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Viewing 1 to 30 of 37
2005-05-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2145
Efthimios Zervas, Pascal Dorlène, Laurent Forti, Cyriaque Perrin, Jean-Claude Momique, Richard Monier, Didier Pingal, Béatrice Lopez
The Particulate Measurement Programme (PMP) works on the identification of a method to replace or complete the existing particle mass (PM) measurement method. The French PMP subgroup, composed by IFP, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, Renault and UTAC, proposes an improved gravimetric method for the measurement of emitted particles, and conducted an inter-laboratory test to evaluate its performances. The technical programme is based on tests carried out on a Euro3 Diesel passenger car (PC), tested on the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). To achieve low particulate matter (PM) emissions, the EGR is disconnected and a paraffinic fuel is used. The regulated pollutants are also measured. It is shown that the multiple filter weighing and a 0.1 μg balance instead of a 1 μg one are not necessary, as the first weighing and the 1 μg balance performances are satisfactory for type-approval purposes.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0013
J. Chauvin, N. Petit, P. Rouchon, P. Moulin, G. Corde
In the context of modern engine control, one important variable is the individual Air Fuel Ratio (AFR) which is a good representation of the produced torque. It results from various inputs such as injected quantities, boost pressure, and the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate. Further, for forthcoming HCCI engines and regeneration filters (Particulate filters, DeNOx), even slight AFR unbalance between the cylinders can have dramatic consequences and induce important noise, possible stall and higher emissions. Classically, in Spark Ignition engine, overall AFR is directly controlled with the injection system. In this approach, all cylinders share the same closed-loop input signal based on the single λ-sensor (normalized Fuel-Air Ratio measurement, it can be rewritten with AFR as they have the same injection set-point.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0546
Roda Bounaceur, Oliver Herbinet, Rene Fournet, Pierre-Alexandre Glaude, Frederique Battin-Leclerc, Antonio Pires da Cruz, Mohammed Yahyaoui, Karine Truffin, Gladys Moreac
An unified model with a single set of kinetic parameters has been proposed for modeling laminar flame velocities of several alkanes using detailed kinetic mechanisms automatically generated by the EXGAS software. The validations were based on recent data of the literature. The studied compounds are methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, iso-octane, and two mixtures for natural gas and surrogate gasoline fuel. Investigated conditions are the following: unburned gases temperature was varied from 300 to 600 K, pressures from 0.5 to 25 bar, and equivalence ratios range from 0.4 to 2. For the overall studied compounds, the agreement between measured and predicted laminar burning velocities is quite good.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2776
Stephane Zinola, Stephane Raux, Jean-Charles Dabadie
Lean-burn combustion in SI engines can significantly reduce fuel consumption but NOx reduction becomes challenging because classic three-way catalyst (TWC) is no more efficient. Urea-SCR is then an interesting alternative solution because of its high NOx conversion efficiency without any additional fuel consumption. The coupling between two SI lean-burn engines (stratified and homogeneous combustion) and a urea-SCR catalyst was simulated on the NEDC cycle. Simulation results showed that the SCR efficiency would comply with the limits required by future Euro 5/6 regulations. Associated urea solution consumptions were estimated thanks to a simplified model. Finally, a comparison with a Diesel application was also made. It showed that the required amount of reducing agent remained significantly higher for SI lean-burn engines than for Diesel engine.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2714
B. Walter, H. Perrin, J. P. Dumas, O. Laget
With a high thermal efficiency and low CO2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, Diesel engines become leader of transport market. However, the exhaust-gas legislation evolution leads to a drastic reduction of NOx (nitrogen oxide) standards with very low particulate, HC (unburned hydrocarbons) and CO (carbon monoxide) emissions, while combustion noise and fuel consumption must be kept under control. The reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (CR) is a key factor to reach this challenge, but it is today limited by the capabilities to provide acceptable performances during very cold operation: start and idle below −10°C. This paper focuses on the understanding of the main parameter’s impacts on cold operation. Effects of parameters like hardware configuration and calibration optimization are investigated on a real 4 cylinder Diesel 14:1 CR engine, with a combination of specific advanced tools.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1868
Alexandre Chasse, Philippe Pognant-Gros, Antonio Sciarretta
Abstract The authors present the supervisory control of a parallel hybrid powertrain, focusing on several issues related to the real-time implementation of optimal control based techniques, such as the Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategies (ECMS). Real-time implementation is introduced as an intermediate step of a complete chain of tools aimed at investigating the supervisory control problem. These tools comprise an offline optimizer based on Pontryagin Minimum Principle (PMP), a two-layer real-time control structure, and a modular engine-in-the-loop test bench. Control results are presented for a regulatory drive cycle with the aim of illustrating the benefits of optimal control in terms of fuel economy, the role of the optimization constraints dictated by drivability requirements, and the effectiveness of the feedback rule proposed for the adaptation of the equivalence factor (Lagrange multiplier).
