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Viewing 1 to 30 of 46
1989-02-01
Technical Paper
890763
Giorgio Rizzoni, Richard Hampo, Michael Liubakka, Kenneth Marko
Abstract This paper presents the real time implementation of detection filters for the diagnosis of incipient failures in electronically controlled internal combustion (IC) engines. The detection filters are implemented in a production vehicle. Recent results [1] have demonstrated the feasibility of a model-based failure detection and isolation (FDI) methodology for detecting partially failed components in electronically controlled vehicle subsystems. The present paper describes the real time application of the FDI concept to the detection of faults in sensors associated with the engine/controller In a detection filter, the performance of the engine/controller system is continuously compared to a prediction based on sensor measurements and an analytical model (typically a control model) of the system. Any discrepancy between actual and predicted performance is analyzed to identify the unique failure signatures related to specific system components.
1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901768
William B. Ribbens, Giorgio Rizzoni
Abstract The integrity of the exhaust emission system in a passenger vehicle can best be maintained by monitoring its performance continuously on board the vehicle. It is with the intent of monitoring emission system performance that the California Air Resources Board has proposed regulations which will require vehicles to be equipped with on-board monitoring systems. These proposed regulations are known as OBDII and will probably be followed by similar Federal EPA regulations.This paper discusses a method of monitoring engine misfire as part of the OBDII requirements for passenger vehicle on-board diagnostics. The method is relatively inexpensive in that it uses an existing sensor for measuring instantaneous crankshaft angular position, and utilizes electronic signal processing which can be implemented in relatively inexpensive custom integrated circuits.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871915
Giorgio Rizzoni
This paper presents a method for the isolation of misfiring cylinders in an internal combustion engine. The method is based on the measurement of the extrema of engine angular velocity. It has been shown that a number of indices can be derived from such a measurement, to provide an indication of engine performance degradation. In this study, an onboard microprocessor-based instrument samples the extrema of the engine velocity waveform in real time, generating an N or 2N vector representing each engine cycle, where N is the number of cylinders. The data is processed by matrix transformations which are designed to isolate specific faults and their intensity. The transforms are constructed in such a way as to yield a nonzero output only when a certain fault is encountered. The system is capable of detecting individual or multiple cylinder misfires, both complete and partial. Experimental verification has been carried out in a passenger vehicle.
1987-10-01
Technical Paper
871914
Yibing Dong, Giorgio Rizzoni, William B. Ribbens
Abstract This paper introduces a high accuracy method of measuring crankshaft angular position of an I-C engine. The method uses a sensor which couples magnetically to the starter ring gear. There are many automotive applications of this measurement of crankshaft angular position including ignition timing reference, engine performance measurement and certain diagnostic functions. The present paper disusses only the ignition timing application. Engine performance measurements are reported in refs. (1,2,3). The diagnostic application is discussed in refs. (4-5). The passage of a starter ring gear tooth past the sensor axis causes a pulse to be generated in the sensor output. The waveform of this sensor voltage is independent of engine angular speed (including zero speed). However, this waveform is a function of gear tooth profile and is consequently influenced by gear wear. The present method uses a finite state machine to process the sensor output signal.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0875
Pinak Tulpule, Vincenzo Marano, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ryan McGee, Hai Yu
Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1297
Robert Cooley, Davide Vezza, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
When developing a new engine control strategy, some of the important issues are cost, resource minimization, and quality improvement. This paper outlines how a model based approach was used to develop an engine control strategy for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV). The outlined approach allowed the development team to minimize the required number of experiments and to complete much of the control development and calibration before implementing the control strategy in the vehicle. It will be shown how models of different fidelity, from map-based models, to mean value models, to 1-D gas dynamics models were generated and used to develop the engine control system. The application of real time capable models for Hardware-in-the-Loop testing will also be shown.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0563
Steven Guba, Youngwook Ko, Giorgio Rizzoni, Gary J. Heydinger, Dennis A. Guenther, Ted Wittman
The intent of this research is to understand the effects worn dampers have on vehicle stability and safety through dynamic model simulation. Dampers, an integral component of a vehicle's suspension system, play an important role in isolating road disturbances from the driver by controlling the motions of the sprung and unsprung masses. This paper will show that a decrease in damping leads to excessive body motions and a potentially unstable vehicle. The concept of poor damping affecting vehicle stability is well established through linear models. The next step is to extend this concept for non-linear models. This is accomplished through creating a vehicle simulation model and executing several driving maneuvers with various damper characteristics. The damper models used in this study are based on splines representing peak force versus velocity relationships.
