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Viewing 1 to 30 of 32
2009-06-09
Journal Article
2009-01-2301
Rajeev Penmatsa, Rajankumar Bhatt, Kimberly Farrell, Brent Rochambeau, Carl Fruehan, Uday Verma, Steven Beck, Karim Abdel-Malek
This paper describes an effective integrated method for estimation of subject-specific mass, inertia tensor, and center of mass of individual body segments of a digital avatar for use with physics-based digital human modeling simulation environment. One of the main goals of digital human modeling and simulation environments is that a user should be able to change the avatar (from male to female to a child) at any given time. The user should also be able to change the various link dimensions, like lengths of upper and lower arms, lengths of upper and lower legs, etc. These customizations in digital avatar's geometry change the kinematic and dynamic properties of various segments of its body. Hence, the mass and center of mass/inertia data of the segments must be updated before simulating physics-based realistic motions. Most of the current methods use mass and inertia properties calculated from a set of regression equations based on average of some population.
2009-06-09
Technical Paper
2009-01-2305
Ross Johnson, Brian Lewis Smith, Rajeev Penmatsa, Tim Marler, Karim Abdel-Malek
Collision avoidance in digital human modeling is critical for design and analysis, especially when there is interaction between the avatar and his/her environment. This paper describes a new algorithm for obstacle avoidance with optimization-based posture prediction. This new approach is motivated by a need for decreased computational time and increased fidelity for modeling and analysis of collision avoidance tasks. Posture prediction is run in an iterative loop while conducting collision detection to dynamically update collision avoidance constraints. It is shown that this approach is substantially faster than the basic method involving a fixed number of sphere-based avoidance constraints with a single optimization/posture-prediction run. The method is demonstrated using an upper-body virtual human model in a cab setting.
2009-06-09
Technical Paper
2009-01-2306
Faisal Goussous, Rajankumar Bhatt, Soura Dasgupta, Karim Abdel-Malek
This paper describes a novel model-based controller designed to simulate human motion in dynamic virtual environments. The controller was tested on SantosTM, the digital human developed at the Virtual Soldier Research Program at the University of Iowa. A planar 3-degrees-of-freedom model of the human arm was used to test the hypothesis. The controller was used to predict on line, optimal torques required to move the end effector towards a target point. The control law was implemented using classical gradient-based optimization and the recently developed technique of model predictive control (MPC). An advantage of MPC is that it replaces intractable closed loop optimization problems with more easily implementable open loop problems. The controller was used to produce physically consistent simulations of the motion of a human arm in a virtual environment in the presence of external disturbances that were not known in advance.
2006-07-04
Technical Paper
2006-01-2326
Jingzhou Yang, Esteban Pena Pitarch, Joo Kim, Karim Abdel-Malek
Human hands are the bridge between humans and the objects to be manipulated or grasped both in the real and virtual world. Hands are used to grasp or manipulate objects and one of the most important functionalities is to position the fingers, i.e., given the position of the fingertip and to determine the joint angles. Last year we presented a 25-degree of freedom (DOF) hand model that has palm arch functionality. In this paper we preset an optimization-based inverse kinematics approach to position this 25 DOF hand locally with respect to the wrist instead of the traditional Moore-Penrose pseudo-inverse and experiment methods. The hypothesis is that human performance measures govern the configuration and motion of the hand. We also propose contact force and joint torque prediction.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2686
Kimberly Farrell, Timothy Marler, Karim Abdel-Malek
In the field of human modeling, there is an increasing demand for predicting human postures in real time. However, there has been minimal progress with methods that can incorporate multiple limbs with shared degrees of freedom (DOFs). This paper presents an optimization-based approach for predicting postures that involve dual-arm coordination with shared DOFs, and applies this method to a 30-DOF human model. Comparisons to motion capture data provide experimental validation for these examples. We show that this optimization-based approach allows dual-arm coordination with minimal computational cost. This new approach also easily extends to models with a higher number of DOFs and additional end-effectors.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2680
