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Viewing 1 to 30 of 2256
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0438
Ahmet Kanbolat, Murathan Soner, Tolga Erdogus, Mustafa Karaagac
The parabolic leaf spring plays a vital role in suspension systems, since it has an effect on ride comfort and vehicle dynamics. Primarily, leaf spring endurance must be ensured. Presently, there are two approaches to designing a leaf spring. In the traditional method, fatigue tests should be repeated for each case, considering different material, geometry and suspension hard points. However, it takes a long time and requires a heavy budget to get the optimized solution. In the contemporary method, a numerical approach is used to obtain the fatigue life and the leaf geometry against the environmental condition on the basis of material properties. This paper presents a more precise method based on non-linear finite element solutions by evaluating the effects of the production parameters, the geometrical tolerances and the variations in the characteristics of the material.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0458
Tommy Baumann
As technology advances in electronics, systems with higher complexity, interconnectedness and heterogeneity can be developed. Being constituted by several control units and communication buses, the development of such systems can only be done concurrently by teams of specialists. At the same time as many as possible design steps have to be automated to accelerate the design process itself. Typically, in current design processes, systems are described using manually written specifications or non-executable, model-based specifications. However, such specifications cannot be executed and therefore cannot be validated, evaluated, and optimized prior to the availability of hardware. This results in a design process exhibiting high uncertainty in the early design stages and thus, high development risks and costs [8].
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0402
P. Lingeswaramurthy, J. Jayabhaskar, R. Elayaraja, J. Suresh Kumar
Increasing the efficiency of the Engine parts and reduction in development time with good accuracy are the challenges in the Automotive Industry. Lubricating oil pump has been selected for this study. Existing literatures explain the methodology to generate the rotor profile from the given geometrical parameters of the rotor like eccentricity, tooth radius etc. Invariably the specifications to design the pump are provided in terms of pump performance at various operating conditions. The analytical model developed in this study uses the performance and boundary specifications to generate the rotor profile and to estimate the flow rate at various operating conditions of the pump. This methodology includes the generation of trochoidal profile for inner rotor and modified conjugate profile for the outer rotor and the volume calculation of number of chambers (N) which are created between the rotors during meshing.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0467
Chun-Hui Chiu, Kuo-Kuang Fan, Chih-Chieh Yang
Due to the air pollution and energy crisis, the added values to environmental protection from the green technology passenger cars have received scrutiny by consumers. In order to enhance the comprehension of consumers' acceptance in green technology passenger cars, the goal of this study is to promote automotive designer's understanding on the affective response of consumers on automotive form design. In general, consumers' preference is mainly based on the vehicles' form features that are traditionally manipulated by designers' intuitive experience rather than an effective and systematic analysis. Therefore, when encountered the increasing competition in automotive market nowadays, enhancing the car designer's understanding of consumers' preference on the form features of green technology passenger cars to fulfill customers' demands has become a common objective among automotive makers.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0236
Zi Qiang Sheng
Due to its capability to make tubular components with high structural rigidity and low mass, tube hydroforming (THF) is an important manufacturing process to make lightweight automotive structural components, such as engine cradles, crank shafts, seat frames, roof bow and instrument panel beam etc. In order to integrate more functions, tube hydroformed components (THC) usually have complex geometry and are formed from a straight tube usually by three stages, which are programmable CNC bending, pre-crush and hydroforming. Since the complexity of component geometry, failures, such as fracture and buckling, could happen simultaneously at different spots. Tube bending and hydroforming process are designed to eliminate multiple failures and thus the THF development is tedious and time consuming. In this study, a multiobjective dynamic programming method is developed to optimize the THF process and demonstrated on an automotive component.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0170
Ashok D. Khondge, Sandeep Sovani, Gunjan Verma
