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Viewing 1 to 30 of 61
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1592
Haiying Li, Cao li, Xiao Ma, PoWen TU, Hongming Xu, Shi-Jin Shuai, Akbar Ghafourian
2, 5-Dimethylfuran (DMF) has been receiving increasing interest as a potential alternative fuel to fossil fuels, owing to the recent development of new production technology. However, the influence of DMF properties on the in-cylinder fuel spray and its evaporation, subsequent combustion processes as well as emission formation in current gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is still not well understood, due to the lack of comprehensive understanding of its physical and chemical characteristics. To better understand the spray characteristics of DMF and its application to the IC engine, the fuel sprays of DMF and gasoline were investigated by experimental and computational methods. The shadowgraph and Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) techniques were used for measuring spray penetration, droplet velocity and size distribution of both fuels.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0236
Chen Hu, Wang Jian-Xin, Shuai Shi-Jin, An Xin-Liang, Chen Wen-Miao
The ethanol has potential to be a renewable alternative fuel for internal combustion engines and contributes to lower global CO2 emission. In this study, vegetable methyl ester is added in the ethanol-diesel fuel to prevent separation of the ethanol from diesel, thus the ethanol blend ratio can be set up to 30% in volume. This work pays more attention on its spray, effects of the ethanol percentage on the detailed PM components. To investigate the spray behavior of ethanol, diesel and their blends, experiments in a constant volume chamber were carried out combining numerical simulation. Properties of the ethanol-diesel blended fuels were obtained through some measurements and empirical calculations. The breakup sub-model, Wave-KH model considering the blend fuel properties were adopted in an engine simulation code KIVA-3V. The simulation had a good agreement with experiments.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1496
Tao Tang, Dongxiao Cao, Jun Zhang, Yan-guang Zhao, Shi-jin Shuai
Abstract The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is an effective technology for particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) reduction. On heavy-duty diesel engines, the passive regeneration by Diesel Oxidation catalysts (DOC) and catalyzed DPFs (CDPF) is widely used for its simplicity and low cost, which is generally combined with the active regeneration of exhaust fuel injection. This study investigated a DOC-CDPF system with exhaust fuel injection upstream of the DOC. The system was integrated with a 7-liter diesel engine whose engine-out PM emission was below the Euro IV level and tested on an engine dynamometer. PM and PN concentrations were measured based on the Particle Measurement Programme (PMP), and the number/size spectrum for particles was obtained by a Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS). The filtration efficiency of DPF on PN was higher than 99% in ESC test, while the efficiency on PM was only 58%.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0919
Timothy H. Lee, Yilu Lin, Han Wu, Lei Meng, Alan Hansen, Chia-Fon Lee
Abstract Recent research has shown that butanol, instead of ethanol, has the potential of introducing a more suitable blend in diesel engines. This is because butanol has properties similar to current transportation fuels in comparison to ethanol. However, the main downside is the high cost of the butanol production process. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) is an intermediate product of the fermentation process of butanol production. By eliminating the separation and purification processes, using ABE directly in diesel blends has the potential of greatly decreasing the overall cost for fuel production. This could lead to a vast commercial use of ABE-diesel blends on the market. Much research has been done in the past five years concerning spray and combustion processes of both neat ABE and ABE-diesel mixtures. Additionally, different compositions of ABE mixtures had been characterized with a similar experimental approach.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0847
Xiao Ma, Haoye Liu, Yanfei Li, Zhi Wang, Hongming Xu, Jian-Xin Wang
Abstract Stoichiometric dual-fuel compression ignition (SDCI) combustion has superior potential in both emission control and thermal efficiency. Split injection of diesel reportedly shows superiority in optimizing combustion phase control and increasing flexibility in fuel selection. This study focuses on split injection strategies in SDCI mode. The effects of main injection timing and pilot-to-total ratio are examined. Combustion phasing is found to be retarded in split injection when overmixing occurs as a result of early main injection timing. Furthermore, an optimised split injection timing can avoid extremely high pressure rise rate without great loss in indicated thermal efficiency while maintaining soot emission at an acceptable level. A higher pilot-to-total ratio always results in lower soot emission, higher combustion efficiency, and relatively superior ITE, but improvements are not significant with increased pilot-to-total ratio up to approximately 0.65.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0400