R. Timothy Marler, Salam Rahmatalla, Meagan Shanahan, Karim Abdel-Malek
Using multi-objective optimization, we develop a new human performance measure for direct optimizationbased posture prediction that incorporates three key factors associated with musculoskeletal discomfort: 1) the tendency to move different segments of the body sequentially, 2) the tendency to gravitate to a comfortable neutral position, and 3) the discomfort associated with moving while joints are near their respective limits. This performance measure operates in real-time and provides realistic postures. The results are viewed using Santos™, an advanced virtual human, and they are validated using motion-capture. This research lays groundwork for studying how and why humans move as they do.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2717
Joo H. Kim, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jingzhou Yang, Kimberly Farrell, Kyle Nebel
This paper presents an optimization-based algorithm for simulating the dynamic motion of a digital human. We also formulate the metabolic energy expenditure during the motion, which is calculated within our algorithm. This algorithm is implemented and applied to Santos™, an avatar developed at The University of Iowa. Santos™ is a part of a virtual environment for conducting digital human analysis consisting of posture prediction, motion prediction, and physiology studies. This paper demonstrates our dynamic motion algorithm within the Santos™ virtual environment. Mathematical evaluations of human performance are essential to any effort to compare various ergonomic designs. In fact, the human factors design process can be formulated as an optimization problem that maximizes human performance. In particular, an optimal design must be found while taking into consideration the effects of different motions and hand loads corresponding to a number of tasks.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2739
Tariq Sinokrot, Jingzhou Yang, Rebecca Fetter, Karim Abdel-Malek
Workspace is an important function for human factors analysis and is widely applied in product design, manufacturing, and ergonomics evaluations. This paper presents the workspace analysis and visualization for Santos™ upper extremity, a new virtual human with over 100 DOFs that is highly realistic in terms of appearance, behavior, and movement. Jacobian Rank deficiency method is implemented to determine the singular surfaces. The joint limits are considered in this formulation; three types of singularities are analyzed. This closed-form formulation can be extended to numerous different scenarios such as different percentiles, age groups, or segments of body. A realtime scheme is used to build the workspace library for Santos™ that will study the boundary surfaces off-line and apply them to Santos™ in the virtual environment (Virtools®). To visualize the workspace, we develop a user interface to generate the cross section of the reach envelope with a plane.
2005-06-14
Technical Paper
2005-01-2727
Esteban Peña Pitarch, Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek
This paper presents a SANTOS™ 25 degree-of-freedom (DOF) hand model and the forward and inverse kinematic analysis. The Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) method is used to define the position of the end- effector (fingertip). In the SANTOS™ hand model each finger has different constraints and movements (e.g., the middle finger in distal Interphalangeal (DIP) joint can move in Flexion/Extension (F/E) with a range 0–100 degrees, and the thumb in interphalangeal (IP) joint can rotate in F/E with arrange of 15H/80). Including hand model SANTOS™ has over 100 DOFs and the forward and inverse kinematics have been studied. Optimization-based dynamic motion prediction will be used to consider different gestures for hand grasping.
2007-04-16
Technical Paper
2007-01-0465
Jingzhou Yang, Xiaolin Man, Yujiang Xiang, Hyun-Joo Kim, Amos Patrick, Colby Swan, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jasbir Arora
This paper presents newly developed capabilities for the virtual human Santos™. Santos is an avatar that has extensive modeling and simulation features. It is a digital human with 109 degrees of freedom (DOF), an optimization-based method, predictive dynamics, and realistic human appearance. The new capabilities include (1) significant progress in predictive dynamics (walking and running), (2) advanced clothing modeling and simulation, (3) muscle wrapping and sliding, and (4) hand biomechanics. With these newly developed functionalities, Santos can simulate various dynamic tasks such as walking and running, investigate clothing restrictions to motion such as joint limits and torques, simulate the musculoskeletal system in real time, predict hand injury by monitoring the joint torques, and facilitate vehicle interior design. Finally, additional on-going projects are summarized.