Thorough design exploration is essential for improving vehicle performance in various aspects such as aerodynamic drag. Shape optimization algorithms in combination with computational tools such as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) play an important role in design exploration. The present work describes a Free-Form Deformation (FFD) approach implemented within a general purpose CFD code for parameterization and modification of the aerodynamic shape of real-life vehicle models. Various vehicle shape parameters are constructed and utilized to change the shape of a vehicle using a mesh morphing technique based on the FFD algorithm. Based on input and output parameters, a design of experiments (DOE) matrix is created. CFD simulations are run and a response surface is constructed to study the sensitivity of the output parameter (aerodynamic drag) to variations in each input parameter.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0169
Robert Louis Lietz
Recent advances in morphing, simulation, and optimization technologies have enabled analytically driven aerodynamic shape optimization to become a reality. This paper will discuss the integration of these technologies into a single process which enables the aerodynamicist to optimize vehicle shape as well as gain a much deeper understanding of the design space around a given exterior theme.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0151
Taeyoung Han, Chris Hill, Shailesh Jindal
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0108
Rainer Neumann, Thorsten Warwel
Due to the general requirements in the automotive industry to reduce the power consumption, fuel consumption rate and CO2 emission a new HID (High Intensity Discharge) bulb with only 25W is under development for front lighting systems. A first headlamp integrated in a hybrid vehicle is now launched as a first application in the market. The current regulation in ECE allows to get rid of the mandatory headlamp cleaning system and the automatic leveling requirement once the 25W HID bulb is applied. The reason for this is the objective luminous flux of the 25W HID bulb, which emits less than 2000 lm, a boundary defined in the regulation, where a headlamp cleaning and an automatic leveling is requested. That simplifies especially the integration in smaller vehicles and electric and hybrid vehicles. The paper describes the special design of the headlamp, the projector unit, the light performance, packaging advantages and future outlook of further applications in the near future.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0107
Yan Fu, Guosong Li, Ren-Jye Yang, Baohua xiao, Krishnakanth Aekbote
With the increasing demands of developing vehicles for global markets, different regulations and public domain tests need to be considered simultaneously for side impact. Various side impact countermeasures, such as side airbags, door trim, energy absorbing foams etc., are employed to meet multiple side impact performance requirements. However, it is quite a challenging task to design a balanced side impact restraint system that can meet all side impact requirements for multiple crash modes. This paper presents an integrated multi-objective optimal design and robustness assessment framework for vehicle side impact restraint system design.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0114
Lawrence M. Rice
Light emitting diode (LED) modules (standardized light sources) for use in automotive illumination design will soon become available in production volumes. Designing products with these devices is not the same as working with conventional tungsten halogen or high intensity discharge (HID or Xenon) light sources. There are a number of LED module characteristics which must be kept in mind when designing lighting systems.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0118
Daniel Le Messurier, John S. Orisich
Monte Carlo simulations are shown to be a useful tool when determining the flux output of LED arrays during the design phase. The results of Monte Carlo simulations are able to show the statistical distribution of output flux based on multi-LED arrays, thus allowing engineers to optimise their design, rather than using worst case scenario design principles.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0069
Paulo Reynaldo Calvo Alfaro, Fernando Velázquez Villegas, Antonio Zepeda Sánchez, Mariano García del Gállego
The goal of this work is to optimize an automotive chassis for a 3 wheeled hybrid vehicle. This vehicle is intended for touristic and low speed performance, 2 of the more relevant features are, that the vehicle has 3 wheels and that it is battery powered by 7 cells which are distributed under the driver seat and the first line of seats. Therefore, the vehicle has to be very light but still strong enough to endure the daily loads it is driven into. In order to obtain the final topological region an improving process in the topological region's geometry was needed, starting with regions with 30 mm element's size to 16 mm element's size, so the available equipment could compute the optimization in similar amounts of time. Topological optimization is used to acquire a very close shape to the optimal one for structural problems design from a conceptual viewpoint.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0509
