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Viewing 1 to 30 of 3420
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2494
N. M. Samsonov, E. A. Kurmazenko, L. I. Gavrilov, N. S. Farafonov, N. V. Pavlova, T. N. Pavlova, V. Ju. Proshkin, S. Ju. Romanov, A. M. Rjabkin, A. S. Guzenberg, A. N. Slyshchenkov, O. V. Kirjushin
The Regenerative Atmosphere Revitalization and Monitoring system (ARMS), been part of Integrated Life Support System (ILSS), is intended for maintenance in the manned modules of a necessary chemical composition of an artificial gas atmosphere (AGA) on base of the crew metabolism product transform to environment initial components. Generally, the ARMS structure includes the individual systems and units intended for: → oxygen generation; → carbon dioxide removal and it concentration; → trace contaminants removal; → carbon dioxide reduction with the goal to produce an additional quantity of water necessary to increase the degree of the oxygen loop clousure. The ARMS structure of the International Space Station (ISS) Russian Segment (RS) includes the Electron-VM Oxygen Generation System (OGS), Vozdukh Carbon Dioxide Removal System (CDRS) and SBMP Trace Contaminants Removal Means (TCRM) installed in the Service Module.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2488
Cynthia Pederson, Richard M. Lueptow
A promising technology for recycling wastewater on long term space missions is rotating reverse osmosis (RO). Rotating RO utilizes Taylor vortices, a flow structure in the annulus of the device, that provide increased transport of the water through the RO membrane compared to conventional RO systems. A high pressure rotating RO filter and fluid circuit have been designed and fabricated for use in long term tests. Preliminary results indicate that an increase in the operating pressure by a factor of three can improve the flux by a factor of four while maintaining high rejection of the contaminants.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2489
N. M. Samsonov, L. S. Bobe, N. S. Farafonov, V. A. Soloukhin, S. Ju. Romanov, P. O. Andrejchuk, N. N., Protasov, Ju. E. Sinjak, V. M. Skuratov
The paper deals with the performance data of the service module Zvezda integrated water supply system of the International Space Station (ISS) as of March 31, 2004. The water supply and demand balance are analyzed. It is shown that water recovery from humidity condensate has been especially important when water delivery by Space Shuttles was terminated. The SRV-K contribution in potable water supply for crew needs was up to 76%. The data of humidity condensate and recovered water compositions are reviewed. The effective cooperation of the international partners on part of life support is shown. Water recovery future prospects are discussed.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2483
Vishal Nangalia, James Habershon
Humans are able to acclimatize and later adapt to extreme altitudes, and this will be shown to be beneficial to the human with respect to microgravity and spacecraft environment. Treating the astronaut as a subsystem, which can be enhanced and modified to ultimately benefit the whole spacecraft is an approach that is necessary to forge the next generation of human spaceflight. A spacecraft environment that is maintained at a pressure of 16 kPa (primarily oxygen) would be both well within the realm of possibility of an astronaut’s physiology and would provide significant benefits for the all the subsystems of a spacecraft from the large intra-stellar spaceship to the EVA suit.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2478
Richard Boulanger, David Overland
Technologies that facilitate the design and control of complex, hybrid, and resource-constrained systems are examined. This paper focuses on design methodologies, and system architectures, not on specific control methods that may be applied to life support subsystems. It has been estimated that 60–80% of the effort in developing complex control systems is software development, and only 20–40% is control system development [1]. It has also been shown that large software projects have failure rates of as high as 50–65% [2,3]. Concepts discussed include the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and design patterns with the goal of creating a self-improving, self-documenting system design process. Successful architectures for control must not only facilitate hardware to software integration, but must also reconcile continuously changing software with much less frequently changing hardware [4]. These architectures rely on software modules or components to facilitate change.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2474
Robert T. Bigelow, Richard R. Chu, Jay K. Ingham
This Life Support Laboratory consists of a simulator of the spacecraft called Nautilus, which houses Air Revitalization Subsystem, Atmospheric Control and Supply, and Fire Detection and Suppression in the Equipment Area. There are supporting facilities including a Human Metabolic Simulator, simulated Low and Moderate Temperature Coolant Loop, chemical analysis bench, purified water supply, vacuum and gas supplies. These facilities are scheduled to be completed and start to operate for demonstration purposes by March 2005. There are an ARES Ground Model (AGM) and a Trace Contaminant Control Assembly in the ARS. The latter will be integrated with the AGM and a Condensing Heat Exchanger. The unit of AGM is being engineered, built, and will be delivered in early 2005 by EADS Space Division. These assemblies will be operated for sensitivity analysis, integration and optimization studies. The main goal is the achievement for optimal recovery of oxygen.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2468
