine. The proposed design is discussed in detail. As the author points out, this system will allow design changes in the engine that would be impossible if the carburetor were retained, and thus considerable improvement in performance and efficiency can be realized for the Otto cycle engine.
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