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0628
Stephane Jay, Olivier Colin
In the context of low consumption and low emissions engines development, combustion processes modeling is a challenging subject as the requirements for accurately controlled pollutant emissions are becoming more stringent. From a scientific point of view, it is a major source of in-depth investigations as the chemical processes involved are strongly coupled to the flow characteristics. Among the various approaches developed recently to account for these processes in realistic configurations, tabulated techniques appear to be a promising way. They induce a good compromise between the accuracy of detailed chemistry and the computational time necessary to calculate complex configurations. Tabulation approaches were firstly developed to address the modeling of species concentrations in stationary combustors. They consist basically of pre-computed chemical kinetics using detailed mechanisms.
2010-05-05
Journal Article
2010-01-1472
Maria Thirouard, Pierre Pacaud
In the context of CO₂ emission regulations and increase of energy prices, the downsizing of engine displacement is a widely discussed solution that allows a reduction of fuel consumption. However, high power density is required in order to maintain the power output and a good driveability. This study demonstrates the potential to strongly increase the specific power of High Speed Diesel Injection (HSDI) diesel engines. It includes the technological requirements to achieve high specific power and the optimal combination of engine settings to maximize specific power. The results are based on experimental work performed with a prototype single-cylinder engine (compression ratio of 14). Tests were conducted at full load, 4000 rpm. Part load requirements are also taken into account in the engine definition to be compatible with the targets of new emission standards.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0937
Thomas Coppin, Olivier Grondin, Guenael Le Solliec, Laurent Rambault, Nezha Maamri
Among the last years, environmental concerns have raised the interest for biofuels. Ethanol, blended with gasoline seems particularly suited for the operation of internal combustion engines, and has been in use for severals years in some countries. However, it has a strong impact on engine performance, which is emphasized on recent engine architectures, with downsizing through turbocharging and variable valve actuation. Taking all the benefits of ethanol-blended fuel thus requires an adaptation of the engine management system. This paper intends to assess the effect of gasoline-ethanol blending from this point of view, then to describe a mean-value model of a fuel-flexible turbocharged PFI-SI engine, which will serve as a basis for the development of control algorithms. The focus will be in this paper on ethanol content estimation in the blend, supported by both simulation and experimental results.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-1072
A. Albrecht, J. Chauvin, F.-A. Lafossas, S. Potteau, G. Corde
In the context of increasingly stringent pollution norms, reduced engine emissions are a great challenge for compressed ignition engines. After-treatment solutions are expensive and very complex to implement, while the NOx/PM trade-off is difficult to optimise for conventional Diesel engines. Therefore, in-cylinder pollutant production limitation by the HPC combustion mode (Highly Premixed Combustion) - including Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) - represents one of the most promising ways for new generation of CI engine. For this combustion technology, control based on torque estimation is crucial: the objectives are to accurately control the cylinder-individual fuel injected mass and to adapt the fuel injection parameters to the in-cylinder conditions (fresh air and burned gas masses and temperature).
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0286
Paolino Tona, Philippe Moulin, Stéphane Venturi, Richard Tilagone
Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels for transportation due to its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, in particular) and its abundance. An earlier study from IFP has shown that CNG has a considerable potential when used as a fuel for a dedicated downsized turbo-charged SI engine on a small urban vehicle. To take further advantage of CNG assets, this approach can be profitably extended by adding a small secondary (electrical) power source to the CNG engine, thus hybridizing the powertrain. This is precisely the focus of the new IFP project, VEHGAN, which aims to develop a mild-hybrid CNG prototype vehicle based on a MCC smart car equipped with a reversible starter-alternator and ultra-capacitors (Valeo Starter Alternator Reversible System, StARS).
