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Viewing 1 to 30 of 117
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0912
Lynn R. Gantt, Robert Alley, Jeffrey Bennett, Patrick M. Walsh, Douglas J. Nelson
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2009 - 2011 EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Following GM's Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT established team goals that meet or exceed the competition requirements for EcoCAR in the design of a plug-in extended-range hybrid electric vehicle. The competition requires participating teams to improve and redesign a stock Vue XE donated by GM. The result of this design process is an Extended-Range Electric Vehicle (E-REV) that uses grid electric energy and E85 fuel for propulsion. The vehicle design is predicted to achieve an SAE J1711 utility factor corrected fuel consumption of 2.9 L(ge)/100 km (82 mpgge) with an estimated all electric range of 69 km (43 miles) [1].
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0757
Xinjie Zhang, Hui Zhang, Mehdi Ahmadian, Konghui Guo
Magneto-rheological fluid squeeze mode investigations at CVeSS have shown that MR fluids show large force capabilities in squeeze mode. A novel MR squeeze mount was designed and built at CVeSS, and a dynamic mathematical model was developed, which considered the inertial effect and was validated by the test data. A variant engine mount that will be used for isolating vibration, based on the MR squeeze mode is proposed in the paper. The mathematical governing equations of the mount are derived to account for its operation with MR squeeze mode. The design method of a robust H✓ controller is addressed for the squeeze mount subject to parameter uncertainties in the damping and stiffness. The controller parameter can be derived from the solution of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). The displacement transmissibility is constrained to be no more than 1.05 with this robust H✓ controller. The MR squeeze mount has a very large range of force used to isolate the vibration.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0915
Patrick M. Walsh, Jonathan King, Lynn R. Gantt, Michael J. Kearney, Douglas J. Nelson
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2008 - 2011 EcoCAR: The NeXt Challenge Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and sponsored by General Motors (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). Following GM's vehicle development process, HEVT established goals that meet or exceed the competition requirements for EcoCAR in the design of a plug-in, range-extended hybrid electric vehicle. The challenge involves designing a crossover SUV powertrain to reduce fuel consumption, petroleum energy use and well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In order to interface with and control the vehicle, the team added a National Instruments (NI) CompactRIO (cRIO) to act as a hybrid vehicle supervisory controller (HVSC).
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0963
Seyed Hossein Tamaddoni, Saied Taheri, Mehdi Ahmadian
Vehicle stability is maintained by proper interactions between the driver and vehicle stability control system. While driver describes the desired target path by commanding steering angle and acceleration/deceleration rates, vehicle stability controller tends to stabilize higher dynamics of the vehicle by correcting longitudinal, lateral, and roll accelerations. In this paper, a finite-horizon optimal solution to vehicle stability control is introduced in the presence of driver's dynamical decision making structure. The proposed concept is inspired by Nash strategy for exactly known systems with more than two players, in which driver, commanding steering wheel angle, and vehicle stability controller, applying compensated yaw moment through differential braking strategy, are defined as the dynamic players of the 2-player differential linear quadratic game.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0974
Michael Glenn Diaz, Douglas Nelson
This paper focuses on stability of automotive supervisory control systems (ASCSs). It serves to introduce the concept of stability with respect to an entire ASCS. The realm of ASCSs is categorized and a brief description of pre-existing classical methods of stability analysis is presented. With the concept then having been fully introduced, an approach to evaluating stability of a key category of ASCS, the rule-based deterministic ASCS, is presented. This approach, cited from unrelated modern literature concerning stability of deterministic finite state machines, is novel in that its original target research area was not specifically automotive engineering.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1753
Jonathan King, Douglas Nelson
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is participating in the 2011-2014 EcoCAR 2 competition in which the team is tasked with re-engineering the powertrain of a GM donated vehicle. The primary goals of the competition are to reduce well to wheels (WTW) petroleum energy use (PEU) and reduce WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining performance, safety, and consumer acceptability. To meet these goals HEVT has designed a series parallel plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) with multiple modes of operation. This paper will first cover development of the control system architecture with a dual CAN bus structure to meet the requirements of the vehicle architecture. Next an online optimization control strategy to minimize fuel consumption will be developed. A simple vehicle plant model will then be used for software-in-the-loop (SIL) testing to improve fuel economy.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0079
Sukhwan Cho, Rebecca Anne Bandy, John Ferris, Joerg Schlinkheider, Marc Wimmershoff
A Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System (LAAVDS) is developed to assist the driver in maintaining vehicle handling capabilities through various driving maneuvers. An integral part of this System is an Intervention Strategy that uses a novel measure of handling capability, the Performance Margin, to assess the need to intervene. Through this strategy, the driver's commands are modulated to affect desired changes to the Performance Margin in a manner that is minimally intrusive to the driver's control authority. Real-time implementation requires the development of computationally efficient predictive vehicle models. This work develops one means to alter the future vehicle states: modulating the driver's brake commands. This control strategy must be considered in relationship to changes in the throttle commands. Three key elements of this strategy are developed in this work.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0166
