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1990-09-01
Technical Paper
901715
Tor Larsson, Kjell ac Bergstrom, Terry Hinderman, Lars-Gustaf Hauptmann, Lars Wennstrom, Ingemar Denbratt, Neville Higgins
During 1990, the Volvo Car Corporation will Introduce a new In-line six-cylinder engine featuring three litre displacement, twin overhead camshafts and 24 valves, designated the B6304F. The engine has been designed and adapted for Volvo's top-of-the-line model 960, and it has been developed to meet the market's high demands on comfort, performance, reliability, economy and environmental friendliness. The engine has been designed and manufactured with the help of advanced CAE technology. The engine structure consists of five basic aluminium parts. This construction contributes to the low engine weight of 182 kg including auxiliary units, oil and wiring. The engine's gas flow has been optimized with the help of data simulation and laser measurement technology so as to ensure efficient utilization of energy. Fuel injection and ignition timing are regulated and controlled by an advanced electronic control system, the Bosch Motronic 1.8.
1991-02-01
Technical Paper
910478
O. Hadded, Ingemar Denbratt
An experimental investigation has been carried out of the turbulence characteristics of tumble air motion in four-valve pent roof combustion chambers. This was conducted on an optically accessed single cylinder research engine under motored conditions at an engine speed of 1500 rev/min. Four cylinder heads with varying tumble magnitude were evaluated using conventional and scanning Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) measurements. Analysis algorithms developed to account for the effects of mean flow cyclic variations and system noise were used to obtain unbiased estimates of turbulence intensity and integral length scales. The cylinder heads were also evaluated for combustion performance on a Ricardo single cylinder Hydra engine. Mixture and EGR loops at 1500 rev/min and 1.5 bar BMEP were carried out and cylinder pressure data was analysed to derive combustion characteristics.
1991-09-01
Technical Paper
911906
Tor Larsson, Kjell ac Bergstrom, Ake Bengtsson, John Petersson, Ingemar Denbratt
During 1991 Volvo Car Corporation has introduced the new Volvo 850 GLT model featuring front wheel drive with transverse installation of the engine and gearbox. The powertrain; consists of a new in-line five-cylinder engine in combination with a four speed electronically controlled automatic gearbox or a five speed manual gearbox. The engine features DOHC 20 valves, V-VIS (Volvo Variable Induction System), well tuned exhaust system and microprocessor controlled engine management systems. The engine was designed and developed as a new member of Volvo's modular engine family. The first member was the in-line six-cylinder engine B6304F [1] introduced in 1990. The modular engines have a large number of identical components and the major components are machined in common transfer lines which makes the manufacturing process highly rational and cost-effective.
2011-08-30
Technical Paper
2011-01-1889
Mats Andersson, Jonas Warnberg, Stina Hemdal, Petter Dahlander, Ingemar Denbratt
The evaporation of different fuels and fuel components in hollow-cone sprays at conditions similar to those at stratified cold start has been investigated using a combination of planar laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and Mie scattering. Ketones of different volatility were used as fluorescent tracers for different fuel components in gasoline-like model fuels and ethanol-based fuels. LIF and Mie images were compared to evaluate to what extent various fuel components had evaporated and obtained a spatial distribution different from that of the liquid drops, as a function of fuel temperature and time after start of injection. A selective and sequential evaporation of fuel components of different volatility was found.