2004-06-15
Technical Paper
2004-01-2199
Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek, Kyle Nebel
Design and packaging of automotive interiors and airplane cockpits has become a science in itself, particularly in recent years where safety is paramount. There are various methods for restraining operators in their seats, including fitting an operator, such as a race car driver or pilot, with two seat belts, one for each side of the body, a three point restraining system as in commercial vehicles, and a lap belt as in some trucks and other types of vehicles. Moreover, significant experimental efforts have been made to study driver reach and barriers since they directly affect performance and safety. This paper presents a rigorous formulation for addressing the reach envelope and barriers therein of a 3-point restrained driver compared with a lap-belt-restrained driver. The formulation is based on a kinematic model of the driver, which characterizes the upper body and arm as 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) for an unrestrained and 4DOF for a 3-point restrained driver.
2004-06-15
Technical Paper
2004-01-2172
Zan Mi, Kim Farrell, Karim Abdel-Malek
A general methodology and associated computational algorithm for predicting realistic postures of digital humans (mannequins) in a virtual environment is presented. The basic plot for this effort is a task-based approach, where we believe that humans assume different postures for different tasks. The underlying problem is characterized by the calculation (or prediction) of the joint displacements of the human body in such a way to accomplish a specified task. In this work, we have not limited the number of degrees of freedom associated with the model. Each task has been defined by a number of human performance measures that are mathematically represented by cost functions that evaluate to a real number. Cost functions are then optimized, i.e., minimized or maximized subject to a number of constraints. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective optimization algorithm where one or more cost functions are considered as objective functions that drive the model to a solution.
2004-06-15
Technical Paper
2004-01-2175
Joo H. Kim, Karim Abdel-Malek, Zan Mi, Kyle Nebel
An optimization-based method for layout design (also called equipment layout) is presented that is based upon kinetic functions also introduced in this paper. The layout problem is defined by the method whereby positions of target points are specified in the environment surrounding a human. The problem is of importance to ergonomists, vehicle/cockpit packaging engineers, designers of manufacturing assembly lines, and designers concerned with the placement of lever, knobs, and controls in the reachable workspace of a human, but also to users of digital human modeling code, where digital prototyping has become a valuable tool. The method comprises kinematically-driven constraints for reaching the target points and for satisfying the joint ranges of motion. The algorithm is driven by a cost function (also called objective function) that is kinetic in nature to minimize approximate energy consumption and visual discomfort.
2008-04-14
Technical Paper
2008-01-0772
Jingzhou Yang, Uday Verma, Rajeev Penmatsa, Timothy Marler, Steve Beck, Salam Rahmatalla, Karim Abdel-Malek, Chad Harrison
Over the past several years, significant advances have been made in the area of posture prediction. However, to make simulations more useful for vehicle design, additional unique tools are needed. This research focuses on the development of one such tool, called zone differentiation. This new tool allows user to visualize not only the complete reach envelope but also the interior comfort levels of the envelope. It uses a color map to display the relative values of various performance measures (i.e. comfort) at points surrounding an avatar. This is done by leveraging an optimization-based approach to posture prediction. Using this tool, a vehicle designer can visually display the impact that the placement of a control (switch, button, etc.) has on a driver's postural comfort. The comfort values are displayed in a manner similar to how a finite element analysis (FEA) programs display stress and strain results. The development of this tool requires two main components.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2467
Timothy Marler, Jingzhou Yang, Salam Rahmatalla, Karim Abdel-Malek, Chad Harrison
As predictive capabilities advance and human-model fidelity increases, so must validation of such predictions and models. However, subjective validation is sufficient only as an initial indicator; thorough, systematic studies must be conducted as well. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to validate postures that are determined using single-objective optimization (SOO) and multi-objective optimization (MOO), as applied to the virtual human Santos™. In addition, a general methodology and tools for posture-prediction validation are presented. We find that using MOO provides improvement over SOO, and the results are realistic from both a subjective and objective perspective.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0696
Jingzhou Yang, Tariq Sinokrot, Karim Abdel-Malek, Kyle Nebel