2015-04-14
Technical Paper
2015-01-1229
Katherine Bovee, Amanda Hyde, Margaret Yatsko, Matthew Yard, Matthew Organiscak, Bharatkumar Hegde, Jason Ward, Andrew Garcia, Shawn Midlam-Mohler, Giorgio Rizzoni
Abstract The EcoCAR 2: Plugging into the Future team at The Ohio State University is designing a Parallel-Series Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle capable of 44 miles of all-electric range. The vehicle features an 18.9-kWh lithium-ion battery pack with range extending operation in both series and parallel modes. This is made possible by a 1.8-L ethanol (E85) engine and 6-speed automated manual transmission. This vehicle is designed to drastically reduce fuel consumption, with a utility factor weighted fuel economy of 50 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (mpgge), while meeting Tier II Bin 5 emissions standards. This paper details three years of modeling and simulation development for the OSU EcoCAR 2 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platform and model requirements, plant model and soft ECU development, test development and validation, automated regression testing, and controls and calibration optimization.
2009-09-13
Journal Article
2009-24-0122
Marcello Canova, Fabio Chiara, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yue-Yun Wang
Two-stage turbochargers are a recent solution to improve engine performance. The large flexibility of these systems, able to operate in different modes, can determine a reduction of the turbo-lag phenomenon and improve the engine tuning. However, the presence of two turbochargers that can be in part operated independently requires effort in terms of analysis and optimization to maximize the benefits of this technology. In addition, the design and calibration of the control system is particularly complex. The transitioning between single stage and two-stage operations poses further control issues. In this scenario a model-based approach could be a convenient and effective solution to investigate optimization, calibration and control issues, provided the developed models retain high accuracy, limited calibration effort and the ability to run in real time.
1993-03-01
Technical Paper
930769
Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman, Kevin Passino
The introduction of advanced electronic controls in passenger vehicles over the last decade has made traditional diagnostic methods inadequate to satisfy on- and off-board diagnostic needs. Due to the complexity of today's automotive control systems, it is imperative that appropriate diagnostic tools be developed that are capable of satisfying current and projected service and on-board requirements. The performance of available diagnostic and test equipment is still amenable to further improvement, especially as it pertains to the diagnosis of incipient and intermittent faults. It is our contention that significant improvement is possible in these areas. This paper briefly summarizes the evolution of on- and off-board diagnostic tools documented in the published literature, with the aim of giving the reader an understanding of their capabilities and limitations, and it further proposes alternative solutions that may be adopted as a basis for an advanced diagnostic instrument.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980519
Ahmed Soliman, Yong-Yha Kim, Giorgio Rizzoni, José Candau
Fault diagnosis for automotive systems is driven by government regulations, vehicle repairability, and customer satisfaction. Several methods have been developed to detect and isolate faults in automotive systems, subsystems and components with special emphasis on those faults that affect the exhaust gas emission levels. Limit checks, model-based, and knowledge-based methods are applied for diagnosing malfunctions in emission control systems. Incipient and partial faults may be hard to detect when using a detection scheme that implements any of the previously mentioned methods individually; the integration of model-based and knowledge-based diagnostic methods may provide a more robust approach. In the present paper, use is made of fuzzy residual evaluation and of a fuzzy expert system to improve the performance of a fault detection method based on a mathematical model of the engine.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980520
Yong Wha Kim, Giorgio Rizzoni
The use of mathematical models derived from physical principles is gaining more widespread acceptance for automotive control and diagnostic applications. A suitable mathematical model may reduce, though not eliminate, the need for empirical calibrations, and may help in accommodating changes in operating conditions, external disturbances, vehicle to vehicle variability, aging etc. Recent studies have shown that model based approaches for both control and diagnostic design offer a viable alternative to empirical methods for industrial applications. However, until recently, model-based control and diagnostic algorithms have been designed separately, without considering their interactions explicitly. As a consequence, the performance of these algorithms may be limited, and even deteriorated in the presence of modeling uncertainty and disturbance.