2013-09-08
Technical Paper
2013-24-0087
Carlo Beatrice, Natale Rispoli, Gabriele Di Blasio, Giorgos Patrianakos, Margaritis Kostoglou, Athanasios Konstandopoulos, Abdurrahman Imren, Ingemar Denbratt, Roberto Palacin
The EU emission standards for new rail Diesel engines are becoming even more stringent. EGR and SCR technologies can both be used to reduce NOx emissions; however, the use of EGR is usually accompanied by an increase in PM emissions and may require a DPF. On the other hand, the use of SCR requires on-board storage of urea. Thus, it is necessary to study these trade-offs in order to understand how these technologies can best be used in rail applications to meet new emission standards. The present study assesses the application of these technologies in Diesel railcars on a quantitative basis using one and three dimensional numerical simulation tools. In particular, the study considers a 560 kW railcar engine with the use of either EGR or SCR based solutions for NOx reduction. The NOx and PM emissions performances are evaluated over the C1 homologation cycle.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-046
Tobias Husberg, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt, Johan Engström
This study aims to show how both NOx and soot are affected by EGR dilution when constant, as well as variations in equivalence ratio is applied together with multiple injection strategies. Experiments were conducted in a single cylinder heavy duty research engine. The effects of both EGR and equivalence ratio on partly premixed combustion were investigated. Multiple injections strategies were combined with high EGR levels and lean mixtures. Multiple injections were used to control the combustion phasing and the level of the premixed combustion rate. The diesel combustion conditioning by means of premixed combustion rate, EGR level and oxidant equivalence ratio, leads to low engine emissions. In the load range and configuration tested, emission levels below future emission standards e.g. EURO V have been shown, with no BSFC penalty or exhaust aftertreatment.
2005-09-11
Technical Paper
2005-24-039
Andreas Berntsson, Ingemar Denbratt
Future requirements for emission reduction from combustion engines in ground vehicles might be met by using the HCCI combustion concept. In this concept a more or less homogenous air fuel mixture is compressed to auto ignition. This gives good fuel consumption compared to a normal SI engine and its ability to burn lean mixtures at low temperatures has a positive impact on exhaust emissions. However, there are challenges associated with this concept, for instance its limited operating range and combustion control. The objective of this work is to investigate a hybrid concept, based on a combination of HCCI combustion of n-heptane and SI combustion of hydrogen. The basic idea is to initiate HCCI combustion with a spark ignited stratified lean hydrogen mixture. To verify that the combustion sequence consists of flame front combustion followed by HCCI combustion, photographs of OH chemiluminescence from the combustion were taken.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1646
Tobias Husberg, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt, Alaa Omrane, Marcus Aldén, Johan Engström
Piston temperature experiments were conducted in a single-cylinder heavy-duty Diesel research engine, based on the Volvo Powertrain D12C engine both by use of optical temperature sensitive phosphor and of thermocouples mounted on the piston surface. In the former case, a thin coating of a suitable thermographic phosphor was applied to the areas on the piston surface to be investigated. The optical measurements of piston temperatures made involved use of an optical window and of an endoscope. The possibility of using optical fibres into guide light in and out of the engine was also investigated. Results of the optical and of the thermocouple measurements were compared and were also related to more global data with the aim of exploring the use of thermographic phosphors for piston- temperature measurements in Diesel engines. Thermographic phosphors thermometry was found to represent an alternative to the thermocouple method since it easily can be applied to various piston geometries.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0029
Arjan Helmantel, Ingemar Denbratt
One of the problems encountered when operating Diesel engines in HCCI mode is a too early start of combustion, due to the low ignition resistance of Diesel fuels. Correct phasing of the combustion process requires a lower in-cylinder temperature during compression. One possibility of regulating the temperature is to adjust the intake valve closing timing and thus the effective compression ratio. A single cylinder research engine, configured as a passenger car type DI Common Rail Diesel engine, was fitted with a fully adjustable hydraulic valve train, which allowed free settings of the valve timing events. Premixed combustion was achieved by injecting the fuel during the compression stroke, prior to ignition, in multiple steps. Different combinations of intake valve closing timing and external EGR were tested as well as the possibility to use internal EGR for combustion control.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0075
Malin Alriksson, Ingemar Denbratt
The possibilities for extending the range of engine loads in which soot and NOx emissions can be minimised by using low temperature combustion in conjunction with high levels of EGR was investigated in a series of experiments with a single cylinder research engine. The results show that very low levels of both soot and NOx emissions can be achieved at engine loads up to 50 % by reducing the compression ratio to 14 and applying high levels of EGR (up to approximately 60 %). Unfortunately, the low temperature combustion is accompanied by increases in fuel consumption and emissions of both HC and CO. However, these drawbacks can be reduced by advancing the injection timing. The research engine was a 2 litre direct injected (DI), supercharged, heavy duty, single cylinder diesel engine with a geometry based on Volvo's 12 litre engine, and the amount of EGR was increased by adjusting the exhaust back pressure while keeping the charge air pressure constant.
