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HISTORICAL
1999-11-01
Standard
AIR1168/13
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: Establishment of design requirements. Evaluation of properties of materials. Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
HISTORICAL
1994-01-01
Standard
AIR1168/14
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management. The major subsystems required to accomplish the general functions mentioned above are: Breathing and pressurization gas storage system. Temperature and humidity control system.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/13A
This part of the manual presents methods for arriving at a solution to the problem of spacecraft inflight equipment environmental control. The temperature aspect of this problem may be defined as the maintenance of a proper balance and integration of the following thermal loads: equipment-generated, personnel-generated, and transmission through external boundary. Achievement of such a thermal energy balance involves the investigation of three specific areas: Establishment of design requirements. Evaluation of properties of materials. Development of analytical approach. The solution to the problem of vehicle and/or equipment pressurization, which is the second half of major environmental control functions, is also treated in this section. Pressurization in this case may be defined as the task associated with the storage and control of a pressurizing fluid, leakage control, and repressurization.
CURRENT
2012-10-15
Standard
AIR1168/14A
A life support system (LSS) is usually defined as a system that provides elements necessary for maintaining human life and health in the state required for performing a prescribed mission. The LSS, depending upon specific design requirements, will provide pressure, temperature, and composition of local atmosphere, food, and water. It may or may not collect, dispose, or reprocess wastes such as carbon dioxide, water vapor, urine, and feces. It can be seen from the preceding definition that LSS requirements may differ widely, depending on the mission specified, such as operation in Earth orbit or lunar mission. In all cases the time of operation is an important design factor. An LSS is sometimes briefly defined as a system providing atmospheric control and water, waste, and thermal management. The major subsystems required to accomplish the general functions mentioned above are: Breathing and pressurization gas storage system. Temperature and humidity control system.
HISTORICAL
2001-08-01
Standard
AIR1168/2
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/2A
Heat transfer is the transport of thermal energy from one point to another. Heat is transferred only under the influence of a temperature gradient or temperature difference. The direction of heat transfer is always from the point at the higher temperature to the point at the lower temperature, in accordance with the second law of thermodynamics. The fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the net transfer of energy within a fluid or solid occurring by the collisions of molecules, atoms, or electrons. Convection is the transfer of energy resulting from fluid motion. Convection involves the processes of conduction, fluid motion, and mass transfer. Radiation is the transfer of energy from one point to another in the absence of a transporting medium. In practical applications several modes of heat transfer occur simultaneously.
2013-07-01
WIP Standard
AIR1168/3A
This section presents methods and examples of computing the steady-state heating and cooling loads of aircraft compartments. In a steady-state process the flows of heat throughout the system are stabilized and thus do not change with time. In an aircraft compartment, several elements compose the steady-state air conditioning load.
CURRENT
1989-09-01
Standard
AIR1168/3
This section presents methods and examples of computing the steady-state heating and cooling loads of aircraft compartments. In a steady-state process the flows of heat throughout the system are stabilized and thus do not change with time. In an aircraft compartment, several elements compose the steady-state air conditioning load. Transfer of heat occurs between these sources and sinks by the combined processes of convection, radiation, and conduction in the following manner: Convection between the boundary layer and the outer airplane skin. Radiation between the external skin and the external environment. Solar radiation through transparent areas directly on flight personnel and equipment and on the cabin interior surfaces. Conduction through the cabin walls and structural members. Convection between the interior cabin surface and the cabin air. Convection between cabin air and flight personnel or equipment.
HISTORICAL
1993-04-01
Standard
AIR1168/6
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/6A
This section relates the engineering fundamentals and thermophysical property material of the previous sections to the airborne equipment for which thermodynamic considerations apply. For each generic classification of equipment, information is presented for the types of equipment included in these categories, and the thermodynamic design considerations with respect to performance, sizing, and selection of this equipment.