Megumu Oshima, Kanya Nara
This paper describes the development of a design method and process for quality variation control. Conventional approaches utilizing Taguchi method [6,7,8] can quantify the sensitivities of parts characteristics on a system characteristic from both viewpoints of nominal value and variation. But the interpretation of the sensitivities depends on engineers' judgments. At the new process, function deployment has been introduced as the tool for breaking down hierarchically vehicle performance to the level of parts characteristics. And the relation between vehicle performance and parts characteristics is formulated based on a physical model in order to interpret the sensitivities more technically. The methodology combining the formulated function deployment and Taguchi method is referred to as design response analysis and variation effect analysis. These approaches can facilitate the interpretation of the quantified sensitivities considering the mechanism.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0510
Megumu Oshima, Kanya Nara, Tatsuhiko Yoshimura
We have constructed a design review system in which Full Process and Quick Design Review processes are selectively used according to the degree of newness in a design change. The Full Process Design Review is conducted for a review of system or part designs having a high level of newness and the tools and process used in this review were standardized. The Quick Design Review is newly developed design review process that could be conducted in a quicker and simpler manner for designs involving a medium level of newness in order to effectively prevent design-related problems. The Quick Design Review uses a changes list and Design Review Based on Failure Mode (DRBFM) [1] worksheets to focus on the changed points. This method enables the engineers involved to identify problems and to devise solutions efficiently and effectively through discussions.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0516
Makarand Datar, Ilinca Stanciulescu, Dan Negrut
The paper describes a methodology to co-simulate, with high fidelity, simultaneously and in one computational framework, all of the main vehicle subsystems for improved engineering design. The co-simulation based approach integrates in MATLAB/Simulink a physics-based tire model with high fidelity vehicle dynamics model and an accurate powertrain model allowing insights into 1) how the dynamics of a vehicle affect fuel consumption, quality of emission and vehicle control strategies and 2) how the choice of powertrain systems influence the dynamics of the vehicle; for instance how the variations in drive shaft torque affects vehicle handling, the maximum achievable acceleration of the vehicle, etc. The goal of developing this co-simulation framework is to capture the interaction between powertrain and rest of the vehicle in order to better predict, through simulation, the overall dynamics of the vehicle.
2011-04-12
Journal Article
2011-01-0526
Raj Sohmshetty, Rakshit Ramachandra, Radhakrishan Mariappasamy, Senthil Karuppaswamy
Optimal material selection for a part becomes quite challenging with dynamically changing data from various sources. Multiple manufacturing locations with varying supplier capabilities add to the complexity. There is need to balance product attribute requirements with manufacturing feasibility, cost, sourcing, and vehicle program strategies. The sequential consideration of product attribute, manufacturing, and sourcing aspects tends to result in design churns. Ford R&A is developing a web based material recommender tool to help engineers with material selection integrating sourcing, manufacturing, and design considerations. This tool is designed to filter the list of materials for a specific part and provide a prioritized list of materials; and allow engineers to do weight and cost trade-off studies. The initial implementation of this material recommender tool employs simplified analytical calculators for evaluation of structural performance metrics of parts.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0524
Bernd Jeitler, Martin Atzwanger
One main general goal during product development in the passenger car industry as well as in the commercial vehicle industry is to reduce time to market. The customer wants to get the newest product and is not accepting the risk of any product call backs. This means the minimization of the risk of field claims for the manufacturer. The challenge to reach this goal is a capable volume production of each new product. To create a competitive, innovative product it is the task for design and simulation engineers in the development phase to design the product in view of function, efficiency, fatigue strength, optimized weight and optimized product costs. Additionally an agreement between design and industrial production planning is required. An early involvement of production engineers into the development of a product ensures design for manufacturing from the very beginning.