Lei Zhou, Zhen Lu, Zhuyin Ren, Tianfeng Lu, K.H Luo
Abstract Detailed chemical kinetics is essential for accurate prediction of combustion performance as well as emissions in practical combustion engines. However, implementation of that is challenging. In this work, dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) is integrated into large eddy simulations (LES) of an n-heptane spray flame in a constant volume chamber (CVC) with realistic application conditions. DAC accelerates the time integration of the governing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for chemical kinetics through the use of locally (spatially and temporally) valid skeletal mechanisms. Instantaneous flame structures and global combustion characteristics such as ignition delay time, flame lift-off length (LOL) and emissions are investigated to assess the effect of DAC on LES-DAC results. The study reveals that in LES-DAC simulations, the auto-ignition time and LOL obtain a well agreement with experiment data under different oxygen concentrations.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2700
Lin Chen, Fuyuan Yang, Yuping Yang, Xueqing Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Advanced compression ignition combustion system which reduces simultaneously both nitride oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) is a promising approach to meet future emission regulations. In order to achieve advanced compression ignition, flexible fuel injection is required for ultra-early and post-TDC injections, which conventional injector fails to accomplish due to wall-wetting effect. In this work, special injectors with the spray angle of 60 degree are applied on a 4 cylinder mass-production diesel engine without modification of the engine configuration. For application-oriented study, sweep experiments of injection timings and durations, fuel injection pressure and the boost pressure are carried out to investigate the relationships between the control parameters and the engine performance. Model based calibration and real application tests validate the maximum applicable operation range of maximum speed of 2200 RPM and IMEP of 8.0 bar.
2009-05-19
Technical Paper
2009-01-2132
L.-R. Wang, Z.-H. LU, I. Hagiwara
Hydraulically damped rubber mount (HDM) can effectively attenuate vibrations transmitting between automotive powertrain and body/chassis, and reduce interior noise of car compartment. This paper involves an analytical qualitative analysis approach of dynamics characteristics of HDM. Analysis of experimental results verifies the effectiveness of the qualitative analysis approach. Frequency- and amplitude-dependent dynamic characteristic of HDM are investigated to clarify working mechanism of HDM. The presented qualitative analysis approach provides a convenient performance adjustment guideline of HDM to meet vibration isolation requirements of powertrain mount system.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-1415
Xiao Ma, Liang Zheng, Yanfei Li, Zhi Wang, Hongming Xu, Jian-Xin Wang
Dieseline combustion as a concept combines the advantages of gasoline and diesel by offline or online blending the two fuels. Dieseline has become an attractive new compression ignition combustion concept in recent years and furthermore an approach to a full-boiling-range fuel. High speed imaging with near-parallel backlit light was used to investigate the spray characteristics of dieseline and pure fuels with a common rail diesel injection system in a constant volume vessel. The results were acquired at different blend ratios, and at different temperatures and back pressures at an injection pressure of 100MPa. The penetrations and the evaporation states were compared with those of gasoline and diesel. The spray profile was analyzed in both area and shape with statistical methods. The effect of gasoline percentage on the evaporation in the fuel spray was evaluated.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1111
Lei Zhou, MaoZhao Xie, Kai Hong Luo, Ming Jia, Qiang Zhou, Hong Liu
Early injection timing is an effective measure of pre-mixture formation for diesel low-temperature combustion. Three algebraic subgrid models (Smagorinsky model, dynamic Smagorinsky model and WALE model) and one-equation kinetic energy turbulent model using modified TAB breakup model (MTAB model) have been implemented into KIVA3V code to make a detailed large eddy simulation of the atomization and evaporation processes of early injection timing in a constant volume chamber and a Ford high-speed direct-injection diesel engine. The results show that the predictive vapor mass fraction and liquid penetration using LES is in good agreement with the experiment results. In combustion chamber, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity using LES are less than with the RANS models, and following the increasing time, the sub-grid turbulent kinetic energy and viscosity also increase and are concentrated on the spray area.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1306
Dai Liu, Hongming Xu, Jianyi Tian, Cheng Tan, Yanfei Li