1998-02-23
Technical Paper
980604
Vijay Narayanan, Giorgio Rizzoni
The viability of many new technologies for improving the drivability and safety of a vehicle has improved with the availability of advanced software and hardware tools. On-line diagnosis of steering system faults is one such area on which a lot of attention has been focused. When used in a manually driven automobile this technology can improve the safety of the vehicle by providing the driver with the fault information. While when used with a computer controlled steering (as envisaged in many of the IVHS technologies) it is of even greater importance, because electronic fault information is crucial to the proper functioning of many such systems. This paper deals with the design of a linear unknown input observer (UIO) based residual generator for steering system diagnosis. The observer was designed based on an accepted model of the automatic car steering problem. The observer was validated through experiments conducted on the OSU-autonomous vehicle.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970031
Yong-Wha Kim, Giorgio Rizzoni, Vadim Utkin
In this paper, we propose an IC engine fuel system diagnostic algorithm based on a discrete-event nonlinear observer using the production oxygen sensor. A mean value engine model is used to describe the engine dynamics. A procedure for designing the discrete event based observer is presented and applied to estimate important engine variables using the measured binary oxygen sensor output. The estimated variables are then used to perform diagnostics of the fuel system of the IC engine. Experimental results on a multi-cylinder production engine are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
1997-02-24
Technical Paper
970208
Ahmed Soliman, Vasanth Krishnaswami, Giorgio Rizzoni
: The evolution of the diagnostic equipment for automotive application is the direct effect of the implementation of sophisticated and high technology control systems in the new generation of passenger cars. One of the most challenging issues in automotive diagnostics is the ability to assess, to analyze, and to integrate all the information and data supplied by the vehicle's on-board computer. The data available might be in the form of fault codes or sensors and actuators voltages. Moreover, as environmental regulations get more stringent, knowledge of the concentration of different species emitted from the tailpipe during the inspection and maintenance programs can become of great importance for an integrated powertrain diagnostic system. A knowledge-based diagnostic tool is one of the approaches that can be adopted to carry out the challenging task of detecting and diagnosing faults related to the emissions control system in an automobile.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950840
Sergey Drakunov, Giorgio Rizzoni, Yue-Yun Wang
An approach to fault diagnosis for internal combustion engines is considered. It is based on the estimation of cylinder indicated torque by means of sliding mode observers. Instead of measuring indicated pressure in cylinders directly, crankshaft speed is measured as the input of observers, which estimate the indicated torque. Several engine models are considered with different levels of complexity. The indicated torque estimation using sliding mode observers is based on the equivalent control method. The estimation technique is validated experimently on a research engine.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950842
Kenneth C. Leisenring, Giorgio Rizzoni, Bahman Samimy
Legislation pertaining to automobile emissions has caused an increased focus on the cold-start performance of internal combustion engines. Of particular concern is the period of time before all available sensors become active. Present engine control strategies must rely on methods other than feedback control while these sensors are not active. Without feedback control during this critical period, engine emissions performance is not optimized. These conditions cause difficulty in performing comprehensive cold-start experiments. For these reasons, we have developed several methods for feedback control during cold-start to aid in laboratory investigations of engine emissions phenomena.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
951070
Donghyeon Lee, Giorgio Rizzoni
In recent years considerable interest has been placed on the detection of engine misfire. As part of the California Air Resources Board on-board diagnostics regulations for 1994 model year vehicles, misfire should be monitored continuously by the engine diagnostic system. It is expected that the next generation of on-board diagnostics regulations will demand monitoring of partial misfire as well. Several solutions to the misfire detection problem have been proposed and demonstrated for the detection of complete misfires. However, the performance of these methods in the presence of partial misfire is not altogether clear. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of various misfire detection indices, all based on a measurement of crankshaft angular velocity, in the presence of partial misfire. The proposed algorithms are compared to a standard based on a measurement of indicated pressure.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960621
Ahmed Soliman, Giorgio Rizzoni, Vasanth Krishnaswami
A number of automotive diagnostic equipment and procedures have evolved over the last two decades, leading to two generations of on-board diagnostic requirements (OBDI and OBDII), increasing the number of components and systems to be monitored by the diagnostic tools. The goal of On-Board Diagnostic is to alert the driver to the presence of a malfunction of the emission control system, and to identify the location of the problem in order to assist mechanics in properly performing repairs. The aim of this paper is to suggest a methodology for the development of an Integrated Powertrain Diagnostic System (EPDS) that can combine the information supplied by conventional tailpipe inspection programs with onboard diagnostics to provide fast and reliable diagnosis of malfunctions.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960622