Human performance measures such as discomfort and joint displacement play an important role in product design. The virtual human Santos™, a new generation of virtual humans developed at the University of Iowa, goes directly to the CAD model to evaluate a design, saving time and money. This paper presents an optimization-based workspace zone differentiation and visualization. Around the workspace of virtual humans, a volume is discretized to small zones and the posture prediction on each central point of the zone will determine whether the points are outside the workspace as well as the values of different objective functions. Visualization of zone differentiation is accomplished by showing different colors based on values of human performance measures on points that are located inside the workspace. The proposed method can subsequently help ergonomic design.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1922
Brent Rochambeau, Timothy Marler, Anith Mathai, Karim Abdel-Malek
Inverse Kinematics on a human model combined with optimization provides a powerful tool to predict realistic human postures. A human posture prediction tool brings up the need for greater flexibility for the user, as well as efficient computation performance. This paper demonstrates new methods that were developed for the application of digital human simulation as a software package by allowing for any number of user specified end-effectors and increasing communication efficiency for posture prediction. The posture prediction package for the digital human, Santos™, uses optimization constrained by end-effectors on the body with targets in the environment, along with variable cost functions that are minimized, to solve for all joint angles in a human body. This results in realistic human postures which can be used to create optimal designs for things that humans can physically interact with.
2008-06-17
Journal Article
2008-01-1932
Joo H. Kim, Yujiang Xiang, Rajan Bhatt, Jingzhou Yang, Hyun-Joon Chung, Amos Patrick, Anith J. Mathai, Jasbir S. Arora, Karim Abdel-Malek, John P. Obusek
We propose an algorithm of predicting dynamic biped motions of Santos™ human model. An alternative and efficient formulation of the Zero-Moment Point (ZMP) for dynamic balance and the approximated ground reaction forces/moments are derived from the resultant reaction loads, which includes the gravity, the externally applied loads, and the inertia. The optimization problem is formulated to address the redundancy of the human task, where the general biped and the task-specific constraints are imposed depending on the task requirements. The proposed method is fully predictive and generates physically feasible human-like motions from scratch without any input reference from motion capture or animation. The resulting generated motions demonstrate how a human reacts effectively to different external load conditions in performing a given task by showing realistic features of cause and effect.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1930
Yujiang Xiang, Salam Rahmatalla, Hyun-Joon Chung, Joo Kim, Rajankumar Bhatt, Anith Mathai, Steve Beck, Timothy Marler, Jingzhou Yang, Jasbir S. Arora, Karim Abdel-Malek, John P. Obusek
In this study, an optimization-based approach for simulating the lifting motion of a three dimensional digital human model is presented. Lifting motion is generated by minimizing a performance measure subjected to basic physical and kinematical constraints. Two performance measures are investigated: one is the dynamic effort; the other is the compression and shear forces on the lumbar joint. The lifting strategies are predicted with different performance measures. The joint strength (torque limit) and the compression and shear force on lumbar joint are also addressed in this study to avoid injury during lifting motion.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1931
Rajankumar Bhatt, Yujiang Xiang, Joo Kim, Anith Mathai, Rajeev Penmatsa, Hyun-Joon Chung, Hyun-Jung Kwon, Amos Patrick, Salam Rahmatalla, Timothy Marler, Steve Beck, Jingzhou Yang, Jasbir Arora, Karim Abdel-Malek, John P. Obusek
The objective of this paper is to present our method of predicting and simulating visually realistic and dynamically consistent human stair-climbing motion. The digital human is modeled as a 55-degrees of freedom branched mechanical system with associated human anthropometry-based link lengths, mass moments of inertia, and centers of gravity. The joint angle profiles are determined using a B-spline-based parametric optimization technique subject to different physics-based, task-based, and environment-based constraints. The formulation offers the ability to study effects of the magnitude and location of external forces on the resulting joint angle profiles and joint torque profiles. Several virtual experiments are conducted using this optimization-based approach and results are presented.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1855
Salam Rahmatalla, Yujiang Xiang, Rosalind Smith, Jinzheng Li, John Muesch, Rajan Bhatt, Colby Swan, Jasbir S. Arora, Karim Abdel-Malek
A framework to validate the predicted motion of a computer human model (Santos) is presented in this work. The proposed validation framework is a task-based methodology. It depends on the comparison of selected motion determinants and joint angles that play major roles in the task, using qualitative and quantitative statistical techniques. In the present work, the validation of Santos walking will be presented. Fortunately, the determinants for normal walking are well defined in the literature and can be represented by (i) hip flexion/extension, (ii) knee flexion/extension, (iii) ankle plantar/dorsiflexion, (iv) pelvic tilt, (v) pelvic rotation, and (vi) lateral pelvic displacement. While Santos is an ongoing research project, the results have shown significant qualitative agreements between the walking determinants of Santos and the walking determinants of four normal subjects.