CURRENT
2011-07-25
Standard
AIR1168/7A
The pressurization system design considerations presented in this AIR deal with human physiological requirements, characteristics of pressurization air sources, methods of controlling cabin pressure, cabin leakage control, leakage calculation methods, and methods of emergency cabin pressure release.
CURRENT
2002-04-01
Standard
AIR5784
There has been a recent upsurge in interest from the media concerning the quality of the environment within aircraft cabins and cockpits especially in the commercial world1-4. This has included (although by no means been limited to) the air quality, with particular reference to the alleged effects of contamination from the aircraft turbine lubricant. Possible exposure to ‘organophosphates’ (OPs) from the oil has raised special concerns from cabin crew. Such is the concern that government organisations around the world, including Australia, USA and UK, have set up committees to investigate the cabin air quality issue. Concern was also voiced in the aviation lubricants world at the way in which OP additives in turbine lubricants were being blamed in some reports for the symptoms being experienced by air crew and passengers. SAE Committee E-34 therefore decided that it should gather as much available information on the subject as possible.
HISTORICAL
2010-08-25
Standard
AIR5742
The scope of this document is related to the particular needs of oxygen equipment with regards to packaging and transportation. The document provides guidance for handling chemical, gaseous and liquid oxygen equipment. It summarizes national and international regulations to be taken into account for transportation on land, sea and air and provides information on classification of hazardous material. The aim of this document is to summarize information on packaging and transportation of oxygen equipment. Statements and references to regulations cited herein are for information only and should not be considered as interpretation of a law. Processes to maintain cleanliness of components and subassemblies during processing and assembly or storage of work-in-progress are outside the scope of this document.
CURRENT
2017-05-24
Standard
AIR5742A
The scope of this document is related to the particular needs of oxygen equipment with regards to packaging and transportation. The document provides guidance for handling chemical, gaseous and liquid oxygen equipment. It summarizes national and international regulations to be taken into account for transportation on land, sea and air and provides information on classification of hazardous material. The aim of this document is to summarize information on packaging and transportation of oxygen equipment. Statements and references to regulations cited herein are for information only and should not be considered as interpretation of a law. Processes to maintain cleanliness of components and subassemblies during processing and assembly or storage of work-in-progress are outside the scope of this document. Guidance on this can be obtained from ARP1176.
2014-10-23
WIP Standard
AIR5933
This AIR5933 gives an overview of contemporary technologies to determine the oxygen concentration respectively partial pressure in air. The aerospace application and its special constraints have been emphasized regarding weight, power supply, overall size, reliability and safety, cost and useful life.
CURRENT
2015-11-19
Standard
AIR1957A
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
HISTORICAL
2002-09-16
Standard
AIR1957
This document summarizes types of heat sinks and considerations in relation to the general requirements of aircraft heat sources, and it provides information to achieve efficient utilization and management of these heat sinks. In this document, a heat sink is defined as a body or substance used for removal of the heat generated by hydrodynamic or thermodynamic processes. This document provides general data about airborne heat sources, heat sinks, and modes of heat transfer. The document also discusses approaches to control the use of heat sinks and techniques for analysis and verification of heat sink management. The heat sinks are for aircraft operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds.
HISTORICAL
1997-10-01
Standard
AIR1812A
This report contains background information on life cycle cost elements and key ECS cost factors. Elements of life cycle costs are defined from initial design phases through operational use. Information on how ECS designs affect overall aircraft cost and information on primary factors affecting ECS costs are discussed. Key steps or efforts for comparing ECS designs on the basis of LCC are outlined. Brief descriptions of two computer programs for estimating LCC of total aircraft programs and their use to estimate ECS LCC, are included.
HISTORICAL
1985-10-01
Standard
AIR1812
This report contains background information on life cycle cost elements and key ECS cost factors. Elements of life cycle costs are defined from initial design phases through operational use. Information on how ECS designs affect overall aircraft cost and information on primary factors affecting ECS costs are discussed. Key steps or efforts for comparing ECS designs on the basis of LCC are outlined. Brief descriptions of two computer programs for estimating LCC of total aircraft programs and their use to estimate ECS LCC, are included.