The first several cycles determine the quality of an engine start. Low temperatures and air/fuel ratio cause incomplete combustion of the fuel. This can lead to dramatic increases in HC and PM emissions. In order to meet Euro V legislation requirements which have stricter cold start emission levels, it is critical to study the characteristics of cold and warm starting of engines in order to develop an optimized operation. The NO and THC emissions were measured by fast CLD and Fast FID gas analyzers respectively and PM in both nucleation and accumulation modes were measured by DMS500. The coolant temperature was controlled in order to guarantee the experiment repeatability. The results show that at cold start using RME60 produced higher NO and lower THC than the other tested fuels while combustion of HVO60 produced a similar level of NO but lower THC compared with mineral diesel. Meanwhile, the nucleation mode of mineral diesel was similar to RME60 but higher than HVO60.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1302
Jianyi Tian, Hongming Xu, Akbar Ghafourian, Dai Liu, Cheng Tan, Shi-Jin Shuai
The effects of different biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions under various transient conditions were investigated in this study using fast response diagnostic equipment. The experimental work was conducted on a modern 3.0 L, V6 high pressure common rail diesel engine fuelled with mineral diesel (B0) and three different blends of rapeseed methyl esters (RME) (B30, B60, B100 by volume) without any modifications of engine parameters. DMS500, Fast FID and Fast CLD were used to measure particulate matter (PM), total hydrocarbon (THC) and nitrogen monoxide (NO) respectively. The tests were conducted during a 12 seconds period with two tests in which load and speed were changed simultaneously and one test with only load changing. The results show that as biodiesel blend ratio increased, total particle number (PN) and THC were decreased whereas NO was increased for all the three transient conditions.
2013-04-08
Journal Article
2013-01-1307
Cheng Tan, Hongming Xu, Shi-Jin Shuai, Akbar Ghafourian, Dai Liu, Jianyi Tian
Transient emissions of a turbocharged three-litre V6 diesel engine fuelled by hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) blends were experimentally investigated and compared with transient emissions of diesel as reference. The transient emissions measurements were made by highly-dynamic emissions instrumentations including Cambustion HFR500, CLD500 and DMS500 particulate analyzer. The HVO blends used in this study were 30% and 60% of HVO in diesel by volume. The transient conditions were simulated by load increases over 5 s, 10 s and 20 s durations at a constant engine speed. The particulate, NO, HC concentrations were measured to investigate the mechanism of emission formation under such transient schedules. The results showed that as the load increased, NO concentrations initially had a small drop before dramatically increasing for all the fuels investigated which can be associated with the turbocharger lag during the load transient.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980813
Minggao Yang, Qilong Lu, Jianqiu Li, Xiaodong Lu, Chuanjin Du
At first, the dynamic electromagnetic characteristics of a pulsed solenoid valve is analyzed by experiments. The fast valve response is obtained by material modifications. Then, the intelligent solenoid driving method is discussed. The new techniques of the “active” PWM and the “d2i/dt2” detection are developed for feedback control of the solenoid holding current and the valve closure timing. Finally, the control and diagnosis method for the valve closure duration is investigated. A sensing mechanism utilizing momentary camshaft speed fluctuations of fuel injection pump is presented, which provides the basis for feedback control and diagnosis of the valve closure duration and diesel fuel injection process.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0011
Lu Juxiao, Zhang Han, Zhu Yuan, Tian Guangyuan, Chen Quanshi, Chen Yaobin
An energy management strategy is needed to optimally allocate the driver's power demands to different power sources in the fuel cell hybrid vehicles. The driver's power demand is modelled as a Markov process in which the transition probabilities are estimated on the basis of the observed sample paths. The Markov Decision Process (MDP) theory is applied to design a stochastic energy management strategy for fuel cell hybrid vehicles. This obtained control strategy was then tested on a real time simulation platform of the fuel cell hybrid vehicles. In comparison to the other 3 strategies, the constant bus voltage strategy, the static optimization strategy and the dynamic programming strategy, simulations in the Beijing bus driving cycle demonstrate that the obtained stochastic energy management strategy can achieve better performance in fuel economy in the same demand of dynamic.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0576
Zhang Han, Zhu Yuan, Tian Guangyu, Chen Quanshi, Chen Yaobin
This paper presents a preliminary design and analysis of an optimal energy management and control system for a power-split hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) using hybrid dynamical control system theory and design tools. The hybrid dynamical system theory is applied to formulate HEV powertrain dynamical system in which the interactions of discrete and continuous dynamics are involved. The Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is applied to optimize power distribution. An improved dynamic programming method is employed to determine the optimal power distribution and the vehicle operating mode transitions.
