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Viewing 1 to 30 of 41
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0468
Jason R. Kerrigan, Jeremy Seppi, Jack Lockerby, Patrick Foltz, Brian Overby, Jim Bolton, Taewung Kim, Nate J. Dennis, Jeff Crandall
The goal of this study is to present the methods employed and results obtained during the first six tests performed with a new dynamic rollover test system. The tests were performed to develop and refine test methodology and instrumentation methods, examine the potential for variation in test parameters, evaluate how accurately actual touchdown test parameters could be specified, and identify problems or limitations of the test fixture. Five vehicles ranging in size and inertia from a 2011 Toyota Yaris (1174 kg, 379 kg m₂) to a 2002 Ford Explorer (2408 kg, 800 kg m₂) were tested. Vehicle kinematic parameters at the instant of vehicle-to-road contact varied across the tests: roll rates of 211-268 deg/s, roll angles of 133-199 deg, pitch angles of -12 deg to 0 deg, vertical impact velocities of 1.7 to 2.7 m/s, and road velocities of 3.0-8.8 m/s.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1606
Lex van Rooij, Mark Meissner, Kavi Bhalla, Jeff Crandall, Douglas Longhitano, Yukou Takahashi, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yuji Kikuchi
Studies show that the pedestrian population at high risk of injury consists of both young children and adults. The goal of this study is to gain understanding in the mechanisms that lead to injuries for children and adults. Multi-body pedestrian human models of two specific anthropometries, a 6year-old child and a 50th percentile adult male, are applied. A vehicle model is developed that consists of a detailed rigid finite element mesh, validated stiffness regions, stiff structures underlying the hood and a suspension model. Simulations are performed in a test matrix where anthropometry, impact speed and impact location are variables. Bumper impact occurs with the tibia of the 50th percentile adult male and with the thigh of the 6-year-old child. The head of a 50th percentile male impacts the lower windshield, while the 6-year-old child's head impacts the front part of the hood.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-1607
Mark Meissner, Lex van Rooij, Kavi Bhalla, Jeff Crandall, Douglas Longhitano, Yukou Takahashi, Yasuhiro Dokko, Yuji Kikuchi
This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0541
Gwansik Park, Taewung Kim, Jeff Crandall, Andy Svendsen, Nathaniel Saunders, Craig Markusic
Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the biofidelity of the three computational surrogates (GHBMC model, WorldSID model, and the FTSS ES-2re model) under the side impact rigid wall sled test condition. The responses of the three computational surrogates were compared to those of post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) and objectively evaluated using the correlation and analysis (CORA) rating method. Among the three computational surrogates, the GHBMC model showed the best biofidelity based on the CORA rating score (GHBMC =0.65, WorldSID =0.57, FTSS ES-2re =0.58). In general, the response of the pelvis of all the models showed a good correlation with the PMHS response, while the response of the shoulder and the lower extremity did not. In terms of fracture prediction, the GHBMC model overestimated bone fracture.