2011-04-12
Technical Paper
2011-01-0594
Silviu Pala, Thomas Schnell, Nicole Lynn Becklinger, Carolina Giannotti, Bo Sun, Hiroaki Tanaka, Ifushi Shimonomoto
DENSO International America, Inc. and the University of Iowa-Operator Performance Laboratory (OPL) have developed a series of new Multi-Modal Interface for Drivers (MMID) in order to improve driver safety, comfort, convenience and connectivity. Three MMID concepts were developed: GUI 1, GUI 2 and GUI 1-HUD. All three of the MMIDs used a new Reconfigurable Haptic Joystick (RHJ) on the steering wheel and new concept HMI Dual Touch Function Switches (DTFS) device. The DTFS use capacitive and mechanic sensing located on the back of the steering wheel as input operation devices. Inputs from the new controls were combined with a large TFT LCD display in the instrument cluster, a Head Up Display (HUD) and Sound as output devices. The new MMID system was installed in a Lexus LS-430. The climate control panel and radio panels of the LS-430 were used as a baseline condition to which the new designs were compared.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-0643
Florian Netter, Frank Gauterin, Johannes Schreyer
This paper presents the further development, implementation and evaluation of a computer-aided engineering (CAE) method for tool-independent simulation model coupling with a function-based modular framework for entire-system simulations. For that purpose, the preliminary findings regarding the development process of the function-based modular framework are presented. Emanating from that, a hierarchical structure for consistent data distribution and deposition for separating the system to be simulated is introduced. Therein the boundaries of the subsystems are defined, to avoid overlapping and ensuring a consistent ratio of the subsystems. Thus, the exchangeability and the reuse of simulation models are supported. Additionally, a scheme for signal names of the subsystems interfaces is described to allow general interoperability between the subsystems within the function-based modular framework.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1163
Khaled Saleh, Vikrant Aute, Kurt Reinhard Radermacher
Complex engineering design optimization often requires multiple executions of computationally expensive simulation tools such as those based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Some CFD simulations can take several hours to complete, thus potentially making the design optimization task infeasible. In this paper, a combination of two powerful methodologies is presented that has the potential of reducing the engineering time required for CFD based design by more than 90%. The first methodology, termed as Parallel Parameterized CFD (PPCFD) allows for speeding up multiple CFD runs to explore a given design space very efficiently. The second approach is Approximation Assisted Optimization (AAO). AAO techniques are used to reduce the time and effort involved in conducting optimization with computationally expensive simulations. The PPCFD methodology needs to be tailored or customized for an individual geometry of interest.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1223
Nico Feiertag, Christoph Ficek, Kai Richter
For a long time, tools and methods for automotive E/E design were mostly in the domain of academic researches only. Recently, OEMs have started adopting selected contributions, because (very soon) it will become quite costly NOT to apply them. The first step is establishing centralized data storage for all design data. At present, selecting appropriate abstraction levels and design methods that get fed by and feed the data is the task at hand. In this paper, we summarize recent progress in this selection process with a focus on performance; which is a key aspect for architecture generation. Our contribution provides incremental progress from both ends of the mentioned gap (requirements vs. architecture vs. implementation) towards one another. The presentation is created around the IMES project [21] considering centralized data storage. However, the overall approach is based on established standards and common design patterns as much as possible.
2013-04-08
Technical Paper
2013-01-1233
Sreegururaj Jayachander
The current trend of going “green” in emerging automotive markets is, by the conversion of internal combustion engine based vehicle platforms into electrified vehicle platforms. While this method of electrification reduces the product development life cycle drastically due to the availability of a readymade platform, there are certain areas that are always overlooked. While focus is given on obvious and necessary elements like power train & battery packaging, weight reduction, high voltage safety, thermal management etc., electro-magnetic compatibility is neglected in the conversion process. This paper shall describe, in detail and in particular, the effect of electrical transients created by legacy elements, already existing in the baseline platform. This is an outcome of electro-magnetic compatibility challenges faced during the conversion of an internal combustion engine powered vehicle into an electric vehicle.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0145
Michael J. Anderson
The advance in emission control technologies towards Ultra Thin Wall (UTW) substrates has presented packaging challenges. With respect to mounting mats, there are two main problems with the traditional intumescent mats. First, intumescent mats typically generate too much pressure during assembly over their normal mounting range for the promised substrate strength; this can lead to broken substrates during assembly. Second, large pressure spikes occur in heated intumescent mats that could cause broken substrates in the field. As a result, non-intumescent mats are being used to alleviate the two main problems that occur with intumescent mats. A third alternative, a composite or “hybrid” mat, may offer a higher level of performance at lower cost compared to the non-intumescent mat solutions. The hybrid mats referred to in this paper consist of a layer of intumescent mat and a layer of non-intumescent mat.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0159