2003-05-05
Technical Paper
2003-01-1462
Wen-Bin Shangguan, Zhen-Hua LU
Hydraulic Engine Mount (HEM) is now widely used as a highly effective vibration isolator in automotive powertrain. A lumped parameter model is a traditional model for modeling the dynamic characteristics of HEM, in which the system parameters are usually obtained by experiments. In this paper, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) are used to determine the system parameters. A Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) FEA technique is used to estimate the parameters of volumetric compliances, equivalent piston area, inertia and resistance of the fluid in the inertia track and decoupler of a HEM. A nonlinear FEA method is applied to determine the dynamic stiffness of rubber spring of the HEM. The system parameters predicated by FEA are compared favorably with experimental data and/or analytical solutions.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1640
Tao Chen, Yangjun Zhang, Weilin Zhuge, Xiaojun Yan
An integrated simulation platform for turbocharged internal combustion engines has been developed. Multi-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes are integrated into the system to model the turbocharging circuit, gas circuit, in-cylinder circuit, coolant and oil circuits. As the turbocharger is a critical factor for the IC engine, a turbocharger through-flow model based on mass, momentum, and energy conservation equations has been developed and added in the integrated platform. Compared with the traditional MAP method, the through-flow model can solve the problems of transient matching and lack of numerous experimental maps during the pre-prototype engine design. Partial systems in the integrated platform, such as the in-cylinder flow and combustion circuit, can be modeled by 3-D CFD codes for the investigation of the detailed flow patterns.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1636
Hailei Zhang, Weilin Zhuge, Yangjun Zhang, Lifeng Hu
A plateau self-adapted turbocharging system based on variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) technology is proposed to solve the problem of diesel engine operating at plateau. The control strategy of the plateau self-adapted turbocharging system is studied using a GT-Power engine model. The control strategy is based on the optimization of the VGT nozzle vane position at various engine operating conditions and various altitudes. Simulation results show that by optimizing the matching and controlling the VGT, the performance of the engine matched with VGT can be improved significantly compared with the one matched with FGT (fixed geometry turbocharger) at various altitudes. Surge and overspeed phenomena of the turbocharger can also be avoided.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1738
Jianyong Zhang, Jianqiu Li
To realize the precise control of injection and ignition of compressed natural gas engine, the 32-Digit PowerPC561 was selected as the single-chip microcomputer for the compressed natural gas engine. The signal processing module, controller module and power driver module of the engine control system were introduced successively. In the injection valve drive circuit, a new design method realized the ‘Peak&Hold’ drive current wave shape, which reduced the software work of injection development. In the ignition module circuit, the feedback of the time of ignition persistence and preliminary coil close period were successfully realized. The Engine Control Unit (ECU) has flexible control functions, which fulfill the requirements of engine control system.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1723
Zhi Wang, Jian-Xin Wang, Guo-hong Tian, Shi-Jin Shuai, Zhifu Zhang, Junwei Yang