2008-06-17
Journal Article
2008-01-1875
Brian Lewis Smith, Tim Marler, Karim Abdel-Malek
Using optimization to predict human posture provides a unique means of studying how and why people move. In a formulation where joint angles are determined in order to minimize a human performance measure subject to various constraints, the general question of when to model components as objective functions and when to model them as constraints has not been addressed thoroughly. We suggest that human performance measures, which act as objective functions, model what drives human posture, whereas constraints provide boundary conditions that restrict the scope of the model. This applied research study tests this hypothesis and concurrently evaluates how vision affects the prediction and assessment of upper-body posture. Single-objective and multi-objective optimization formulations for posture prediction are used with a 35 degree-of-freedom upper-body model of a virtual human called SantosTM.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1871
Xuemei Feng, Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek
The human shoulder plays an important role in human posture and motion, especially in scenarios in which humans need achieve tasks with external loads. The shoulder complex model is critical in digital human modeling and simulation because a fidelity model is the basis for realistic posture and motion predictions for digital humans. The complexity of the shoulder mechanism makes it difficult to model a shoulder complex realistically. Although many researchers have attempted to model the human shoulder complex, there has not been a survey of these models and their benefits and limitations. This paper attempts to review various biomechanical models proposed and summarize the pros and cons. It focuses mainly on the human modeling domain, although some of these models were originally from the robotics field. The models are divided into two major categories: open-loop chain models and closed-loop chain models.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1870
Xuemei Feng, Jingzhou Yang, Karim Abdel-Malek
This paper presents a novel approach to determining the joint motion coupling relationship for the human shoulder complex. The human shoulder complex is the most sophisticated part in terms of degrees of freedom and motion. In the literature, different human shoulder biomechanical models have been developed for various purposes. Also, researchers have realized that there are constant movement relationships among the shoulder bones: the clavicle, scapula, and humerus. This is due to muscles and tendons that are involved in skeletal motions. These relationships, which are also called shoulder rhythm, entail joint motion coupling and joint limit coupling. However, the scope of this work is to determine the joint motion coupling relationship. This relationship is available in the literature, but it is an Euler-angle-based relationship. In the virtual human modeling environment, we cannot directly use this Euler-angle-based relationship.