2015-04-14
Journal Article
2015-01-0838
Zhiqin Jia, Ingemar Denbratt
Abstract Studies have shown that premixed combustion concepts such as PCCI and RCCI can achieve high efficiencies while maintaining low NOx and soot emissions. The RCCI (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) concept use blending port-injected high-octane fuel with early direct injected high-cetane fuel to control auto-ignition. This paper describes studies on RCCI combustion using CNG and diesel as the high-octane and high-cetane fuels, respectively. The test was conducted on a heavy-duty single cylinder engine. The influence of injection timing and duration of the diesel injections was examined at 9 bar BMEP and1200 rpm. In addition, experiments were conducted using two different compression ratios, (14 and 17) with different loads and engine speeds. Results show both low NOx and almost zero soot emissions can be achieved but at the expense of increasing of unburned hydrocarbon emissions which could potentially be removed by catalytic after-treatment.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2695
Xiaoqi Cui, Arjan Helmantel, Valeri Golovichev, Ingemar Denbratt
The purpose of the investigation presented here was to compare the effects of fuel composition on combustion parameters, emissions and fuel consumption in engine tests and simulations with five fuels: a Diesel-water emulsion, a Diesel-ethanol blend, a Diesel-ethanol blend with EHN (cetane number improver), a Fischer-Tropsch Diesel and an ultra-low sulfur content Diesel. The engine used in the experiments was a light duty, single cylinder, direct injection, common rail Diesel engine equipped with a cylinder head and piston from a Volvo NED5 engine. In tests with each fuel the engine was operated at two load points (3 bar IMEP and 10 bar IMEP), and a pilot-main fuel injection strategy was applied under both load conditions. Data were also obtained from 3-D CFD simulations, using the KIVA code, to compare to the experimental results and to further analyze the effects of water and ethanol on combustion.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2813
Jan Eismark, Michael Balthasar, Anders Karlsson, Timothy Benham, Magnus Christensen, Ingemar Denbratt
Soot formation and oxidation are complex and competing processes during diesel combustion. The balance between the two processes and their history determines engine-out soot values. Besides the efforts to lower soot formation with measures to influence the flame lift-off distance for example or to use HCCI-combustion, enhancement of late soot oxidation is of equal importance for low-λ diffusion-controlled low emissions combustion with EGR. The purpose of this study is to investigate soot oxidation in a heavy duty diesel engine by statistical analysis of engine data and in-cylinder endoscopic high speed photography together with CFD simulations with a main focus on large scale in-cylinder gas motion. Results from CFD simulations using a detailed soot model were used to reveal details about the soot oxidation.
2009-11-02
Journal Article
2009-01-2815
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
When increasing EGR from low levels to a level that corresponds to low temperature combustion, soot emissions initially increase due to lower soot oxidation before decreasing to almost zero due to very low soot formation. At the EGR level where soot emissions start to increase, the NOx emissions are low, but not sufficiently low to comply with future emission standards and at the EGR level where low temperature combustion occurs CO and HC emissions are too high. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibilities for shifting the so-called soot bump (where soot levels are increased) to higher EGR levels, or to reduce the magnitude of the soot bump using very high injection pressures (up to 240 MPa) while reducing the NOx emissions using EGR. The possibility of reducing the CO and HC emissions at high EGR levels due to the increased mixing caused by higher injection pressure was also investigated and the flame was visualized using an endoscope at chosen EGR values.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-01-2787
Monica AC Johansson, Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
It has been previously shown that engine-out soot emissions can be reduced by using Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuels, due to their lack of aromatics, compared to conventional Diesel fuels. In this investigation the engine-out emissions and fuel consumption parameters of an FT fuel derived from natural gas were compared to those of Swedish low sulfur diesel (MK1) when used in Low Temperature Combustion mode in a single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine. The effects of varying Needle Opening Pressure (NOP), Charge Air Pressure (CAP) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) according to an experimental design on the measured variables were also assessed. CAP and EGR were found to be the most significant factors for the combustion and emission parameters of both fuels. Increases in CAP resulted in lower soot emissions due to enhanced charge mixing, however NOx emissions rose as CAP increased.