2016-09-10
WIP Standard
AIR1811B
The purpose of this Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is to provide guidelines for the selection and design of airborne liquid cooling systems. This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
HISTORICAL
1985-09-01
Standard
AIR1811
This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
CURRENT
1997-10-01
Standard
AIR1811A
This publication is applicable to liquid cooling systems of the closed loop type and the expendable coolant type in which the primary function is transporting of heat from its source to a heat sink. Most liquid cooling system applications are oriented toward the cooling of electronics. Liquid cooling techniques, heat sinks, design features, selection of coolants, corrosion control, and servicing requirements for these systems are presented. Information on vapor compression refrigeration systems, which are a type of cooling system, is found in Reference 1.
HISTORICAL
2000-07-01
Standard
AIR171D
The scope of this document is to provide a list of specialized terms with their meanings. The glossary will assist the use of other documents related to aircraft oxygen equipment by defining ubiquitous terminology in context of this specialized field. The glossary contains terms of primary importance in the areas of chemistry, equipment, and physiology.
CURRENT
2014-01-07
Standard
AIR171E
This document presents a glossary of many of the terms that can be found in literature covering issues related to aviation oxygen systems and associated topics. Such a listing can never be all inclusive but the majority of important terms are anticipated to be included for reference.
CURRENT
2013-05-20
Standard
AIR6036
Currently, existing civil aviation standards address the design and certification of oxygen dispensing devices that utilize oxygen sources supplying at least 99.5% oxygen. This Aerospace Information Report discusses issues relating to the use in the passenger cabin of oxygen enriched breathing gas mixtures having an oxygen content of less than 99.5% and describes one method of showing that passenger oxygen dispensing devices provide suitable hypoxia protection when used with such mixtures.
CURRENT
1996-12-01
Standard
AIR6
This publication formalizes the applicable design concepts considered acceptable for "draw-through" cooling of electronic (avionic) equipment installed in subsonic and supersonic commercial jet transports. Methods other than draw-through cooling are covered in AIR 728A for high Mach number aircraft.
2017-01-18
WIP Standard
AIR6190A
This document provides information on provisions for passengers with disabilities on board commercial aircraft. In this context the term "provision of medical oxygen" shall be understood as application of oxygen on board an aircraft not linked to (post) decompression in the sense of Airworthiness Requirements FAR/CS 25 and Operational Regulations of FAR 121/135. Information about available equipment and physiological treatment in clinical practice will be provided in this document. It covers the use of oxygen concentrators according to guidance of FAR Advisory Circular AC120-95.
CURRENT
2012-06-06
Standard
AIR6190
This document provides information on provisions for passengers with disabilities on board commercial aircraft. In this context the term "provision of medical oxygen" shall be understood as application of oxygen on board an aircraft not linked to (post) decompression in the sense of Airworthiness Requirements FAR/CS 25 and Operational Regulations of FAR 121/135. Information about available equipment and physiological treatment in clinical practice will be provided in this document. It covers the use of oxygen concentrators according to guidance of FAR Advisory Circular AC120-95.
CURRENT
2014-05-16
Standard
AIR6160
This document provides informational background, rationale and a technical case to allow consideration of the removal of the magnesium alloy restriction in aircraft seat construction as contained in AS8049B. The foundation of this argument is flammability characterization work performed by the FAA at the William J. Hughes Technical Center (FAATC), Fire Safety Branch in Atlantic City, New Jersey, USA. The rationale and detailed testing results are presented along with flammability reports that have concluded that the use of specific types of magnesium alloys in aircraft seat construction does not increase the hazard level potential in the passenger cabin in a post-crash fire scenario. Further, the FAA has developed a lab scale test method, reference DOT/FAA/TC-13/52, to be used as a certification test, or method of compliance (MOC) to allow acceptability of the use of magnesium in the governing TSO-C127 and TSO-C39C.
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