Kristofer D. Kusano, H. Gabler, Thomas I. Gorman
Forward Collision Warning (FCW) and Lane Departure Warning (LDW) systems are two active safety systems that have recently been added to the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) evaluation. Vehicles that pass confirmation tests may advertise the presence of FCW and LDW alongside the vehicle's star safety rating derived from crash tests. This paper predicts the number of crashes and injured drivers that could be prevented if all vehicles in the U.S. fleet were equipped with production FCW and/or LDW systems. Models of each system were developed using the test track data collected for 16 FCW and 10 LDW systems by the NCAP confirmation tests. These models were used in existing fleetwide benefits models developed for FCW and LDW. The 16 FCW systems evaluated could have potentially prevented between 9% and 53% of all rear-end collisions and prevented between 19% and 60% of injured (MAIS2+) drivers. Earlier warning times prevented more warnings and injuries.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0145
Jeremy Kolansky, Amandeep Singh, Jill Goryca
Ride control of military vehicles is challenging due to varied terrain and mission requirements such as operating weight. Achieving top speeds on rough terrain is typically considered a key performance parameter, which is always constrained by ride discomfort. Many military vehicles using passive suspensions suffer with compromised performance due to single tuning solution. To further stretch the performance domain to achieving higher speeds on rough roads, semi-active suspensions may offer a wide range of damping possibilities under varying conditions. In this paper, various semi-active control strategies are examined, and improvements have been made, particularly, to the acceleration-driven damper (ADD) strategy to make the approach more robust for varying operating conditions. A seven degrees of freedom ride model and a quarter-car model were developed that were excited by a random road process input modeled using an auto-regressive time series model.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0121
Rebecca Anne Bandy, Sukhwan Cho, Cullen Matthews, John Celli, Robert Binns, John Ferris, Joerg Schlinkheider, Marc Wimmershoff
One seminal question that faces a vehicle's driver (either human or computer) is predicting the capability of the vehicle as it encounters upcoming terrain. A Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics (LAAVD) System is developed to assist the driver in maintaining vehicle handling capabilities through various driving maneuvers. In contrast to current active safety systems, this system is predictive rather than reactive. This work provides the conceptual groundwork for the proposed system. The LAAVD System employs a predictor-corrector method in which the driver's input commands (throttle, brake, steering) and upcoming driving environment (terrain, traffic, weather) are predicted. An Intervention Strategy uses a novel measure of handling capability, the Performance Margin, to assess the need to intervene. The driver's throttle and brake control are modulated to affect desired changes to the Performance Margin in a manner that is minimally intrusive to the driver's control authority.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0105
Sukhwan Cho, Rebecca Anne Bandy, John Ferris, Joerg Schlinkheider, Marc Wimmershoff
A Location-Aware Adaptive Vehicle Dynamics System (LAAVDS) is developed to assist the driver in maintaining vehicle handling capabilities through various driving maneuvers. An Intervention Strategy uses a novel measure of handling capability, the Performance Margin, to assess the need to intervene. The driver's commands are modulated to affect desired changes to the Performance Margin in a manner that is minimally intrusive to the driver's control authority. Real-time implementation requires the development of computationally efficient predictive vehicle models which is the focus of this work. This work develops one means to alter the future vehicle states: modulating the driver's throttle commands. First, changes to the longitudinal force are translated to changes in engine torque based on the current operating state (torque and speed) of the engine.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0858
Shahyar Taheri, Corina Sandu, Saied Taheri
Studying the kinetic and kinematics of the rim-tire combination is very important in full vehicle simulations, as well as for the tire design process. Tire maneuvers are either quasi-static, such as steady-state rolling, or dynamic, such as traction and braking. The rolling of the tire over obstacles and potholes and, more generally, over uneven roads are other examples of tire dynamic maneuvers. In the latter case, tire dynamic models are used for durability assessment of the vehicle chassis, and should be studied using high fidelity simulation models. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) has been developed using the commercial software package ABAQUS. The purpose of this study is to investigate the tire dynamic behavior in multiple case studies in which the transient characteristics are highly involved.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0502
Richard R. Ruth, Ada Tsoi
Abstract Kia and Hyundai released publicly available tools in the spring of 2013 to read model year (MY) 2013 vehicle event data recorders (EDRs). By empirical testing, this study determined the tools also read data from some 2010-2012 models as EDRs were phased in by the manufacturer. Fifty-four (54) MY 2010-2012 airbag control module EDRs from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) crash tests were downloaded direct-to-module. The vehicles analyzed were exposed to frontal, side moving deformable barrier (MDB), and side pole tests. The EDR data was compared to the reference instrumentation for speed and Delta V data. Other data elements were also tabulated but are not evaluated for accuracy because they were not fully exercised during the crash tests, the reference instrumentation was not available, or they were outside the scope of this paper.