2012-09-10
Technical Paper
2012-01-1719
Malin Ehleskog, Savo Gjirja, Ingemar Denbratt
In order to avoid the high CO and HC emissions associated with low temperature when using high levels of EGR, partially premixed combustion is an interesting possibility. One way to achieve this combustion mode is to increase the ignition delay by adjusting the inlet valve closing timing, and thus the effective compression ratio. The purpose of this study was to investigate experimentally the possibilities of using late and early inlet valve closure to reduce NOx emissions without increasing emissions of soot or unburned hydrocarbons, or fuel consumption. The effect of increasing the swirl number (from 0.2 to 2.5) was also investigated. The combustion timing (CA50) was kept constant by adjusting the start of injection and the possibilities of optimizing combustion using EGR and high injection pressures were investigated. Furthermore, the airflow was kept constant for a given EGR level.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0254
Jonas Warnberg, Marius Boehmer, Ingemar Denbratt
A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
2012-04-16
Journal Article
2012-01-1108
Daniel Dahl, Ingemar Denbratt
The development of high efficiency powertrains is a key objective for car manufacturers. One approach for improving the efficiency of gasoline engines is based on homogeneous charge compression ignition, HCCI, which provides higher efficiency than conventional strategies. However, HCCI is only currently viable at relatively low loads, primarily because at high loads it involves rapid combustion that generates pressure oscillations in the cylinder (ringing), and partly because it gives rise to relatively high NOX emissions. This paper describes studies aimed at increasing the viability of HCCI combustion at higher loads by using fully flexible valve trains, direct injection with charge stratification (SCCI), and intake air boosting. These approaches were complemented by using EGR to control NOX emissions by stoichiometric operation, which enables the use of a three-way catalyst.
2012-04-16
Technical Paper
2012-01-0156
Henrik Salsing, Valeri Golovitchev, Ingemar Denbratt
When using dimethyl ether (DME) to fuel diesel engines at high load and speed, applying high amounts of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) to limit NOX emissions, carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are generally high. To address this issue, the combustion and emission processes in such engines were analyzed with the three-dimensional CFD KIVA3V code. The combustion sub-mechanism (76 species and 375 reactions) was validated by comparing simulated ignition delays and flame velocities to reference data under diesel-like and atmospheric conditions, respectively. In addition, simulated and experimentally determined rate of heat release (RoHR) curves and emission data were compared for a heavy-duty single-cylinder DME engine (displaced volume, 2.02 liters) with DME-adapted piston and nozzle geometries. The simulated RoHR curves captured the main features of the experimentally measured curves, but deviated in the premixed (higher peak) and late combustion phases (too high).
1997-05-01
Technical Paper
971669
Joakim Bood, Per-Erik Bengtsson, Fabian Mauss, Klaas Burgdorf, Ingemar Denbratt
Cycle-resolved end-gas temperatures were measured using dual-broadband rotational CARS in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine. Simultaneous cylinder pressure measurements were used as an indicator for knock and as input data to numerical calculations. The chemical processes in the end-gas have been analysed with a detailed kinetic mechanism for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane at different Research Octane Numbers (RON'S). The end-gas is modelled as a homogeneous reactor that is compressed or expanded by the piston movement and the flame propagation in the cylinder. The calculated temperatures are in agreement with the temperatures evaluated from CARS measurements. It is found that calculations with different RON'S of the fuel lead to different levels of radical concentrations in the end-gas. The apperance of the first stage of the autoignition process is marginally influenced by the RON, while the ignition delay of the second stage is increased with increasing RON.