W. Andrew Jackson, Audra Morse, Tania Ho, Greg Collins
Biological pre-treatment of liquid waste could potentially offer equivalent mass savings for long term space habitation. Previous work has demonstrated the technological feasibility. However, limited work has been conducted on optimizing the biological reactors or fully characterizing the biochemical transformations occurring within the reactors. The objective of these studies was to provide long-term operating data on a proposed and well studied reactor configuration, and explore the effects of RR on system performance. The water recovery system has been in successful operation for over 2 years. Data to be presented will include both typical removal efficiencies for nitrogen species, DOC as well as important water quality parameters. In addition the effect of recycle ratio (2X, 5X, 10X, and 20X) will be quantified.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2466
Arthur A. Teixeira, David P. Chynoweth, John M. Owens, Elana Rich, Amy L. Dedrick, Patrick J. Haley
This paper reports on fabrication, installation, start-up and shakedown of a full-scale prototype solid waste management system designed to be a principal component in a bio-regenerative solid waste management system to support a 6-person crew on long-term space missions. System design is based upon a patented process for odorless bioconversion of organic solid wastes to biogas and compost by anaerobic digestion. The system consists of five reactors and two gas-liquid separators designed for operation under conditions of micro-gravity. During any week of operation, one reactor is used for feed collection and compaction, three for stage-wise anaerobic composting, and one for post-treatment aerobic stabilization, while simultaneously serving as a bio-filter in the pretreatment of cabin air within the air revitalization subsystem. Each reactor carries its one-week charge of feedstock through all five stages of bioconversion in completing a five-week sequential batch cycle.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2467
Dawn R. Whitaker, John W. Lane, James E. Alleman, Rebecca Riaño
Solids thermophilic aerobic reactor (STAR) processing of biodegradable solid waste residuals uses high temperature conditions to reduce waste volume, inactivate pathogens, and render products that may enter the recycle system by providing plant substrate, fish food, and mushroom growth medium. The STAR process recovers and enables the reuse of nutrients, water, and carbon. During the time of this study, STAR was operated at a 3% solids loading rate, with an 11-day retention time at a temperature range of 50-55°C. This document presents the following details: a the evolution to date of the STAR reactor b review of reactor operation and analytical methods c a synopsis of the performance results and related discussion, and d a synopsis of future goals relative to this project's associated research roadmap.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2465
Richard F. Strayer, Kristina Reid, Tony J. Rector, Mary P. Hummerick, Jay L. Garland
The purpose of this research is to determine the feasibility of a unique denitrifying composter to stabilize trash from space-habitation (STS, ISS, ALS) life support activities. Design criteria were derived from variables to be manipulated and those to be held constant. A pre-existing aerobic composter was used and engineering tests run to ensure that requirements were met. Key experimental variables were identified: NO3- concentration and rate of addition, O2 concentration, mixing duration and frequency, and inoculum. Independent variables were pH, temperature, moisture, C:N ratio, feed material, size reduction, feed addition rate, and mode of operation. Important performance parameters included: maximization of desired outcomes – BOD5 removal, CO2 production, waste stabilization, and denitrification – and minimization of undesired products – N2O, NH3, and volatile organic compounds.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2464
Kimberly L. Jones, Joffrey Leevy, Samantha LaHee
This study evaluates the use of microfiltration (MF), low pressure RO (LPRO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes for use in a treatment train for recycled wastewater. Specifically, a MF membrane will act as pretreatment for RO/NF membranes. Contaminants of concern for the membrane system include biosolids and surfactant micelles for the MF membrane, and ammonium ions, urea, surfactant monomers, and salts for the RO/NF system. These contaminants will be reduced to meet existing EPA and NASA standards using these membrane systems. The goal is to achieve high removal rates (>95% for these contaminants) while maintaining high flux and low fouling of the membranes, as membrane treatment is the last treatment step before final disinfection of the recycled wastewater. This paper outlines the experimental plan for designing the integrated membrane system and explains the potential benefits of such a system.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2462
Audra Morse, W. Andrew Jackson, Srikara Kaparthi