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3332
G. Mauviot, A. Albrecht, T.J. Poinsot
The model presented in this paper is an original contribution for two main mechanisms involved in a Diesel combustion chamber: the micro-mixing and the combustion heat release. The micro-mixing phenomenon is modelled thanks to the presumed probability density function theory adapted to the 0D combustion modeling issues in order to take into account the stratification of air / fuel ratio around the spray. The combustion heat release is obtained from complex chemistry look-up tables. These tables are issued from a dedicated use of the Flame Prolongation of ILDM theory and allow a large range of combustion conditions since it includes high EGR rates. Moreover, the spray model including evaporation and turbulent macro-mixing is based on the well-known Siebers theory.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3264
F. Le Berr, M. Miche, G. Le Solliec, F-A. Lafossas, G. Colin
In the whole engine development process, 0D/1D simulation has become a powerful tool, from conception to final calibration. Within the context of control strategy design, a turbocharged spark ignition (SI) engine with variable camshaft timing has been modelled on the AMESim platform. This paper presents the different models and the methodology used to design, calibrate and validate the simulator. The validated engine model is then used for engine control purposes related to downsizing concept. Indeed, the presented control strategy acts on the in-cylinder trapped mass, the in-cylinder burnt gas fraction and the air scavenging from the intake to the exhaust. Consequently, it permits to reduce not only the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions but also to improve the transient response of the turbocharger
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1370
Jonathan Chauvin, Nicolas Petit, Pierre Rouchon, Gilles Corde, Philippe Moulin, Michel Castagné
Torque balancing for diesel engines is important to eliminate generated vibrations and to correct injected quantity disparities between cylinders. The vibration phenomenon is important at low engine speed and at idling. To estimate torque production from each cylinders, the instantaneous engine speed from the crankshaft is used. Currently, an engine speed measurement every 45° crank angle is sufficient to estimate torque balance and to correct it in an adaptive manner by controlling the mass injected into each cylinder. The contribution of this article is to propose a new approach of estimation of the indicated torque of a DI engine based on a nonstationary linear model of the system. On this model, we design a linear observer to estimate the indicated torque produced by each cylinder. In order to test it, this model has been implemented on a HiL platform and tested on simulation and with experimental data.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1904
Pierre Duret, Bertrand Gatellier, Luis Monteiro, Marjorie Miche, Peter Zima, Damien Maroteaux, Jacky Guezet, David Blundell, Fritz Spinnler, Hua Zhao, Matteo Perotti, Lucio Araneo
The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-0839
V. Cursente, P. Pacaud, B. Gatellier
Environment protection issues regarding CO2 emissions as well as customers requirements for fun-to-drive and fuel economy explain the strong increase of Diesel engine on European market share in all passenger car segments. To comply future purposes of emission regulations, particularly dramatic decrease in NOx emissions, technology need to keep upgrading; the reduction of the volumetric compression ratio (VCR) is one of the most promising research ways to allow a simultaneous increase in power at full load and NOx / PM trade-off improvement at part load. This study describes the combustion effects of the reduction of compression ratio and quantifies improvements obtained at full load and part load running conditions on a HSDI Common Rail engine out performance (power, fuel consumption, emissions and noise). Potential and limitations of a reduced compression ratio from 18:1 to 14:1 are underlined.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-1313
Antonio Sciarretta, Jean-Charles Dabadie, Antoine Albrecht
The paper discusses different alternative choices regarding the simulation and control of combined hybrid vehicles with a simple or compound power split device (PSD). These choices concern the causal representation of PSD both in a vehicle model and in the supervisory controller, the structure of the supervisory controller, and the pathway to generate the setpoints to the component-level controllers. Quasistatic and high-frequency simulations provide the example applications to assess the competing approaches.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1671
Vincent Knop, Benoist Thirouard, Jérome Chérel
Among the existing concepts to help improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines on low load operating points, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions at part load without major modifications of the engine design. The CAI™ concept is founded on the auto-ignition of a highly diluted gasoline-based mixture in order to reach high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through a low temperature combustion. Previous research works have demonstrated that the valve strategy is an efficient way to control the CAI™ combustion mode. Not only the valve strategy has an impact on the amount of trapped burnt gases and their temperature, but also different valve strategies can lead to equivalent mean in-cylinder conditions but clearly differentiated combustion timing or location. This is thought to be the consequence of local mixture variations acting in turn on the chemical kinetics.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0453
Claire-Noëlle Millet, Sheϊma Benramdhane
A 3 way catalytic converter (3WCC) model based on a global kinetic model was developed and validated against laboratory scale and engine test bench experiments. Various equivalence ratios and temperatures were tested. A methodology was finalized and applied to calibrate the kinetic constants. Laboratory scale experiments were first used to characterize the reaction mechanism during light-off, including the way reduction and oxidation reactions begin and compete with each other when temperature increases. The numerical results are in good agreement with the laboratory scale light-off results. Also, when adapted to simulate the engine test bench experiments, the model is able to correctly reproduce both the light-off tests and the 3WCC conversion efficiency evolution versus equivalence ratio. A calibration method in two steps was thus established and successfully used. The combination of modeling with experimental work appeared to be a powerful tool to determine the reaction mechanism.