1994-03-01
Technical Paper
940482
J. Stokes, T. H. Lake, M. J. Christie, Ingemar Denbratt
A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) in order to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a single cylinder manifold injected pent-roof four-valve gasoline engine. This system has been given the generic name Combustion Control by Vortex Stratification (CCVS). Preliminary research has shown that greatly improved fuel consumption is achievable at stoichiometric conditions compared to a conventional version of the same engine whilst retaining ULEV NOx levels. Simultaneously the combustion system has shown inherently low HC emissions compared to homogeneous EGR engines. A production viable variable air motion system has also been assessed which increases the effectiveness of the stratification whilst allowing full load refinement and retaining high performance.
1995-02-01
Technical Paper
950165
T. H. Lake, J. Stokes, K. J. Pendlebury, Ingemar Denbratt
A system for stratifying recycled exhaust gas (EGR) to substantially increase dilution tolerance has been applied to a multi-cylinder port injected four-valve gasoline engine. This system, dubbed Combustion Control through Vortex Stratification (CCVS), has shown greatly improved fuel consumption at stoichiometric conditions whilst retaining ULEV compatible engine-out NOx and HC emission levels. A production feasible variable air motion system has also been assessed which enables stratification at part load with no loss of performance or refinement at full load.
1995-10-01
Technical Paper
952483
Göran Almkvist, Ingemar Denbratt, Göran Josefsson, Ingemar Magnusson
Fuel wetting in the inlet port of a gasoline engine was studied using Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF). The measurements were done directly on the metal wall surface. Quantitative results were be obtained using a special calibration procedure. The sensitivity of the technique was found to correspond to a fuel layer thickness in the order of 1 μm, and the accuracy was estimated to be approx. 10 %. The engine was run on iso-octane, and in order to obtain fluorescence a dopant (3-pentanone) was added to the fuel. Laser light with a wave length of 266 nm was generated by frequency doubling the light from a Nd-YAG laser in two steps. A laser sheet was directed into the intake port and the fuel layer on the wall could be studied along a line on the bifurcation wall. The fluorescence light was detected with an intensified diode-array camera. The measurements from the fuel film thickness were compared with measurements of the total fuel film mass using an A/F response method.
1996-05-01
Technical Paper
961152
Karin Holmström, Ingemar Denbratt
This paper reports an investigation of the association between flame kernel movement and cyclic variability and assesses the relative importance of this phenomenon, with all other parameters that show a cyclic variability held constant. The flame is assumed to be subjected to a “random walk” by the fluctuating velocity component of the flow field as long as it is of the order of or smaller than the integral scale. However, the mean velocity also imposes prefered convection directions on the flame kernel motion. Two-point LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) measurements of mean velocity, turbulence intensity and integral length scale are used as input data to the simulations. A quasi-dimensional computer code with a moving flame center position is used to simulate the influence of these two components on the performance of an S I engine with a tumble-based combustion system.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982475
Klaas Burgdorf, Ingemar Denbratt
Combustion information from three combustion chamber geometries was analyzed: Pancake and horseshoe geometry on a single-cylinder research engine, and pentroof geometry in a turbocharged four-cylinder production engine. Four different fuels were used. In the horseshoe configuration, the cylinder pressure traces from the burnt gas and from the end-gas pocket were evaluated. It is shown that the characteristics of knock are to a large degree a function of the combustion chamber geometry and that they are influenced strongly by the transducer position. It is shown for pentroof geometry that the number of cycles required to properly describe the knock population is a function of the knock intensity. A large error potential is shown for samples smaller than about 100 - 200 consecutive cycles. Good agreement between knock description based on accelerometer data and based on pressure data was found.