2014-04-01
Technical Paper
2014-01-0530
Taewung Kim, Jason Kerrigan, Varun Bollapragada, Jeff Crandall, Ravi Tangirala, Michael Guerrero
Abstract Some rollover test methods, which impose a touchdown condition on a test vehicle, have been developed to study vehicle crashworthiness and occupant protection in rollover crashes. In ground-tripped rollover crashes, speed, steering maneuver, braking, vehicle inertial and geometric properties, topographical and road design characteristics, and soil type can all affect vehicle touchdown conditions. It is presumed that while there may be numerous possible combinations of kinematic metrics (velocity components and orientation) at touchdown, there are also numerous combinations of metrics that are not likely to occur in rollover crashes. To determine a realistic set of touchdown conditions to be used in a vehicle rollover crash test, a lateral deceleration sled-based non-destructive rollover initiation test system (RITS) with a fully programmable deceleration pulse is in development.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-1116
Jason R. Kerrigan, Acen Jordan, Daniel Parent, Qi Zhang, James Funk, Nate J. Dennis, Brian Overby, Jim Bolton, Jeff Crandall
A dynamic rollover test system (DRoTS) capable of simulating rollover crashes in a laboratory was designed for research use at the University of Virginia. The goal of the current study is to describe the system's capabilities and specifications as well as to explore the limitations of the system's ability to simulate rollover crashes. The test apparatus was designed to permit simulation of a single roof-to-ground interaction of a rollover crash with the potential to be modified for evaluation of pre-roof contact occupant motion. Special considerations were made to permit testing of both dummies and post-mortem human surrogates in both production vehicles and a parametric test buck. DRoTS permits vertical translation, pitch, and roll of the test vehicle while constraining longitudinal and lateral translations and yaw. The study details the ranges of test parameters capable with the DRoTS and evaluates the limitations of the system relative to rollover crash conditions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-1115
Daniel P. Parent, Jason Kerrigan, Jeff Crandall
Fatalities resulting from vehicle rollover events account for over one-third of all U.S. motor vehicle occupant fatalities. While a great deal of research has been directed towards the rollover problem, few studies have attempted to determine the sensitivity of occupant injury risk to variations in the vehicle (roof strength), crash (kinematic conditions at roof-to-ground contact), and occupant (anthropometry, position and posture) parameters that define the conditions of the crash. A two-part computational study was developed to examine the sensitivity of injury risk to changes in these parameters. The first part of this study, the Crash Parameter Sensitivity Study (CPSS), demonstrated the influence of parameters describing the vehicle and the crash on vehicle response using LS-DYNA finite element (FE) simulations.
2010-11-03
Technical Paper
2010-22-0014
David Lessley, Greg Shaw, Daniel Parent, Carlos Arregui-Dalmases, Matthew Kindig, Patrick Riley, Sergey Purtsezov, Mark Sochor, Thomas Gochenour, James Bolton, Damien Subit, Jeff Crandall, Shinichi Takayama, Koshiro Ono, Koichi Kamiji, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
The objective of the current study was to provide a comprehensive characterization of human biomechanical response to whole-body, lateral impact. Three approximately 50th-percentile adult male PMHS were subjected to right-side pure lateral impacts at 4.3 ± 0.1 m/s using a rigid wall mounted to a rail-mounted sled. Each subject was positioned on a rigid seat and held stationary by a system of tethers until immediately prior to being impacted by the moving wall with 100 mm pelvic offset. Displacement data were obtained using an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric system that was used to track the 3D motions of the impacting wall sled; seat sled, and reflective targets secured to the head, spine, extremities, ribcage, and shoulder complex of each subject. Kinematic data were also recorded using 3-axis accelerometer cubes secured to the head, pelvis, and spine at the levels of T1, T6, T11, and L3. Chest deformation in the transverse plane was recorded using a single chestband.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1876
Douglas Longhitano, Basem Henary, Kavi Bhalla, Johan Ivarsson, Jeff Crandall
Pedestrian impact protection has been a growing area of research over the past twenty or more years. The results from many studies have shown the importance of providing protection to vulnerable road users as a means of reducing roadway fatalities. Most of this research has focused on the vehicle fleet as a whole in datasets that are dominated by passenger cars (cars). Historically, the influence of vehicle body type on injury distribution patterns for pedestrians has not been a primary research focus. In this study we used the Pedestrian Crash Data Study (PCDS) database of detailed pedestrian crash investigations to identify how injury patterns differ for pedestrians struck by light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles (LTVs) from those struck by cars. AIS 2+ and 3+ injuries for each segment of vehicles were mapped back to both the body region of the pedestrian injured and the vehicle source linked to that injury in the PCDS database.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-1839
Yasmina Abdelilah, Chris Sherwood, Rob Marshall, Sivaraman Gopalan, Jeff Crandall
Child restraint head padding is designed for the child's comfort under normal use. Under vehicle crash conditions, however, the padding in a rear facing child restraint may not be designed to sufficiently absorb impact energy. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of various head padding conditions in rear facing child restraints in frontal impacts. Five sled tests were performed to measure the response of a CRABI 12 month dummy to different padding conditions in a rear facing child restraint. Static loading tests were performed on the padding materials. Results show that using padding of low stiffness increases head acceleration and HIC15 values.