2014-04-01
Journal Article
2014-01-0503
Ada Tsoi, Nicholas Johnson, H. Gabler
This study evaluated the accuracy of 75 Event Data Recorders (EDRs) extracted from model year 2010-2012 Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mazda, and Toyota vehicles subjected to side-impact moving deformable barrier crash tests. The test report and vehicle-mounted accelerometers provided reference values to assess the EDR reported change in lateral velocity (delta-v), seatbelt buckle status, and airbag deployment status. Our results show that EDRs underreported the reference lateral delta-v in the vast majority of cases, mimicking the errors and conclusions found in some longitudinal EDR accuracy studies. For maximum lateral delta-v, the average arithmetic error was −3.59 kph (−13.8%) and the average absolute error was 4.05 kph (15.9%). All EDR reports that recorded a seatbelt buckle status data element correctly recorded the buckle status at both the driver and right front passenger locations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0885
Mustafa Ali Arat, Saied Taheri
Abstract A vehicle's response is predominately defined by the tire characteristics as they constitute the only contact between the vehicle and the road; and the surface friction condition is the primary attribute that determines these characteristics. The friction coefficient is not directly measurable through any sensor attachments in production-line vehicles. Therefore, current chassis control systems make use of various estimation methods to approximate a value. However a significant challenge is that these schemes require a certain level of perturbation (i.e. excitation by means of braking or traction) from the initial conditions to converge to the expected values; which might not be the case all the time during a regular drive.
2005-07-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-2926
Soojin Jun, Brian Heskitt, Sudhir Sastry, Ritesh Mahna, Joseph Marcy, Michele Perchonok
Long-duration space missions require high-quality, nutritious foods, which will need reheating to serving temperature, or sterilization on an evolved planetary base. The package is generally considered to pose a disposal problem after use. We are in the process of development of a dual-use package wherein the food may be rapidly reheated in situ using the technology of ohmic heating. We plan to make the container reusable, so that after food consumption, the package is reused to contain and sterilize waste. This approach will reduce Equivalent System Mass (ESM) by using a compact heating technology, and reducing mass requirements for waste storage. Preliminary tests of the package within a specially-designed ohmic heating enclosure show that ISS menu item could easily be heated using ohmic heating technology. Mathematical models for heat transfer were used to optimize the layout of electrodes to ensure uniform heating of the material within the package.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1231
Eli H. White, Douglas J. Nelson, P. Christopher Manning
Abstract Improving fuel economy and overall vehicle emissions are very important in today's society with strict new regulations throughout the world. To help in the education process for the next generation of design engineers, this paper seeks to define a powertrain model created and developed to help users understand the basics behind hybrid vehicles and the effects of these advanced technologies. One of the main goals of this research is to maintain a simplified approach to model development. The 1 Hz model described within this work aims to allow energy to be simply and understandably traced through a hybrid powertrain. Through the use of a “backwards” energy tracking method, demand for a drive cycle is found, and, after tracing the energy demand through each powertrain component, the resulting fuel to meet vehicle demand and associated powertrain losses is found.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0651
Mustafa Ali Arat, Saied Taheri, Edward Holweg
The road profile has been shown to have significant effects on various vehicle conditions including ride, handling, fatigue or even energy efficiency; as a result it has become a variable of interest in the design and control of numerous vehicle parts. In this study, an integrated state estimation algorithm is proposed that can provide continuous information on road elevation and profile variations, primarily to be used in active suspension controls. A novel tire instrumentation technology (smart tire) is adopted together with a sensor couple of wheel attached accelerometer and suspension deflection sensor as observer inputs. The algorithm utilizes an adaptive Kalman filter (AKF) structure that provides the sprung and unsprung mass displacements to a sliding-mode differentiator, which then yields to the estimation of road elevations and the corresponding road profile along with the quarter car states.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0649