Simulated wastewater, known as early surface mission wastewater, treated in previous experiments at JSC and TTU included urinal flush water, shower water, humidity condensate, oral hygiene water, and hand wash water. In reality, there is a difference between the early surface mission wastewater and the International Space Station wastewater. The ISS does not have a shower or hand wash, which contributes approximately 59 percent of the make-up water treated. The average influent ammonia concentration in the simulated wastewater treated by the TTU water reclamation system frequently exceeds 500 mg/L. Removal of the shower make-up water in simulated wastewater will result in a significant increase in the ammonia concentration, resulting in higher influent pH values and ammonia concentrations that may be inhibitory. Biological treatment technologies have suitably treated the diluted waste stream but a more concentrated waste stream may present a greater challenge.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2433
J. J. Maas, M. J. Mischnick
The CANDS (Circulating, Aeration, and Nutrient Delivery System) Phase II SBIR is currently developing and testing methods and procedures to control moisture, oxygen, and temperature in the root zone of a particulate based micro-gravity nutrient delivery system. The completion of the first year and a half of the CANDS Phase II SBIR has shown significant engineering developments towards environmental control of the root zone. These developments include the measurement of root zone oxygen content, characterization of forced and flood-ebb aeration rates, successful control of root zone moisture using miniature heat-pulse moisture sensors, and successful control of root zone temperature via an insulating/temperature controlling water jacket. At the conclusion of the CANDS Phase II SBIR an integrated root zone environmental control system will be constructed for integration into plant growth systems to eliminate the uncertainties that exist in current plant growth data.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2437
Hiroyuki Miyajima, Tomofumi Hirosaki, Yoshio Ishikawa
A Regenerative Life Support System (RLSS) is a system that establishes self-sustained material recycling and circulation within a space base on the Moon or Mars. This is a large-scale and complicated system comprising a lot of components such as humans, plants and material circulation system. A RLSS contains many factors with uncertainty, such as dynamics of plants and humans, and failure and performance deterioration of devices. In addition, a RLSS is a large-scale and complicated system extending gradually. An environment with uncertainty or a large-scale and complicated system may not be properly addressed by a centralized system. In particular, such a system cannot always gather accurate information in one center in a frequently shifting environment, thus appropriate processing may be difficult. Therefore, we tried autonomous decentralization of information or decision-making using a Multi-Agent System (MAS).
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2435
Geoffrey Waters, Youbin Zheng, Danuta Gidzinski, Michael Dixon
Due to its large proportion of edible biomass, beet (Beta vulgaris) has high potential as a candidate crop for bioregenerative life support systems. This paper summarizes data collected for beet under batch and staged stand culture in closed environment chambers. Full stand trials were conducted under the following conditions: 1000 μL L−1 atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, light intensities ranging from 400–600 μmol m−2 s−1 PAR with a 14 hour photoperiod, 73% ± 5% relative humidity, a 26/20 °C day/night temperature regime and a fixed planting density of 17.6 plants m−2. For batch planted stands, total edible yield was determined to be 28.3 g dry weight basis (dwb) with a 95% Confidence Interval (CI) of [24.7, 31.8] g plant−1 with a harvest index of 94%. Under similar conditions, yield for staged beet stands was 31.4 g dwb with a 95% CI of [24.54, 38.31] g plant−1. Water use efficiency under these same conditions was found to be 0.003 mol C mol−1 H2O.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2439
Theresa Klein, Devika Subramanian, David Kortenkamp, Scott Bell
Advanced life support systems have many interacting processes and limited resources. Controlling and optimizing advanced life support systems presents unique challenges that are addressed in this paper. We have developed a controller using reinforcement learning [Barto&Sutton], which actively explores the space of possible control strategies, guided by rewards from a user specified long term objective function. We evaluated this controller using Biosim, our discrete event simulation of an advanced life support system. This simulation supports all life support modules including crew, food production, air revitalization, water recovery, solid waste incineration and power. Our algorithm for reinforcement learning discovered unobvious strategies for maximizing mission length. By exploiting nonlinearities in the simulation dynamics, the learned controller outperforms a controller designed by an expert.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2438
H. Y. (Jannivine) Yeh, Cheryl B. Brown, Frank F. Jeng, Chin H. Lin, Michael K. Ewert
The development of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) using Microsoft® Excel was initiated by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) of Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 1997 to support the ALS and Exploration Offices in Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and studies. It aids the user in performing detailed sizing of the ECLSS for different combinations of the ALS regenerative system technologies (1, 2). This analysis tool will assist the user in performing ECLSS preliminary design and trade studies as well as system optimization efficiently and economically.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2441
Sherif Abdelwahed, Jian Wu, Gautam Biswas, John W. Ramirez, Eric J.-Manders