2005-04-11
Technical Paper
2005-01-0307
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Jeff Crandall, Richard Kent, Levent Kitis
Current crash dummy biofidelity standards include the estimated effects of tensing the muscles of the thorax. This study reviewed the decision to incorporate muscle tensing by examining relevant past studies and by using an existing mathematical model of thoracic impacts. The study finds evidence that muscle tensing effects are less pronounced than implied by the biofidelity standard response corridors, that the response corridors were improperly modified to include tensing effects, and that tensing of other body regions, such as extremity bracing, may have a much greater effect on the response and injury potential than tensing of only the thoracic musculature. Based on these findings, it is recommended that muscle tensing should be eliminated from thoracic biofidelity requirements until there is sufficient information regarding multi-region muscle tensing response and the capability to incorporate this new data into a crash dummy.
2016-04-05
Technical Paper
2016-01-1514
Varun Bollapragada, Taewung Kim, Mark Clauser, Jeff Crandall, Jason Kerrigan
Abstract Some rollover testing methodologies require specification of vehicle kinematic parameters including travel speed, vertical velocity, roll rate, and pitch angle, etc. at the initiation of vehicle to ground contact, which have been referred to as touchdown conditions. The complexity of the vehicle, as well as environmental and driving input characteristics make prediction of realistic touchdown conditions for rollover crashes, and moreover, identification of parameter sensitivities of these characteristics, is difficult and expensive without simulation tools. The goal of this study was to study the sensitivity of driver input on touchdown parameters and the risk of rollover in cases of steering-induced soil-tripped rollovers, which are the most prevalent type of rollover crashes. Knowing the range and variation of touchdown parameters and their sensitivities would help in picking realistic parameters for simulating controlled rollover tests.
2014-11-10
Technical Paper
2014-22-0011
David J. Lessley, Patrick Riley, Qi Zhang, Patrick Foltz, Brian Overby, Sara Heltzel, Mark Sochor, Jeff Crandall, Jason R. Kerrigan
The objective of the current study was to characterize the whole-body kinematic response of restrained PMHS in controlled laboratory rollover tests. A dynamic rollover test system (DRoTS) and a parametric vehicle buck were used to conduct 36 rollover tests on four adult male PMHS with varied test conditions to study occupant kinematics during the rollover event. The DRoTS was used to drop/catch and rotate the test buck, which replicated the occupant compartment of a typical mid-sized SUV, around its center of gravity without roof-to-ground contact. The studied test conditions included a quasi-static inversion (4 tests), an inverted drop and catch that produced a 3 g vertical deceleration (4 tests), a pure dynamic roll at 360 degrees/second (11 tests), and a roll with a superimposed drop and catch produced vertical deceleration (17 tests). Each PMHS was restrained with a three-point belt and was tested in both leading-side and trailing-side front-row seating positions.
2007-10-29
Technical Paper
2007-22-0018
Costin Untaroiu, Jason Kerrigan, Check Kam, Jeff Crandall, Kunio Yamazaki, Keisuke Fukuyama, Koichi Kamiji, Tsuyoshi Yasuki, James Funk
The purpose of this study is to determine the loads in the long bones of the lower extremities during vehicle pedestrian impact tests, and to correlate load data with observed kinematics in an effort to understand how stature and vehicle shape influence pedestrian response. In tests with a large sedan and a small multi-purpose vehicle (MPV), four postmortem human surrogates (PMHS) in mid-stance gait were struck laterally at 40 km/h. Prior to the tests, each PMHS was instrumented with four uniaxial strain gages around the mid-shaft cross section of the struck-side (right) tibia and the femora bilaterally. After the tests, the non-fractured bones were harvested and subjected to three-point bending experiments. The effective elastic moduli were determined by relating the applied bending loads with the measured strains using strain gage locations, detailed bone geometry, and elastic beam theory.