2008-04-14
Journal Article
2008-01-1310
P. Pacaud, H. Perrin, O. Laget
Future emission standards for Diesel engine will require a drastic reduction of engine-out NOx emissions with very low level of particulate matter (PM), HC and CO, and keeping under control fuel consumption and combustion noise. One of the most promising way to reach this challenge is to reduce compression ratio (CR). A stringent limitation of reducing Diesel CR is currently cold start requirements. Indeed, reduction of ambient temperature leads to penalties in fuel vaporization and auto ignition capabilities, even more at very low temperature (-20°C and below). In this paper, we present the work operated on an HSDI Common rail Diesel 4-cyl engine in three area: engine tests till very low temperature (down to -25°C); in cylinder imaging (videoscope) and CFD code development for cold start operation. First, combustion chamber is adapted in order to reach low compression ratio (CR 13.7:1).
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0675
L-M. Malbec, F. Le Berr, S. Richard, G. Font, A. Albrecht
Due to increasingly stringent regulations, reduction of pollutant emissions and consumption are currently two major goals of the car industry. One way to reach these objectives is to enhance the management of the engine in order to optimize the whole combustion process. This requires the development of complex control strategies for the air and the fuel paths, and for the combustion process. In this context, engine 0D modelling emerges as a pertinent tool for investigating and validating such strategies. Indeed, it represents a useful complement to test bench campaigns, on the condition that these 0D models are accurate enough and manage to run quite fast, eventually in real time. This paper presents the different steps of the design of a high frequency 0D simulator of a downsized turbocharged Port Fuel Injector (PFI) engine, compatible with real time constraints.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0678
A. Dulbecco, F. A. Lafossas, T. J. Poinsot
More and more stringent restrictions concerning the pollutant emissions of ICE (Internal Combustion Engines) constitute a major challenge for the automotive industry. New combustion strategies such as LTC (Low Temperature Combustion), PCCI (Premixed Controlled Compression Ignition) or HCCI (Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition) are promising solutions to achieve the imposed emission standards. They permit low NOx and soot emissions via a lean and highly diluted combustion regime, thus assuring low combustion temperatures. In next generation of ICE, new technologies allow the implementation of complex injection strategies in order to optimize the combustion process. This requires the creation of numerical tools adapted to these new challenges. This paper presents a 0D Diesel HCCI combustion model based on a physical 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) approach.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-1524
Maria Thirouard, Sylvain Mendez, Pierre Pacaud, Vincent Chmielarczyk, Didier Ambrazas, Chrsitophe Garsi, Frédéric Lavoisier, Bertrand Barbeau
Engine downsizing is one of the most promising engine solutions to improve efficiency, but requires higher specific performance because of a lower engine displacement. The study is based on experimental work performed with an IFP prototype single cylinder engine, representative of passenger car applications. This engine enables very high specific power, with a high level of thermal and mechanical constraints. Tests were carried out on both full load and part load operation with a prototype common rail equipment capable of very high fuel pressure (up to 250 MPa). Results show that increasing fuel flow rate using fuel injection pressure instead of increasing nozzle hole diameter is more advantageous at full load, mainly because a lower nozzle hole diameter improves air entrainment. Benefits observed with increased injection pressure are enhanced when associated with upgraded engine thermo-mechanical limits, and advanced turbo charging system.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0495
Vincent Knop, Loïc de Francqueville, Florence Duffour, Franck Vangraefschèpe
Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions without major modifications of the engine design. The CAI™ concept is based on the auto-ignition of a fuel mixture highly diluted with burnt gases in order to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. Large amounts of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder by re-breathing them through the exhaust ports during the intake stroke. For that, a 2-step exhaust valve-lift profile is used. The interaction between the intake and exhaust flows during the intake stroke was identified as a key parameter to control the subsequent combustion in a CAI™ port fuel injected (PFI) engine.
2009-04-20
Journal Article
2009-01-0324
Jean Milpied, Nicolas Jeuland, Gabriel Plassat, Sabine Guichaous, Nathalie Dioc, Alexandre Marchal, Pierre Schmelzle
Facing the CO2 emission reduction challenge, the combination of downsizing and turbocharging appears as one of the most promising solution for the development of high efficiency gasoline engines. In this context, as knock resistance is a major issue, limiting the performances of turbocharged downsized gasoline engines, fuel properties are more than ever key parameters to achieve high performances and low fuel consumption's levels. This paper presents a combustion study carried out into the GSM consortium of fuel quality effects on the performances of a downsized turbocharged Direct Injection SI engine. The formulation of two adapted fuel matrix has allowed to separate and evaluate the impacts of three major fuel properties: Research Octane Number (RON), Motor Octane Number (MON) and Latent Heat of Vaporization (LHV). Engine tests were performed on a single cylinder engine at steady state operating condition.