Piero Mario Azzoni, Davide Moro, Carlo Maria Porceddu-Cilione, Giorgio Rizzoni
The aim of this paper is to present the application of some signal processing and statistical analysis methods to the problem of detecting and isolating misfire occurrences in a twelve-cylinder high-performance engine. The method employed in this work is based on a measurement of engine angular velocity, processed in the frequency domain to extract a number of spectral components that are shown to be strongly affected by misfire events. These spectral components are then subject to a procedure known as Principal Components Analysis, in which the principal features of the angular speed waveform are extracted to generate individual cylinder misfire signatures. A clustering method is then implemented to permit the isolation of the cylinder responsible for the misfire. The paper briefly reviews the signal analysis method and presents experimental results supporting the validity of the approach.
1996-02-01
Technical Paper
960357
Enrico Ciulli, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jonathan Dawson
Three engine friction models of increasing complexity were developed in order to determine which type of model most effectively captured transient engine operation. Empirical constants for these models were determined through an optimization procedure using experimental data. These constants were then used with a simple dynamic model to produce overall simulations of the engine reciprocating and rotating dynamics. All three friction models appeared to provide useful results, however the two simpler models were much easier to implement. The most complex model presented some implementation problems, but promises to provide a more detailed picture of engine friction. The models were tested on a single cylinder research engine.
2005-11-01
Technical Paper
2005-01-3560
Nicholas Dembski, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman
A methodology has been developed to generate military vehicle driving cycles for use in vehicle simulation models. This methodology is based upon the mission profile for a vehicle, which is typically given within a vehicle's specifications and lists the types of terrains that the vehicle is likely to encounter. A simplistic vehicle powertrain and road load model and the Bekker vehicle-soil interaction model are used to estimate the vehicle performance over each type of terrain. Two types of driving cycles are generated within a Graphical User Interface developed within MATLAB using the results of the vehicle models: Linear modes driving cycles, and Real-world driving cycles.
2006-10-31
Technical Paper
2006-01-3498
Grant A. Malmedahl, Nicholas Dembski, Giorgio Rizzoni, Ahmed Soliman, Lorenzo Disarò
Highway and roadway surface measurement is a practice that has been ongoing for decades now. This sort of measurement is intended to ensure a safe level of road perturbances. The measurement may be conducted by a slow moving apparatus directly measuring the elevation of the road, at varying distance intervals, to obtain a road profile, with varying degrees of resolution. An alternate means is to measure the surface roughness at highway speeds using accelerometers coupled with high speed distance measurements, such as laser sensors. Vehicles out rigged with such a system are termed inertial profilers. This type of inertial measurement provides a sort of filtered roadway profile. Much research has been conducted on the analysis of highway roughness, and the associated metrics involved. In many instances, it is desirable to maintain an off-road course such that the course will provide sufficient challenges to a vehicle during durability testing.
2006-10-16
Technical Paper
2006-01-3260
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Gabriel Ursescu, Lorenzo Serrao, Giorgio Rizzoni, James Bechtel, Thomas Udvare, Michael Letherwood
This paper presents an all-wheel-drive (AWD) hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) design approach for extreme off-road applications. The paper focuses on the powertrain design, modeling, simulation, and performance analysis. Since this project focuses on a military-type application, the powertrain is designed to enhance crew survivability and provide several different modes of limp-home operation by utilizing a new vehicle topology -herein referred to as the island topology. This topology consists of designing the vehicle such that the powertrain and other equipment and subsystems surround the crew compartment to provide a high level of protection against munitions and other harmful ordnance. Thus, in the event of an external shield penetration, the crew compartment remains protected by the surrounding equipment - which serves as a secondary shield.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1338
Xi Wei, Giorgio Rizzoni
Fuel economy, performance and driveability are three important subjects for evaluating vehicle performance. Evaluations in both simulations and real vehicles prefer objective and quantitative measures. Subjective and descriptive metrics cannot be easily implemented in simulations, and these evaluations vary with changing time or evaluators. Fuel economy is usually estimated under various city, highway and some other user-defined driving cycles. Performance criteria consist of acceleration/deceleration performance, gradeability and towing capability. Driveability measures deal with pedal responsiveness, operating smoothness and driving comfort. This includes interior noise level, jerk and acceleration parameters. Numerical references and some interpretations of the above metrics are presented in this paper, as well as how these metrics can be used to evaluate vehicle powertrain design and control strategy development.