2009-11-02
Technical Paper
2009-22-0001
Greg Shaw, Dan Parent, Sergey Purtsezov, David Lessley, Jeff Crandall, Richard Kent, Herve Guillemot, Stephen A. Ridella, Erik Takhounts, Peter Martin
This study evaluated the response of restrained post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) in 40 km/h frontal sled tests. Eight male PMHS were restrained on a rigid planar seat by a custom 3-point shoulder and lap belt. A video motion tracking system measured three-dimensional trajectories of multiple skeletal sites on the torso allowing quantification of ribcage deformation. Anterior and superior displacement of the lower ribcage may have contributed to sternal fractures occurring early in the event, at displacement levels below those typically considered injurious, suggesting that fracture risk is not fully described by traditional definitions of chest deformation. The methodology presented here produced novel kinematic data that will be useful in developing biofidelic human models.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0384
Jaeho Shin, Costin Untaroiu, David Lessley, Jeff Crandall
Two post-mortem human subjects were subjected to dynamic, non-injurious (up to 20% chest deflection) anterior shoulder belt loading at 0.5 m/s and 0.9 m/s loading rates. The human surrogates were mounted to a stationary apparatus that supported the spine and shoulder in a configuration comparable to that achieved in a 48 km/h sled test at the time of maximum chest deformation. A hydraulically driven shoulder belt was used to load the anterior thorax which was instrumented with a load cell for measuring reaction force and uniaxial strain gages at the 4th and 8th ribs. In addition, the deformation of the chest was measured using a 16- camera Vicon 3D motion capture system. In order to investigate the chest deformation pattern and ribcage loading in greater detail, a human finite element (FE) model of the thorax was used to simulate the tests.
2009-04-20
Technical Paper
2009-01-0393
David Lessley, Richard Kent, Jeff Crandall, Rob Salzar, Greg Shaw
This study presents a detailed comparison of internally and externally measured chest deflections resulting from eight tests conducted on three male post mortem human subjects. A hydraulically driven shoulder belt loaded the anterior thorax under a fixed spine condition while displacement data were obtained via a high-speed 16-camera motion capture system (VICON MX™). Comparison of belt displacement and sternal displacement measured at the bone surface provided a method for quantifying effective change in superficial soft tissue depth at the mid sternum under belt loading. The relationship between the external displacement and the decrease in the effective superficial tissue depth was found to be monotonic and nonlinear. At 65 mm of mid-sternal posterior displacement measured externally, the effective thickness of the superficial tissues and air gap between the belt and the skin had decreased by 14 mm relative to the unloaded state.
2004-11-01
Technical Paper
2004-22-0001
Rodney Rudd, Jeff Crandall, Steven Millington, Shepard Hurwitz, Niklas Höglund
Forced dorsiflexion in frontal vehicle crashes is considered a common cause of injury to the ankle joint. Although a few studies have been published on the dynamic fracture tolerance of the ankle in dorsiflexion, this work reexamines the topic with increased statistical power, adds an evaluation of articular cartilage injury, and utilizes methods to detect the true time of fracture. The objective of this study was to measure the response and injury tolerance of the human ankle in a loading condition similar to that found in a vehicle crash with toepan intrusion. A test fixture was constructed to apply forefoot impacts to twenty cadaveric lower limbs, that were anatomically intact distal to the femur mid-diaphysis. Specimen instrumentation included implanted tibial and fibular load cells, accelerometers, angular rate sensors, and an acoustic sensor. Following the tests, specimens were radiographed and dissected to determine the extent of injury.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0063
Costin Untaroiu, Jason Kerrigan, Jeff Crandall
Material and structural properties of human tissues under impact loading are needed for the development of physical and computational models used in pedestrian and vehicle occupant protection. Obtaining these global properties directly from the data of biomechanical tests is a challenging task due to nonlinearities of tissue-test setup systems. The objective of this study was to develop subject-specific finite element (FE) techniques for material identification of human tissues using Successive Response Surface Methodology. As example, the test data of a human femur in three-point bending is used to identify parameters of cortical bone. Good global and local predictions of the optimized FE model demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of this new material identification approach.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0462
Robert Kendall, Mark Meissner, Jeff Crandall
This research uses simulations of vehicle-pedestrian collisions to determine if the risk of pedestrian head injury is greater from impact with the vehicle or from impact with the ground, and to determine the influence of vehicle speed, vehicle type, and pedestrian stance on the injury risk. Five speeds, two vehicle types and four pedestrian stances are examined. In addition, a smaller set of simulations is included to determine the influence of body orientation just prior to ground impact. As anticipated, risk of head injury from both the vehicle and the ground tends to increase with vehicle speed, but injury risk from the ground is less predictable. At lower speeds, the vehicle tends to pose a greater risk of injury than does the ground, while at higher speeds the probability of injury from both the vehicle and ground is typically very large.