Liangyao Yu, Shuhao Huo, WenWei Xuan, Lei Zuo
Abstract Conventional viscous shock absorbers, in parallel with suspension springs, passively dissipate the excitation energy from road irregularity into heat waste, to reduce the transferred vibration which causes the discomfort of passengers. Energy-harvesting shock absorbers, which have the potential of conversion of kinetic energy into electric power, have been proposed as semi-active suspension to achieve better balance between the energy consumption and suspension performance. Because of the high energy density of the rotary shock absorber, a rotational energy-harvesting shock absorber with mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) is used in this paper. This paper presents the assessment of vehicle dynamic performance with the proposed energy-harvesting shock absorber in braking process. Moreover, a PI controller is proposed to attenuate the negative effect due to the pitch motion.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-0591
Karan R. Khanse, Eric Pierce, Michael Ng, Saied Taheri
Abstract Outdoor objective evaluations form an important part of both tire and vehicle design process since they validate the design parameters through actual tests and can provide insight into the functional performances associated with the vehicle. Even with the industry focused towards developing simulation models, their need cannot be completely eliminated as they form the basis for approving the performance predictions of any newly developed model. An objective test was conducted to measure the ABS performance as part of validation of a tire simulation design tool. A sample vehicle and a set of tires were used to perform the tests- on a road with known profile. These specific vehicle and tire sets were selected due to the availability of the vehicle parameters, tire parameters and the ABS control logic. A test matrix was generated based on the validation requirements.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0463
Kristofer Kusano, H. Clay Gabler
Pre-Crash Systems (PCS) integrate the features of active and passive safety systems to reduce both crash and injury severity. Upon detection of an impending collision, PCS can provide an early warning to the driver and activate automatic braking to reduce the crash severity for the subject vehicle. PCS can also activate the seatbelt pretensioners prior to impact. This paper identifies the opportunities for injury prevention in crash types for which PCS can be potentially activated. These PCS applicable crash types include rear-end crashes, single vehicle crashes into objects (trees, poles, structures, parked vehicles), and head-on crashes. PCS can benefit the occupants of both the striking and struck vehicle. In this paper, the opportunity for injury reduction in the struck vehicle is also tabulated. The study is based upon the analysis of approximately 20,000 frontal crash cases extracted from NASS / CDS 1997-2008.
2010-04-12
Technical Paper
2010-01-0817
Frank J. Falcone, Jim Burns, Douglas J. Nelson
This paper covers the development of a closed loop transaxle synchronization algorithm which was a key deliverable in the control system design for the L3 Enigma, a Battery Dominant Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Background information is provided to help the reader understand the history that lead to this unique solution of the input and output shaft synchronizing that typically takes place in a manual vehicle transmission or transaxle when shifting into a gear from another or into a gear from neutral when at speed. The algorithm stability is discussed as it applies to system stability and how stability impacts the speed at which a shift can take place. Results are simulated in The MathWorks Simulink programming environment and show how traction motor technology can be used to efficiently solve what is often a machine design issue. The vehicle test bed to which this research is applied is a parallel biodiesel hybrid electric vehicle called the Enigma.
2009-10-06
Technical Paper
2009-01-2862
Florin M. Marcu, Mehdi Ahmadian, Steve C. Southward, Stefan B. Jansson
This work pertains to laboratory testing of truck cab suspensions for the purpose of improving in-cab ride quality. It describes the testing procedure of a complete truck cab suspension while still being mounted on the vehicle. It allows for testing with minimal amount of resources, limited to two mobile actuators and minimal modifications to the stock vehicle. The actuators can be attached to any axle through a set of modified brake drums and excite the drive axle in a vertical plane. The excitation signal sent to the actuators can be in phase for a heave type motion or out of phase for a roll motion. The chassis shock absorbers are replaced with rigid links to prevent the actuator input from becoming filtered by the primary suspension. This allows the input to reach the cab suspension more directly and the cab to be excited across a broader range of frequencies.