In this paper, a hybrid combustion mode in four-stroke gasoline direct injection engines was studied. Switching cam profiles and injection strategies simultaneously was adopted to obtain a rapid and smooth switch between SI mode and HCCI mode. Based on the continuous pressure traces and corresponding emissions, HCCI steady operation, HCCI transient process (combustion phase adjustment, SI-HCCI, HCCI-SI, HCCI cold start) were studied. In HCCI mode, HCCI combustion phase can be adjusted rapidly by changing the split injection ratio. The HCCI control strategies had been demonstrated in a Chery GDI2.0 engine. The HCCI engine simulation results show that, oxygen and active radicals are stored due to negative valve overlap and split fuel injection under learn burn condition. This reduces the HCCI sensitivity on inlet boundary conditions, such as intake charge and intake temperature. The engine can be run from 1500rpm to 4000rpm in HCCI mode without spark ignition.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1708
Shuo Tian, Jianqiu Li, Fuyuan Yang, Minggao Ouyang
Due to the high cost of torque sensors, a calculation model of transient torque is required for real-time coordinating control purpose, especially in hybrid electric powertrains. This paper presents a feedforward calculation method based on mean value model of turbocharged non-EGR diesel engines. A fitting variable called fuel coefficient is defined in an affine relation between brake torque and fuel mass. The fitting of fuel coefficient is simplified to depend only on three variables (engine speed, boost pressure, injected fuel mass). And a two-layer feedforward neural network is utilized to fit the experimental data. The model is validated by load response test and ETC (European Transient Cycle) transient test. The RMSE (root mean square error) of the brake torque is less than 3%.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1690
Mingyang Yang, Xinqian Zheng, Yangjun Zhang, Zhigang Li
In order to improve centrifugal compressor performance predictive capability, an improved recirculation loss model in two-zone modeling system is presented in this paper. The new loss model correlates Reynolds number of the impeller with the recirculation loss. Performance prediction by the improved model is carried out on two turbochargers with different sizes based on COMPAL mode of the code Concepts. The result shows that predictive performance by improved model is in high accordance with experimental measurement. On the other hand, compared with the larger size compressor, the small one has a performance which is more likely to be influenced by Reynolds number.
2008-06-23
Journal Article
2008-01-1691
Li Chen, Weilin Zhuge, Yangjun Zhang, Yazhuo Li, Shuyong Zhang
A three-dimensional numerical investigation into aerodynamic feature of the turbocharger turbine under pulsating flow conditions is conducted in this paper. Dual time stepping approach is applied to solve the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, while the Jameson central scheme is brought in for spatial discretization, and Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model is employed in order to get good viscous resolution, accuracy and computing efficiency. The quasi-steady and unsteady performance of the turbine is given and compared. Five blade passage cross sections are chosen to analyze the structure of the secondary flow at 4 key instants. The developments of different vortex, especially the tip leakage vortex, passage vortex are discussed. The results have shown that the unsteady performance deviates substantially from quasi-steady performance, and the secondary flow structure varies tremendously under the pulsating flow conditions.