2005-11-09
Technical Paper
2005-22-0008
Costin Untaroiu, Kurosh Darvish, Jeff Crandall, Bing Deng, Jenne-Tai Wang
A finite element (FE) model of the lower limb was developed to improve the understanding of injury mechanisms of thigh, knee, and leg during car-to-pedestrian impacts and to aid in the design of injury countermeasures for vehicle front-ends. The geometry of the model was reconstructed from CT scans of the Visible Human Project Database and commercial anatomical databases. The geometry and mass were scaled to those of a 50th percentile male and the entire lower limb was positioned in a standing position according to the published anthropometric references. A "structural approach" was utilized to generate the FE mesh using mostly hexahedral and quadrilateral elements to enhance the computational efficiency of the model. The material properties were selected based on a synthesis on current knowledge of the constitutive models for each tissue.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0681
Rodney Rudd, Jason Kerrigan, Jeff Crandall, Carlos Arregui
Given the quantity and severity of head injuries to pedestrians in vehicle-to-pedestrian collisions, human pedestrian finite element models and pedestrian dummies must possess a biofidelic head/neck response to accurately reproduce head-strike kinematics and kinetics. Full-scale pedestrian impact experiments were performed on post-mortem human surrogates (PMHS) using a mid-sized sport utility vehicle and a small sedan. Kinematics of the head and torso were obtained with a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) cube, which contained three orthogonally mounted linear accelerometers and three angular rate sensors. The goal of the current study was to present a methodology for analyzing the data obtained from the sensors on each cube, and to use the kinematics data to calculate spatial trajectories, as well as linear velocities and angular accelerations of the head and T1 vertebra.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0682
Damien Subit, Johan Ivarsson, Jeff Crandall, Yuji Kikuchi, Yukou Takahashi
Previous studies utilizing the Polar-II pedestrian dummy have suggested the need for a more biofidelic pelvis design in order to improve the overall dummy response kinematics. The current Polar-II dummy pelvis is a rigid steel structure. A preliminary version of a modified deformable pelvis equipped with sensors for measuring internal deflection and load has been designed. The goal of this study was to assess the biofidelity of these two pelves in full-scale tests with the Polar-II dummy that mimic lateral pelvic impact tests on PMHS (post-mortem human subjects) reported in the literature. The force - time, deflection - time, and force - deflection histories were compared to new PMHS response corridors determined using a normalization technique. In all tests with both pelves, the initial response (i.e., the first 3 ms to 5 ms following initial dummy - impactor contact) appeared to be totally determined by the mechanical behavior of the flesh.
2006-04-03
Technical Paper
2006-01-0684
Jaeho Shin, Sang-Hyun Lee, Jason Kerrigan, Kurosh Darvish, Jeff Crandall, Akihiko Akiyama, Yukou Takahashi, Masayoshi Okamoto, Yuji Kikuchi
The goal of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the Polar-II pedestrian dummy. An upper body model consisting of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, and abdomen was coupled with a previously validated model of the lower limb The viscoelastic material properties of the dummy components were determined from dynamic compression tests of shoulder urethane, shoulder rubber and abdominal foam. For validation of the entire upper body, the model was compared with NHTSA response requirements for their advanced frontal dummy (Thor) including head and neck pendulum tests as well as ribcage and abdominal impact tests. In addition, the Polar-II full body FE model was subjected to simulated vehicle-pedestrian impacts that recreated published experiments. Simulated head and pelvis accelerations as well as upper body trajectories reasonably reproduced the experiment.