2009-06-09
Technical Paper
2009-01-2261
F. Scott Gayzik, Craig A. Hamilton, Josh C. Tan, Craig McNally, Stefan M. Duma, Kathleen D. Klinich, Joel D. Stitzel
This study outlines a protocol for image data collection acquired from human volunteers. The data set will serve as the foundation of a consolidated effort to develop the next generation full-body Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models for injury prediction and prevention. The geometry of these models will be based off the anatomy of four individuals meeting extensive prescreening requirements and representing the 5th and 50th percentile female, and the 50th and 95th percentile male. Target values for anthropometry are determined by literature sources. Because of the relative strengths of various modalities commonly in use today in the clinical and engineering worlds, a multi-modality approach is outlined. This approach involves the use of Computed Tomography (CT), upright and closed-bore Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and external anthropometric measurements.
2014-09-16
Technical Paper
2014-01-2176
Niloofar Rashidi Mehrabadi, Bo Wen, Rolando Burgos, Dushan Boroyevich, Chris Roy
Abstract The development of the concepts, terminology and methodology of verification and validation is based on practical issues, not the philosophy of science. Different communities have tried to improve the existing terminology to one which is more comprehensible in their own field of study. All definitions follow the same concept, but they have been defined in a way to be most applicable to a specific field of study. This paper proposes the Verification, Validation, and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) framework applicable to power electronic systems. Although the steps are similar to the VV&UQ frameworks' steps from other societies, this framework is more efficient as a result of the new arrangement of the steps which makes this procedure more comprehensible. This new arrangement gives this procedure the capability of improving the model in the most efficient way.
2014-09-30
Journal Article
2014-01-2292
Anudeep K. Bhoopalam, Corina Sandu, Saied Taheri
Abstract Safety and minimal transit time are vital during transportation of essential commodities and passengers, especially in winter conditions. Icy roads are the worst driving conditions with the least available friction, leaving valuable cargo and precious human lives at stake. The study investigates the available friction at the tire-ice interface due to changes in key operational parameters. Experimental analysis of tractive performance of tires on ice was carried out indoor, using the terramechanics rig located at the Advanced Vehicle Dynamics Laboratory (AVDL) at Virginia Tech. The friction-slip ratio curves obtained from indoor testing were inputted into TruckSIM, defining tire behavior for various ice scenarios and then simulating performance of trucks on ice. The shortcomings of simulations in considering the effects of all the operational parameters result in differences between findings of indoor testing and truck performance simulations.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1915
David Ord, Eli White, P. Christopher Manning, Abhijit Khare, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team (HEVT) of Virginia Tech is excited about the opportunity to apply for participation in the next Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition. EcoCAR 3 is a new four year competition sponsored by the Department of Energy and General Motors with the intention of promoting sustainable energy in the automotive sector. The goal of the competition is to guide students from universities in North America to create new and innovative technologies to reduce the environmental impact of modern day transportation. EcoCAR 3, like its predecessors, will give students hands-on experience in designing and implementing advanced technologies in a setting similar to that of current production vehicles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1922
Robert Jesse Alley, Patrick Walsh, Nicole Lambiase, Brian Benoy, Kristen De La Rosa, Douglas Nelson, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Jerry Ku, Brian Fabien
Abstract EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-1814
Abhijit Nitin Khare, Henning Lohse-Busch, Douglas Nelson
Abstract Ambient temperature plays an important role in the operational behavior of a vehicle. Temperature variances from 20 F to 72 F to 95 F produce different operation from different HEVs, as prescribed by their respective energy management strategies. The extra variable of Climate Control causes these behaviors to change again. There have been studies conducted on the differences in operational behavior of conventional vehicles as against HEVs, with and without climate control. Lohse-Bush et al conclude that operational behavior of conventional vehicles is much more robust as compared to HEVs and that the effect of ambient temperature is felt more prominently in HEVs (1).
2014-10-13
Technical Paper
2014-01-2905
P. Christopher Manning, Eli White, Eduardo Marquez, Leonard Figueroa, Lucas Shoults, Douglas Nelson
Abstract The Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) is participating in the 2012-2014 EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition series organized by Argonne National Lab (ANL), and sponsored by General Motors Corporation (GM) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goals of the competition are to reduce well-to-wheel (WTW) petroleum energy consumption (PEU), WTW greenhouse gas (GHG) and criteria emissions while maintaining vehicle performance, consumer acceptability and safety. Following the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (VDP), HEVT is designing, building, and refining an advanced technology vehicle over the course of the three year competition using a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu donated by GM as a base vehicle.
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