1998-10-19
Technical Paper
982701
Håkan Sandquist, Ingemar Denbratt, Åsa Ingemarsson, Jim Olsson
The purpose of this work was to investigate the influence of fuel parameters on emissions, combustion and cycle to cycle IMEP variations in a single cylinder version of a commercial direct injection stratified charge (DISC) spark ignition engine. The emission measurements employed both conventional emission measurement equipment as well as on-line gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Four different fuels were compared in the study. The fuel parameters that were studied were distillation range and MTBE (Methyl Tert Buthyl Ether) content. A European certification gasoline fuel was used as a reference. The three other fuels contained 10% MTBE. The measurements were performed at a low engine speed and at a low, constant load. The engine was operated in stratified mode. The start of injection was altered 15 crankangle degrees before and after series calibration with fixed ignition timing in order to vary mixture preparation time.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0449
Jakob Fredriksson, Miriam Bergman, Valeri I. Golovitchev, Ingemar Denbratt
In this study, the effects of varying the start of injection in a Free Piston Engine (FPE) have been investigated, using the KIVA-3V CFD code. In order to simulate the FPE the code has been modified by replacing the conventional crank shaft controlled piston motion by a piston motion profile calculated using a MATLAB/SIMULINK model. In this model, the piston motion is controlled by Newton's second law and the combustion process is represented by a simplified model based on ignition delay integrals and Wiebe functions. The results were tuned using predictions from the SENKIN software which are based on the detailed chemical kinetics mechanism of a Diesel oil surrogate represented by a blend of the main aliphatic (70% n-heptane) and aromatic (30% toluene) components. In order to help analyze the emission formation resulting from the HCCI/PPCI combustion modes in the engine, a special approach based on the temperature-equivalence ratio maps has been developed.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0030
Monica Larsson, Ingemar Denbratt
Experiments were performed using a Light-Duty, single-cylinder, research engine in which the emissions, fuel consumption and combustion characteristics of two Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) Diesel fuels derived from natural gas and two conventional Diesel fuels (Swedish low sulfur Diesel and European EN 590 Diesel) were compared. Due to their low aromatic contents combustion with the F-T Diesel fuels resulted in lower soot emissions than combustion with the conventional Diesel fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were also significantly lower with F-T fuel combustion. Moreover the F-T fuels tended to yield lower CO emissions than the conventional Diesel fuels. The low emissions from the F-T Diesel fuels, and the potential for producing such fuels from biomass, are powerful reason for future interest and research in this field.
2007-01-23
Technical Paper
2007-01-0009
Martin Larsson, Ingemar Denbratt, Lucien Koopmans
Ion current sensors have high potential utility for obtaining feedback signals directly from the combustion chamber in internal combustion engines. This paper describes experiments performed in a single-cylinder optical engine operated in HCCI mode with negative valve overlap to explore this potential. A high-speed CCD camera was used to visualize the combustion progress in the cylinder, and the photographs obtained were compared with the ion current signals. The optical data indicate that the ions responsible for the chemiluminescence from the HCCI combustion have to be in contact with the sensing electrode for an ion current to start flowing through the measurement circuit. This also means that there will be an offset between the time at which 50% of the fuel mass has burned and 50% of the ion current peak value is reached, which is readily explained by the results presented in the paper.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0210
Andreas W. Berntsson, Ingemar Denbratt
This work evaluates the effect of charge stratification on combustion phasing, rate of heat release and emissions for HCCI combustion. Engine experiments in both optical and traditional single cylinder engines were carried out with PRF50 as fuel. The amount of stratification as well as injection timing of the stratified charge was varied. It was found that a stratified charge can influence combustion phasing, increasing the stratification amount or late injection timing of the stratified charge leads to an advanced CA50 timing. The NOx emissions follows the CA50 advancement, advanced CA50 timing leads to higher NOx emissions. Correlation between CA50 can also be seen for HC and CO emissions when the injection timing was varied, late injection and thereby advanced CA50 timing leads to both lower HC and CO emissions.
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