1999-03-01
Technical Paper
1999-01-0756
Edwin Sieveka, Jeff Crandall, Stefan Duma, Walter Pilkey
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0721
Richard Kent, Jeff Crandall, Jon Butcher, Russell Morris
This paper discusses struck-side occupant thoracic response to side-impact loading and the requirements of a sled system capable of reproducing the relevant motions of a laterally impacted vehicle. A simplified viscoelastic representation of a thorax is used to evaluate the effect of the door velocity-time profile on injury criteria and on the internal stress state of the thorax. Simulations using a prescribed door velocity-time profile (punch impact) are contrasted against simulations using a constant-velocity impact (Heidelberg-type impact). It is found that the stress distribution and magnitude within the thorax, in addition to the maximum thorax compression and viscous response, depend not only on the door-occupant closing velocity, but also on the shape of the door velocity-time profile throughout the time of contact with the occupant. A sled system capable of properly reproducing side-impact door and seat motion is described.
2001-03-05
Technical Paper
2001-01-0118
Jonathan Butcher, Greg Shaw, Cameron Bass, Richard Kent, Jeff Crandall
This paper presents an analysis of the displacement measurement of the Hybrid III 50th percentile male dummy chest in quasistatic and dynamic loading environments. In this dummy, the sternal chest deformation is typically characterized using a sliding chest potentiometer, originally designed to measure inward deflection in the central axis of the dummy chest. Loading environments that include other modes of deformation, such as lateral translations or rotations, can create a displacement vector that is not aligned with this sensitive axis. To demonstrate this, the dummy chest was loaded quasistatically and dynamically in a series of tests. A string potentiometer array, with the capability to monitor additional deflection modes, was used to supplement the measurement of the chest slider.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0288
David Lessley, Jeff Crandall, Greg Shaw, Richard Kent, James Funk
This paper presents a technique for developing corridors from individual subject responses contained in experimental biomechanical data sets. Force-deflection response is used as an illustrative example. The technique begins with a method for averaging human subject force-deflection responses in which curve shape characteristics are maintained and discontinuities are avoided. Individual responses sharing a common characteristic shape are averaged based upon normalized deflection values. The normalized average response is then scaled to represent the given data set using the mean peak deflection value associated with the set of experimental data. Finally, a procedure for developing a corridor around the scaled normalized average response is presented using standard deviation calculations for both force and deflection.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0310
Greg Shaw, David Lessley, Jim Bolton, Jeff Crandall
This investigation explored THOR's force-deflection response to upper abdomen/lower ribcage steering wheel rim impacts in comparison to the Hybrid III and cadaver test subjects. The stationary subjects were impacted by a ballasted surrogate wheel propelled at 4 m/s, a test condition designed to approximate the upper abdomen impacting a steering wheel rim in a frontal crash. Both the standard THOR and the Hybrid III crash dummies were substantially stiffer than the cadavers. Removing THOR's torso skin and foam from the upper abdomen and replacing the standard Hybrid III abdomen with a prototype gel-filled unit produced force-deflection results that were more similar to the cadavers. THOR offers advantages over the Hybrid III because of its ability to measure abdominal deflection. THOR, with modification, would be a useful instrument with which to assess the crashworthiness of steering assemblies and restraint systems in frontal crashes.
2003-10-27
Technical Paper
2003-22-0013
Richard Kent, David Lessley, Greg Shaw, Jeff Crandall
Recent field data studies have shown that force-limiting belt systems reduce the occurrence of thoracic injuries in frontal crashes relative to standard (not force-limiting) belt systems. Laboratory cadaver tests have also shown reductions in trauma, as well as in chest deflection, associated with a force-limiting belt. On the other hand, tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) have shown trends indicating increased, decreased, or unchanged chest deflection. This paper attempts to resolve previous experimental studies by comparing the anterior-posterior and lateral chest deflections measured by the THOR and Hybrid III (H-III) dummies over a range of experimental conditions. The analysis involves nineteen 48-km/h and 57-km/h sled tests utilizing force-limiting and standard seat belt systems, both with an air bag. Tests on both the driver side and the passenger side are considered.
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