2008-06-17
Technical Paper
2008-01-1909
Anith Mathai, Jinzengh Li, Karim Abdel-Malek, Lindsey Knake, Julie Wisch, Christina Godin, Jim Chiang
The Snook tables (Liberty Mutual Tables) are a collection of data sets compiled from studies based on a psychophysical approach to material-handling tasks. These tables are used to determine safe loads for lifting, lowering, carrying pulling, and pushing. The tables take into account different population percentiles, gender, and frequency of activity. However, while using these tables to analyze a work place, Ergonomists often have to select from discrete data points closest to the actual work place parameters thereby reducing accuracy of results. To compound the problem further, multiple interrelated variables are involved, making it difficult to analyze parameters intuitively. For example, it can be difficult to answer questions such as, does reducing the lifting height lower the recommended lifting weight, if the lifting distance is increased? To resolve such issues, this paper presents a new methodology for implementing the Snook tables using multi variable regression.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2491
Joo H. Kim, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jingzhou Yang, Kyle J. Nebel
Our previous formulation for optimization-based dynamic motion simulation of a serial-link human upper body (from waist to right hand) is extended to predict the motion of a tree-structured human model that includes the torso, right arm, and left arm, with various applied external loads. The dynamics of tree-structured systems is formulated and implemented. The equations of motion for the tree structures must be derived carefully when dealing with the connection link. The optimum solution results show realistic dual-arm human motions and the required joint actuator torques. In the second part of this paper, a new method is introduced in which the constraint forces and moments at the joints are calculated along with the motion and muscle-induced actuator torques. A set of fictitious joints are modeled in addition to the real joints.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2490
Hyun-Joon Chung, Yujiang Xiang, Anith Mathai, Salam Rahmatalla, Joo Kim, Timothy Marler, Steve Beck, Jingzhou Yang, Jasbir Arora, Karim Abdel-Malek, John Obusek
A method to simulate digital human running using an optimization-based approach is presented. The digital human is considered as a mechanical system that includes link lengths, mass moments of inertia, joint torques, and external forces. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem to determine the joint angle profiles. The kinematics analysis of the model is carried out using the Denavit-Hartenberg method. The B-spline approximation is used for discretization of the joint angle profiles, and the recursive formulation is used for the dynamic equilibrium analysis. The equations of motion thus obtained are treated as equality constraints in the optimization process. With this formulation, a method for the integration of constrained equations of motion is not required. This is a unique feature of the present formulation and has advantages for the numerical solution process.
2007-06-12
Technical Paper
2007-01-2488
Amos Patrick, Karim Abdel-Malek
With the ever-increasing power of real time graphics and computational ability of desktop computers, the desire for a real-time simulation of the musculoskeletal system has become more pronounced. It is important that this simulation is realistic, interactive, runs in real time, and looks realistic, especially in our climate of Hollywood special-effects and stunning video games. An effective simulation of the musculoskeletal system hinges on three key features: accurate modeling of kinematic movement, realistic modeling of the muscle attachment points, and determining the direction of the forces applied at the points. By taking known information about the musculoskeletal system and applying it in a real time environment, we have created such a model of the human arm. This model includes realistic constraints on the joints and real-time wrapping algorithms for muscle action lines.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1407
Jingzhou Yang, Tim Marler, HyungJoo Kim, Kimberly Farrell, Anith Mathai, Steven Beck, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jasbir Arora, Kyle Nebel
Presented in this paper is an on-going project to develop a new generation of virtual human models that are highly realistic in terms of appearance, movement, and feedback (evaluation of the human body during task execution). Santos™ is an avatar that exhibits extensive modeling and simulation capabilities. It is an anatomically correct human model with more than 100 degrees of freedom. Santos™ resides in a virtual environment and can conduct human-factors analysis. This analysis entails, among other things, posture prediction, motion prediction, gait analysis, reach envelope analysis, and ergonomics studies. There are essentially three stages to developing virtual humans: (1) basic human modeling (representing how a human functions independently), (2) input functionality (awareness and analysis of the human’s environment), and (3) intelligent reaction to input (memory, reasoning, etc.). This paper addresses the first stage.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1408
Joo H. Kim, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jingzhou Yang, Kyle Nebel
Santos™, a digital human avatar developed at The University of Iowa, exhibits extensive modeling and simulation capabilities. Santos™ is a part of a virtual environment for conducting human factors analysis consisting of posture prediction, motion prediction, and ergonomics studies. This paper presents part of the functionality in the Santos™ virtual environment, which is an optimization-based algorithm for simulating dynamic motion of Santos™. The joint torque and muscle power during the motion are also calculated within the algorithm. Mathematical cost functions that evaluate human performance are essential to any effort that would evaluate and compare various ergonomic designs. It is widely accepted that the ergonomic design process is actually an optimization problem with many design variables. This effort is basically a task-based approach that believes humans assume different postures and exert different forces to accomplish different tasks.
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