2004-06-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1996
C. Habchi, F. A. Lafossas, P. Béard, D. Broseta
A lumping model has been formulated to calculate the thermodynamic properties required for internal combustion engine multidimensional computations, including saturation pressure, latent heat of vaporization, liquid density, surface tension, viscosity, etc. This model consists firstly in reducing the analytical data to a single (i.e. pure) pseudo-component characterized by its molecular weight, critical pressure and temperature, and acentric factor. For a gasoline fuel, the required analytical data are those provided by gas chromatography. For a Diesel fuel, the required data are a true boiling point (TBP) distillation curve and the fuel density at a single temperature. This model provides a valuable tool for studying the effects of fuel physical properties upon the behavior of a vaporizing spray in a chamber, as well as upon direct injection gasoline and Diesel engines using the multidimensional (3D) KMB code.
2003-05-19
Technical Paper
2003-01-1845
S. Henriot, D. Bouyssounnouse, T. Baritaud
The short time available for injection and mixing in high-speed engines requires an accurate modeling of the fuel related processes to obtain a valuable in-cylinder charge description, and then a good combustion performance prediction. An advanced version of the KMB code of IFP has been used to compute a racing engine. It includes a fitted on experiments spray model, a comprehensive wall-film model, the AKTIM ignition and ECFM combustion models. A major difficulty was the necessity to compute numerous cycles before reaching a cycle-independent solution. A procedure has been defined to minimize calculation time. Another difficulty was the high concentration of liquid in some zones, which requested a careful meshing. Effects such as the influence of the strong acoustic waves on the spray dynamic, the wall wetting effects on the engine time response, injector position on fuel distribution in the cylinder, charge homogeneity on the combustion process have been investigated.
2009-06-15
Journal Article
2009-01-1795
Jean-Marc Zaccardi, Laurent Duval, Alexandre Pagot
Recent developments on highly downsized spark ignition engines have been focused on knocking behaviour improvement and the most advanced technologies combination can face up to 2.5 MPa IMEP while maintaining acceptable fuel consumption. Unfortunately, knocking is not the only limit that strongly downsized engines have to confront. The improvement of low-end torque is limited by another abnormal combustion which appears as a random pre-ignition. This violent phenomenon which emits a sharp metallic noise is unacceptable even on modern supercharged gasoline engines because of the great pressure rise that it causes in the cylinder (up to 20 MPa). The phases of this abnormal combustion have been analysed and a global mechanism has been identified consisting of a local ignition before the spark, followed by a propagating phase and ended by a massive auto-ignition. This last step finally causes a steep pressure rise and pressure oscillations.
2009-06-15
Technical Paper
2009-01-1794
Jean-Marc Zaccardi, Alexandre Pagot, Franck Vangraefschepe, Caroline Dognin, Smail Mokhtari
The combination of air charging and downsizing is known to be an efficient solution to reduce CO2 emissions of modern gasoline engines. The decrease of the cubic capacity and the increase of the specific performance help to reduce the fuel consumption by limiting pumping and friction losses and even the losses of energy by heat transfer. Investigations have been conducted on a highly downsized SI engine to confirm if a strong decrease of the displacement (50 %) was still interesting regarding the fuel consumption reduction and if other ways were possible to improve further more its efficiency. The first aim of our work was to identify the optimal design (bore, stroke, displacement, …) that could maximize the consumption reduction potential at part load but also improve the engine's behaviour at very high load (up to 3.0 MPa IMEP from 1000 rpm). In order to do that, four engine configurations with different strokes and bores have been tested and compared.
1999-10-25
Technical Paper
1999-01-3648
Gilles Bruneaux, Dean Verhoeven, Thierry Baritaud
A database of information concerning the spray development and pollutant formation in common-rail, direct-injection Diesel engine is constructed using a transparent model Diesel engine. Spray development is investigated using optical diagnostics: Mie scattering and Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF) make possible qualitative visualization of liquid and vapor phases. The injection pressure/nozzle hole diameter is found to be the most important parameter (in the parameter range used for the study): it reduces the liquid penetration length and improves the mixing of vapor fuel. Direct imaging of combustion development shows the influence of different engine parameters on flame location. Comparison with measured vapor distributions shows the effect of thermal expansion on the vapor plume before any light from combustion is visible. Soot formation is investigated using Laser Induced Incandescence imaging.
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