2007-10-30
Technical Paper
2007-01-4209
Rui Chen, Yugong Luo
This paper developed a control system for the auxiliary power unit (APU) in off-road series hybrid electric special vehicle. A control system configuration was designed according to the requirements of the high voltage system in series hybrid electric special vehicle. Then optimal engine operating areas were defined. A gain scheduling engine speed PI controller was designed based on these areas. A closed loop voltage regulator was designed for the synchronous generator. The proposed control system was first validated on an APU control test bench. The test results showed the control system guaranteed the diesel APU good dynamic response characteristics while remaining stable output voltage. Finally, the APU control system was implemented on a diesel APU in an off-road series hybrid electric vehicle and a road test was conducted. The road test results showed the APU control system promised good performance in both vehicle dynamics and vehicle high voltage system.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1570
Munan Hong, Jianyong Zhang, Jianqiu Li, Minggao Ouyang
A conventional vehicle with gasoline engine was tested on a chassis dynamometer over the new European drive-cycle (NEDC). The distributions of the engine speed and power, the throttle positions during the drive cycle are analyzed. Engine idling, acceleration and deceleration take an important proportion in the drive cycle. If engine idling is instead by engine stop, the fuel consumption will be improved by 2.27%. In an Integrated Starter Generator (ISG) system, with the assist of the starter/generator, transient operation of the engine will decrease, which reduces fuel consumption by 6%. Fuel economy will be also improved by braking regeneration and restricting operating points to an optimized region, the details are not discussed in this paper. To reduce fuel consumption further, the region where engine usually runs in urban traffic, should be paid more attention to while engine calibration.
2008-06-23
Technical Paper
2008-01-1534
Xinfan Lin, Lei Bao, Jianfeng Hua, Liangfei Xu, Jianqiu Li, Minggao Ouyang
As vehicle systems constantly grow in complexity and are subject to higher demands on performance, distributed control has become mainstream application in automotive industry. In a distributed control system, communication network connecting local controllers plays an important role. In this article, a fuel cell bus control system under development is introduced first. And then, traditional CAN and TTCAN network are analyzed for real-time performance respectively and TTCAN is chosen for its superiority. Subsequently, a TTCAN network is designed and implemented. Finally, a test platform for TTCAN network is devised and relevant platform experiments and on-board validation on the network are discussed.
2008-04-01
Journal Article
2008-01-2763
Rang-Lin Fan, Zhen-Hua Lu
Based on the third generation of hydraulic engine mounts (HEMs), which has three types of hydraulic mechanisms such as inertia track, decoupler and disturbing plate, the influences of the three different hydraulic mechanisms on the dynamic properties were studied experimentally. The working principles of the three hydraulic mechanisms and the relationship between the dynamic properties of the three generations of HEMs were revealed clearly, these experimental results will be helpful for HEM design selection. It was discovered experimentally that the frequency-dependent dynamic properties of HEM with inertia track or orifice have fixed points under different excitation displacement amplitudes. Based on the facts that the analytical results matched well with the experimental ones, a new parameter-identification-method for HEM is presented, which is clear in theory and is time- and cost-saving, the identified results were reliable.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-1596
Rongwei Huang, Yudong Zhao
Electromagnetic Valve Actuation (EVA) is considered to be a potential substitute of conventional valvetrains for automotive engines. However, valve quiet-seating (soft-landing) is difficult to be achieved. The EVA system and hence its’ mathematic model is nonlinear. Therefore, when linear control is used for EVA, firstly, the model has to be linearized at an equilibrium point through Taylor expansion. Consequently, the linearized model and control are valid only for a small range around the equilibrium point. This paper presents a control strategy for the whole transition of EVA, which combines exact linearization with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). Firstly, the nonlinear EVA model is transformed to be linear in a new coordinate by using exact linearization, so the nonlinear model is not involved. Then the exact-linearized model is used for the EVA control with LQR.
2009-06-11
Technical Paper
2009-01-1668
Enhua Wang, Shengzhi Xia, Minggao Ouyang, Jianqiu Li, Xihao Li
The electronic control system of the variable nozzle turbocharger (VNT) was designed. The actuator is the electro-hydraulic servo proportional solenoid. The signals of the engine pedal position sensor, the engine speed sensor, the boost pressure sensor, the intake air temperature sensor, and the ambient pressure sensor are sampled and filtered. The engine working condition is estimated. The control algorithm was designed as the closed-loop feedback digital PI control together with the open-loop feed forward control. The gain-scheduled PI control method is applied to improve the robustness. The control system was calibrated at the turbocharger test bench and the engine test bench. The results indicate the designed control system has good performance for the boost pressure control under the steady and transient conditions.
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