2003-11-10
Technical Paper
2003-01-3398
Ashley L. Dunn, Gary J. Heydinger, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther
Published NHTSA rulemaking plans propose significant reduction in the maximum stopping distance for loaded Class-VIII commercial vehicles. To attain that goal, higher torque brakes, such as air disc brakes, will appear on prime movers long before the trailer market sees significant penetration. Electronic control of the brakes on prime movers should also be expected due to their ability to significantly shorten stopping distances. The influence upon jackknife stability of having higher performance brakes on the prime mover, while keeping traditional pneumatically controlled s-cam drum brakes on the trailer, is discussed in this paper. A hybrid vehicle dynamics model was applied to investigate the jackknife stability of tractor-semitrailer rigs under several combinations of load, speed, surface coefficient, and ABS functionality.
2003-11-10
Technical Paper
2003-01-3380
Codrin-Gruie Cantemir, Chris Hubert, Giorgio Rizzoni, Gabriel Ursescu, Chris Yakes, Kaoru Yasuda
This paper presents the design and development of a high-power, high-speed “road train” (with both on- and off-road applications). The system looks to optimize both high-speed operation and low-speed, close-quarters driving with the introduction of autonomous power modules. Each trailer in the road train has it own electric traction system. When driving on open roads or in open areas, each traction system receives electric energy from the high-powered tractor. However, the individual traction systems allow for distributed tractive effort, improving upon the classic road train. Further, each module has its own independent steering system, allowing for practical implementation of longer trains. Use of longer trains in open areas allows for reduced operational costs, and increased efficiency. When mobility becomes a primary concern or zero emissions operation is needed, small power supplies can allow independent trailer operation.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1785
Ashley L. (Al) Dunn, Gary J. Heydinger, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1784
Ashley L. Dunn, Gary J. Heydinger, Giorgio Rizzoni, Dennis A. Guenther
This paper discusses the derivation and validation of planar models of articulated vehicles that were developed to analyze jackknife stability on low-μ surfaces. The equations of motion are rigorously derived using Lagrange's method, then linearized for use in state-space models. The models are verified using TruckSim™, a popular nonlinear solid body vehicle dynamics modeling package. The TruckSim™ models were previously verified using extensive on-vehicle experimental data [1, 2]. A three-axle articulated model is expanded to contain five axles to avoid lumping the parameters for the drive and semitrailer tandems. Compromises inherent in using the linearized models are discussed and evaluated. Finally, a nonlinear tire cornering force model is coupled with the 5-axle model, and its ability to simulate a jackknife event is demonstrated. The model is shown to be valid over a wide range of inputs, up to and including loss of control, on low-and-medium-μ surfaces.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1043
Grant Malmedahl, Steve Guba, Don Butler, Giorgio Rizzoni, Jim Shively, Ahmed Soliman
This paper reviews existing approaches to the estimation of the state of wear of an automotive damper, with the aim of developing a methodology for a quick and effective diagnostic procedure that could be carried out in any repair facility. It has always been desirable to leave the shock absorber in place at the time of such testing, and there are three general procedures that claim to be effective at determining damper wear. This research investigates a method of controlling a short drop of each corner of the vehicle while measuring the acceleration. The acceleration data is then analyzed with the aim of estimating the decay rate of the resulting oscillation, which is known to be related to the damping ratio of the suspension system. The rate of decay is then used to infer the condition of the vehicles damper. The paper reviews the state of the art, describes the methodology and presents experimental validation of a new concept.
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