This paper discusses a hierarchical online fault-adaptive control approach for Advanced Life Support (ALS) Systems. ALS systems contain a number of complex interacting subsystems. To avoid complexity in the models and online analysis, diagnosis and fault-adaptive control is achieved by local units. To maintain overall performance, the problem of resource management for contending concurrent subsystems has to be addressed. We implement a control structure, where predefined set-point specifications for system operation are used to derive optimizing utility functions for the subsystem controllers. We apply this approach in situations where a fault occurs in a system, and once the fault is isolated and identified, the controllers use the updated system model to derive new set point specifications and utility functions for the faulty system.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2440
Todd M. Quasny, Larry D. Pyeatt
Abstract To make extended space missions, such as missions to Mars, a reality, an advanced life support system (ALS) must be developed that is able to utilize resources to their fullest capabilities [2]. In order to make such a system a reality, a robust control system must be developed that is able to cope with the complexity of an ALS. This work applies reinforcement learning (RL), a machine learning technique, to the task of controlling the water recovery system of a simulated ALS. The RL agent learns an effective control strategy that extends the mission length to the point that lack of water is no longer the cause of mission termination.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2425
Gaetana Bufano, Elena Brach Prever, Valter Perotto, Paolo Vaccaneo, Zoltan Szigetvari, Jan Persson, Johannes Witt
The Columbus ECS PFM Test was intended as the final verification of the Module Thermal Design after a series of successful tests at subsystems level (e.g. the Active Thermal Control Subsystem and the Environmental Control and Life Support System) The test campaign has been articulated as a sequence of several test cases to investigate the main thermal aspects, to prove the Module thermal design in the extreme operative conditions and to correlate the thermal mathematical model (TMM). The interpretation of test results and the correlation confirmed that the thermal design of the module is adequate, but some areas of concern remain, mainly for the difficulty to translate to 0-g the results of a complex test in 1-g environment, and for some aspects of the air and cabin loops.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2432
Yuichiro Takai, Kazutaka Miyatake, Kunishi Miyoshi, Yas Takashima
The efficiency and output of commercial agricultural as it exists today is greatly influenced by natural environmental conditions. Production under a controlled environment such as a Vegetable Factory concept may be considered to overcome these problems. The Modular Growing Component Salad Machine (MGCSM), which was built in 1992, has recently undergone major design changes. Use of red and blue LEDs are being considered to replace high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. This modification can reduce mass, weight and energy consumption. If this growing system can be manufactured at an affordable cost to be used for profitable agricultural production on Earth for growing flavorful, pesticide free, healthier vegetables with minimal labor requirements.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2355
Yas Takashima
An Efficient Growing System is always in need for both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. The Multi-layered Hydroponics Growing System (MHGS) was developed and tested as a potential commercial scale production system for leaf crops. Six crops of Bibb lettuce (Lactuca sativa, Cultivars Butter Crunch) was grown successfully with a 40 percent shade cloth to diffuse light intensity, which helped to improve quality and palatability. At the same time the Overhead Hydroponics Growing System (OHGS) was developed for growing cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. Cultivar- Summer dance) with apical shoots slightly angled upward to give orientation of growth direction while enhancing lateral branch growth. Bib lettuce can be grown by utilizing the diffused light provided by the cucumber grown above, eliminating the need for the shade cloth.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2354
Kazutaka Miyatake, Kazumi Kobayashi, Yas Takashima, Masaaki Suzuki
The use of Superheated Steam (SHS) has been known for nearly 100 years. Utilization of SHS has been limited due to lack of technological development and knowledge about its potential application. SHS is achieved by heating the saturated steam to temperatures exceeding 100° C. This research was conducted to investigate the multipurpose applications of superheated steam particularly for cooking, which is an area lacking in technological developments. Even under normal or hypo baric conditions, high thermal energy from combined latent and superheat generated from a carbon-heating element controlled by varying electromagnetic induction. Multiple applications includes instrument sterilization, sterilization and deodorization of air, material recovery, removal of contaminants, induction of chemical reactions and cooking.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2365
John A. Hogan, Julie A. Levri, Rich Morrow, Jim Cavazzoni, Luis F. Rodriguez, Rebecca Riaño, Dawn R. Whitaker