T. Mizutani, Y. Watanabe, K. Yuuki, S. Hashimoto, T. Hamanaka, J. Kawashima
The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) system has been developed as one of key technologies to comply with tight diesel PM emission regulations. For the DPF control system, it is necessary to maintain temperature inside the DPF below the allowable service temperature, especially during soot regeneration to prevent catalyst deterioration and cracks. Therefore, the evaluation of soot regeneration is one of the key development items for the DPF system. On the other hand, regeneration evaluation requires a lot of time and cost since many different regeneration conditions should be investigated in order to simulate actual driving. The simulation tool to predict soot regeneration behavior is a powerful tool to accelerate the development of DPF design and safe regeneration control strategies. This paper describes the soot regeneration model applied to fuel additive and catalyzed types, and shows good correlation with measured data.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0362
Frank J. Wassilak
Automobile manufacturers recognize that supplying the optimum types of service sheet metal parts for use in collision repair is essential to assure that high-quality, cost-effective repairs can be performed for their customers. However, over the past 15 years or so the processes that OEMs utilize to design, release and manufacture these parts have become increasingly complex. The primary drivers of this increased complexity are changes in body sheet metal designs, automation of manufacturing processes and re-sourcing of production parts. The purposes of this paper are to explain the sources of this increasing complexity and their effects on service sheet metal parts, provide general design principles and propose a design and release process.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0352
David J. Burtt, Iain B. James
Integration of an Infinitely Variable Transmission (IVT) into a vehicle powertrain provides the opportunity to fulfil vehicle attribute requirements via manipulation of many design parameters. To realize this potential the powertrain must be considered as a system that includes the vehicle, the engine, the transmission and the driveline control strategy and calibration. The number of interactions within this system requires that dynamic modeling is used in the analysis of the system. Such an analysis readily provides a route to driveline optimization against any chosen parameter or combination of parameters or metrics. This paper demonstrates the application of specially written CAE tools and dynamic system modeling analysis during the design and optimization process of an integrated IVT powertrain. This process shows how the vehicle requirements can be met whilst also satisfying constraints imposed by individual elements within the system.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0380
Timothy M. Boundy, Nicholas A. Vitale, Dan W. Figlioli
A multi vector design tool to accurately predict instrument panel obscuration was developed to insure that critical legal displays in vehicles are not obscured. The concept provides for a computer generated light source shaped to replicate the human eyes. The light source is then projected onto a 3D math based arrangement and the resultant shadows are visible on the instrument panel surface and its displays. Design studios require criteria for the placement of the instrument cluster gages and displays, various controls, switches, and steering column stalks before an interior theme can be completed. Therefore, instrument panel obscuration and visibility must be determined early in the design process. The obscured areas are a function of the instrument panel surface, steering wheel rim, hub, spokes, and the location of the driver's eyes. This light source method allows engineers and designers the ability to quickly determine obscured areas.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0381
Vivek Bhise, Ghassan Kridli, Huzefa Mamoola, Shawn Devaraj, Anitha Pillai, Roger Shulze
This paper describes a research project currently in-progress to develop a parametric model of a vehicle for use in early design stages of a new vehicle program. The model requires key input parameters to define the kind of new vehicle to be designed — in terms of details such as its intended driver/user population, vehicle type (e.g. 2-box, 3-box designs), and some key exterior and interior dimensions related to its size and proportions. The model computes and graphically displays interior package, ergonomics zones for driver controls and displays, and field of views through window openings. It also allows importing or inputting and superimposing and manipulating exterior surfaces created by a designer to assess compatibility between the interior occupant package and the vehicle exterior.
2004-03-08
Technical Paper
2004-01-0375
Scott A. Ziolek, Peter Wawrow
Size is one of the most basic and important factors when determining fit for people. Many methods used to test occupant fit and accommodation rely on a traditional set of three different sized manikins - 5th, 50th and 95th percentiles. Anthropometry, the study of human size dimensions, however, is a complex multivariate problem. Real people, real drivers are a mixture of dimensions tall thin, short, stout, etc. This paper examines population anthropometry and these traditional percentiles specific to vehicular seat design.
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