An ongoing effort is underway at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) to develop an On-line Project Information System (OPIS) for the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program. The objective of this three-year project is to develop, test, revise and deploy OPIS to enhance the quality of decision-making metrics and attainment of Program goals through improved knowledge sharing. OPIS will centrally locate detailed project information solicited from investigators on an annual basis and make it readily accessible by the ALS Community via a Web-accessible interface. The data will be stored in an object-oriented relational database (created in MySQL®) located on a secure server at NASA ARC. OPIS will simultaneously serve several functions, including being an research and technology development (R&TD) status information hub that can potentially serve as the primary annual reporting mechanism for ALS-funded projects.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2309
R. V. Gavrylov, Yu. A. Melenevskiy, V. I. Dranovskiy, M. I. Koshkin
The stand rig facility for thermo-vacuum testing of Space vehicles (STVT), described in this paper, is intended for simulation of: space vacuum, cold Space environment, electromagnetic radiation by the Sun and Earth, and Earth-albedo, as well as determination of influence of these factors on thermal regime of hardware and instruments of SV.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2310
M. T. Pauken, G. M. Kinsella, K. S. Novak, G. T. Tsuyuki, C. J. Phillips
In January 2004, two Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landed on the surface of Mars to begin their mission as robotic geologists. A year prior to these historic landings, both rovers and the spacecraft that delivered them to Mars, were completing a series of environmental tests in facilities at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This paper describes the test program undertaken to validate the thermal design and verify the workmanship integrity of both rovers and the spacecraft. The spacecraft, which contained the rover within the aeroshell, were tested in a 7.5 m diameter thermal vacuum chamber. Thermal balance was performed for the near earth (hot case) condition and for the near Mars (cold case) condition. A solar simulator was used to provide the solar boundary condition on the solar array. IR lamps were used to simulate the solar heat load on the aeroshell for the off-sun attitudes experienced by the spacecraft during its cruise to Mars.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2322
S. A. Walker, J. Tweed, J. W. Wilson, R. K. Tripathi
The development of a Green’s function approach to ion transport greatly facilitates the modeling of laboratory radiation environments and allows for the direct testing of transport approximations of material transmission properties. Using this approach radiation investigators at the NASA Langley Research Center have established that simple solutions can be found for HZE ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift and dispersion associated with nuclear events. In a more recent publication it was shown how these effects can be incorporated into the multiple fragmentation perturbation series. Analytical approximations for the first two perturbation terms were presented and the third term was evaluated numerically.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2321
M. C. Haupt, R. Niesner, R. Schlitt, F. Bodendieck, Ch. Strom
This paper will give an overview of the effort to develop a thermal engineering tool for space applications, which is based on open source software (OSS) tools. It will describe the architecture of the analysis system and discuss the considered OSS packages used as building blocks with respect to the integration aspect and the engineering capabilities. The discussion of the software is completed with the experiences in creating a web-based community.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2320
Marco Molina, Paolo Vercesi
The paper presents the simulation and the performance evaluation for an innovative Temperature and Humidity Control in a manned orbiting module. Starting from the EcosimPro® modelling capabilities, a Space Station Module has been built and a standard Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) has been designed, based on a classical PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) controller, suitably developed. After that, a fuzzy logic controller has been dsigned and thanks to EcosimPro programmability a fuzzy logic controller block has been created. The controller have been sized and its performances suitably simulated. Performances of the innovative controller are checked against the standard control techniques.
2004-07-19
Technical Paper
2004-01-2285
Jon Holladay, Greg Day, Larry Gill
Spacecraft are typically designed with a primary focus on weight in order to meet launch vehicle performance parameters. However, for pressurized and/or man-rated spacecraft, it is also necessary to have an understanding of the vehicle operating environments to properly design the pressure vessel. Proper sizing of the pressure vessel requires an understanding of the space vehicle’s life cycle and compares the physical design optimization (weight and launch “cost”) to downstream operational complexity and total life cycle cost. This paper provides an overview of some major environmental design drivers and presents a generic set of cracking pressures for both positive and negative pressure relief valves that encompasses environmental effects for a variety of launch and landing sites. In addition, an example is provided to compare up-front launch weight penalties against downstream operational constraints.
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